[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a nationally representative sample of United States Medicare beneficiaries, we examined the extent of chiropractic use, factors associated with seeing a chiropractor, and predictors of the volume of chiropractic use among those having seen one.
We performed secondary analyses of baseline interview data on 4,310 self-respondents who were 70 years old or older when they first participated in the Survey on Assets and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old (AHEAD). The interview data were then linked to their Medicare claims. Multiple logistic and negative binomial regressions were used.
The average annual rate of chiropractic use was 4.6%. During the four-year period (two years before and two years after each respondent's baseline interview), 10.3% had one or more visits to a chiropractor. African Americans and Hispanics, as well as those with multiple depressive symptoms and those who lived in counties with lower than average supplies of chiropractors were much less likely to use them. The use of chiropractors was much more likely among those who drank alcohol, had arthritis, reported pain, and were able to drive. Chiropractic services did not substitute for physician visits. Among those who had seen a chiropractor, the volume of chiropractic visits was lower for those who lived alone, had lower incomes, and poorer cognitive abilities, while it was greater for the overweight and those with lower body limitations.
Chiropractic use among older adults is less prevalent than has been consistently reported for the United States as a whole, and is most common among Whites, those reporting pain, and those with geographic, financial, and transportation access.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is now widespread agreement that geographic identifiers (geocodes) should be assigned to cancer records, but little agreement on their form and how they should be assigned, reported, and used. This paper reviews geocoding practice in relation to major purposes and discusses methods to improve the accuracy of geocoded cancer data. Differences in geocoding methods and materials introduce errors of commission and omission into geocoded data. A common source of error comes from the practice of using digital boundary files of dubious quality to place addresses into areas of interest. Geocoded data are linked to demographic, environmental, and health services data, and each data type has unique accuracy considerations. In health services applications, the accuracy of distances computed from geocodes can differ markedly. Privacy and confidentiality issues are important in the use and release of geocoded cancer data. When masking methods are used for disclosure limitation purposes, statistical methods must be adjusted for the locational uncertainty of geocoded data. We conclude that selection of one particular type of geographic area as the geocode may unnecessarily constrain future work. Therefore, the longitude and latitude of each case is the superior basic geocode; all other geocodes of interest can be constructed from this basic identifier.
American Journal of Preventive Medicine 03/2006; 30(2 Suppl):S16-24. · 3.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With the increasing popularity of chiropractic care in the United States, inter-professional relationships between conventional trained physicians (MDs and DOs) and chiropractors (DCs) will have an expanding impact on patient care. The objectives of this study are to describe the intra-professional referral patterns amongst DCs, describe the inter-professional referral patterns between DCs and conventional trained medical primary care physicians (MDPCPs), and to identify provider characteristics that may affect these referral behaviors.
A survey instrument to assess the attitudes and patterns of referral and consultation between MD primary care physicians (MDPCPs) and DCs was developed and sent to all DCs in the state of Iowa. Multivariable logistic regression models were built to assess the impact of provider characteristics on intra-professional and inter-professional referral patterns.
Of all DCs contacted, 452 (40.7%) participated in the study. Close to 8% of DCs reported that they never send a case report when referring a patient to another DC, while 13% never send a case report to a MDPCP. About 10% of DCs never send follow-up clinical information to referring doctors. DCs that perform differential diagnosis were significantly more likely to have engaged in inter-professional referral than DCs who did not perform differential diagnosis.
The tendency toward informality, in both referral practices and sharing of clinical documentation for referred patients between MDPCPs and DCs, is an explicit marker of concerns that need to be addressed in order to improve coordination and continuity of care for patients shared between these provider types.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the increasing usage and popularity of chiropractic care, there has been limited research conducted to examine the professional relationships between conventional trained primary care physicians (PCPs) and chiropractors (DCs). The objectives of our study were to contrast the intra-professional referral patterns among PCPs with referral patterns to DCs, and to identify predictors of PCP referral to DCs.
We mailed a survey instrument to all practicing PCPs in the state of Iowa. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize their responses. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify demographic factors associated with inter-professional referral behaviors.
A total of 517 PCPs (33%) participated in the study. PCPs enjoyed strong intra-professional referral relationships with other PCPs. Although patients exhibited a great deal of interest in chiropractic care, PCPs were unlikely themselves to make formal referral relationships with DCs. PCPs in a private practice arrangement were more likely to exhibit positive referral attitudes towards DCs (p = 0.01).
PCPs enjoy very good professional relationships with other PCPs. However, the lack of direct formalized referral relationships between PCPs and chiropractors has implications for efficiency, continuity, quality, and patient safety in the health care delivery system. Future research must focus on identifying facilitators and barriers for developing positive relationships between PCPs and chiropractors.
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 02/2006; 6:5. · 2.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Upper Midwest offers a distinct environment for identifying and addressing threat and preparedness scenarios. The population is often scattered, with residents using urban centers periodically. This has also led to the challenge of providing specific skills and cross-disciplinary awareness and coordination to the public health community. The Upper Midwest Center for Public Health Preparedness was established by a grant from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to assist in meeting the challenge of adding capacity to develop the preparedness workforce in the Upper Midwest. Project Public Health Ready (PPHR) provides an example of the role academic preparedness centers can play in partnering with local public health agencies to strengthen the public health workforce. The purpose of this article is to present the Iowa Systems Model for Workforce Development being utilized for workforce training and education, describe how the model has been applied in the example of PPHR, and discuss lessons learned from the PPHR experience.
Journal of public health management and practice: JPHMP 12/2005; Suppl:S106-12. · 0.96 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study compares the financial and productivity performance of hospital- versus physician-owned medical group practices. Nineteen hospital-owned and twenty-three physician-owned family practices were matched by location (state) and size (full-time equivalent providers). The data were obtained from the 1998 Medical Group Management Association (MGMA) Cost Survey database. The focus of this study is on the "bottom-line" performance of the organizations as well as the production costs of the different type of practices. Analyses of these data consider staffing differences, charge and revenue differentials, productivity factors, and differences in patient volume and procedure volume. When comparing the hospital-owned and physician-owned family practice groups, the statistical analysis of these data suggest that the underlying distinctions are driven by differences in the volume of patients and volume of procedures.
The Journal of ambulatory care management 11/2002; 25(4):26-36.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High and increasing consumer demand for complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) services necessitates a concerted focus to determine the effectiveness of such practices and to ensure that future possible integration of CAM with conventional medicine is founded on sound evidence-based principles of quality health care delivery. The example of chiropractic provides useful insights to guide further research and integration of evidence-based CAM into mainstream health care in the United States. A critical point of departure for this area of inquiry is identifying and addressing barriers to conducting scientifically sound and meaningful cross-disciplinary, practice-based research.
The Journal of ambulatory care management 05/2002; 25(2):1-16.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Crossing the Quality Chasm, the Institute of Medicine's recently issued report on the quality of health care in America, is a call to arms for the urgent redesign of the U.S. health care system. The big question confronting health care organizations is how to mount new strategies that will enhance organizational effectiveness and reduce system failures as well as individual errors. Redesign implies organizational restructuring and engineering as well as serious steps in organizational development, with the emphasis on leadership enhancement strategies focused on performance excellence. This article addresses the state of the leadership literature and concludes that massive new investments will have to be made to tackle the issues of leadership training and accountability.
The Journal of ambulatory care management 05/2002; 25(2):68-74.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As claims data for physicians and groups of physicians has improved in quality and quantity, health information vendors have begun marketing information about medical groups' productivity, utilization, and quality. Based on interviews with product developers and our understanding of the evolution of their products, several methodological and practical issues remain. For now and the immediate future, health information vendors will continue to face the limitations of physicians' claims data. Vendors and purchasers should be aware of common data shortcomings such as inadequate monthly enrollment figures, possible physician upcoding to circumvent utilization management restrictions, and incorrect coding when a test is used to rule out a disease. In the longer term, several avenues seem likely to make medical groups' data better and richer because of computer-based medical records and efficiencies possible from the Internet. The field of benchmarking products for group practices is still an immature market. However, several trends suggest such products are highly desirable. Provider organizations which bear medical risk need benchmarking data to help improve their efficiency. There are many important nonprovider organizations that need good information on group practices' utilization patterns and outcomes to help them plan new products and negotiate with physicians.
The Journal of ambulatory care management 11/2000; 23(4):67-77.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article is the first of two studies conducted by the American College of Medical Practice Executives (ACMPE) that examines the perceived roles of medical practice executives. (Founded in 1956, the American College of Medical Practice Executives is the professional development and credentialing arm of the Medical Group Management Association (MGMA)). This study asked groups of physicians and nonphysician administrators to identify the competencies and associated skills and knowledge for administering group practices in today's changing environment. Those surveyed included administrators who are Fellows in ACMPE and 795 physicians who comprise the Society of Physician Administrators of the Medical Group Management Association. The responses were examined through a framework provided by the Managed Care Process Model. In this model, the focus is on the administrative and clinical processes required by different levels of managed care market penetration. The model progresses from a focus on relatively traditional practice management functions to those activities that are more complex with a greater focus on the integration of both clinical and business processes aimed at the health of populations. The analysis of the perceived competencies indicated that while both executive types perceived the importance of managing the health of populations, that task is not yet being incorporated into their professional roles.
The Journal of ambulatory care management 11/2000; 23(4):1-8.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A variety of profiling models and tools is utilized by payers, providers, and regulators to evaluate physician work, performance, and resource utilization. In physician profiling, the provider's pattern of practice is expressed as a rate of service or outcome. The article by Tucker, Weiner, Honigfeld, and Parton (this issue) compares the practice-based norms of primary care physicians by adjusting for case mix using ambulatory care groups (ACGs), a population-based classification method. Once the case mix is adjusted, the actual use of resources, as measured by overall charges, is compared with the expected value of resource use. In the Center for Research in Ambulatory Health Care Administration (CRAHCA) Physician Profiling Project, funded by The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, physicians learn which services other physicians in their specialties perform. Physicians are able to compare their profiles with state and national level medians. The profiling project is one of the first demonstration projects in the field to profile ambulatory care practice patterns and collect patient demographics. An aspect of the project is to test the ACG classification system to data selected from 130 nonacademic practices representing over 5,000 physicians.
The Journal of ambulatory care management 02/1996; 19(1):86-9.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Potential philosophical and socioeconomic conflicts between entrepreneurialism and the mandate of community service are raising difficult questions for health care administrators today. As those involved in the quickly evolving health care field examine the knowledge base and future direction of their professional roles, ways must be found to reconcile the increasing economic pressures on the industry with the values traditionally associated with high-quality personal care. This article describes some of the ethical problems inherent in a health care system that is being run increasingly like a purely economic enterprise, and cites historical and sociological sources indicating that entrepreneurialism cannot be the primary motivation in the field of health care. The author suggests that "outsider entrepreneurialism" and self-interest have no place in health care delivery, and that the public trust and the professional identity of the health administration field depend upon a successful blend of personal social responsibility and effective and efficient community service.
The Journal of health administration education 02/1986; 4(4):581-9.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 2 EXPERIMENTS INVESTIGATED THE DIRECT TRANSFER EFFECTS OF EXPOSING SS (GRADES 7-9) TO DIFFERENT VICARIOUS SCHEDULES OF HOSTILE VERB CHOICES IN A TAFFEL-TYPE SENTENCE-CONSTRUCTION TASK. RESULTS OF EXP. I INDICATED THAT, WITH THE EXCEPTION OF SS WHO LISTENED TO A MODEL CONSTRUCT PROGRESSIVELY FEWER REINFORCED HOSTILE SENTENCES, VICARIOUS EXPERIENCE FACILITATED THE SUBSEQUENT CONDITIONABILITY OF NEUTRAL VERB CHOICES. RELATIVE TO THE OTHER VICARIOUS GROUPS IN EXP. I AND II, SS WHO LISTENED TO A TAPED ACQUISITION SEQUENCE SHOWED GREATER INCREASES IN THE USE OF HOSTILE VERBS EARLY IN TRANSFER AND SHOWED PRONOUNCED CONDITIONABILITY FOR HOSTILE VERB CHOICES OVER ALL DIRECT-REINFORCEMENT TRIALS. IN EXP. II, THE CONDITIONING OF HOSTILE VERB CHOICES WAS FOUND TO BE MORE DIFFICULT WHEN SS WERE REQUIRED TO EMPLOY 1ST-PERSON PRONOUNS RATHER THAN 3RD-PERSON PRONOUNS IN THEIR SENTENCE CONSTRUCTIONS; HOWEVER, CONDITIONING IN THE 1ST PERSON WAS FACILITATED BY PRIOR VICARIOUS EXPERIENCE. IN BOTH EXPERIMENTS FEW SS WERE CLASSIFIED AS BEING "AWARE," AND NO PERFORMANCE DIFFERENCES ATTRIBUTABLE TO AWARENESS WERE EVIDENT.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 06/1967; 6(1):71-8. · 5.08 Impact Factor