[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Defective development and function of CD4CD25Foxp3 regulatory T cells (Tregs) contribute to the pathogenesis of psoriasis and other autoimmune diseases. Little is known about the influence of adhesions molecules on the differentiation of Foxp3 Tregs into proinflammatory Th17 cells occurring in lesional skin and blood of psoriasis patients. In the CD18 PL/J mouse model of psoriasis, reduced expression of CD18/β integrin to 2-16% of wild-type levels is associated with progressive loss of Tregs, impaired cell-cell contact between Tregs and dendritic cells (DCs), as well as Treg dysfunction as reported earlier. In the present investigation, Tregs derived from CD18 PL/J mice were analyzed for their propensity to differentiate into IL-17-producing Th17 cells in vivo and in in vitro Treg-DC cocultures. Adoptively transferred CD18 PL/J Tregs were more inclined toward conversion into IL-17-producing Th17 cells in vivo in an inflammatory as well as noninflammatory environment compared with CD18 PL/J Tregs. Addition of neutralizing Ab against CD18 to Treg-DC cocultures in vitro promoted conversion of CD18 PL/J Tregs to Th17 cells in a dose-dependent manner similar to conversion rates of CD18 PL/J Tregs. Reduced thymic output of naturally occurring Tregs and peripheral conversion of Tregs into Th17 cells therefore both contribute to the loss of Tregs and the psoriasiform dermatitis observed in CD18 PL/J mice. Our data overall indicate that CD18 expression levels impact Treg development as well as Treg plasticity and that differentiation of Tregs into IL-17-producing Th17 cells is distinctly facilitated by a subtotal deficiency of CD18.
The Journal of Immunology 03/2013; 190(6):2544-53. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although increased levels of plasminogen activators have been found in psoriatic lesions, the role of plasmin converted from plasminogen by plasminogen activators in pathogenesis of psoriasis has not been investigated.
Here we examined the contribution of plasmin to amplification of inflammation in patients with psoriasis. We found that plasminogen was diminished, but that the amount and activity of its converted product plasmin were markedly increased in psoriasis. Moreover, annexin II, a receptor for plasmin was dramatically increased in both dermis and epidermis in psoriasis. Plasmin at sites of inflammation was pro-inflammatory, eliciting production of inflammatory factors, including CC chemokine ligand 20 (CCL20) and interleukin-23 (IL-23), that was mediated by the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) signaling pathway and that had an essential role in the recruitment and activation of pathogenic C-C chemokine receptor type 6 (CCR6)+ T cells. Moreover, intradermal injection of plasmin or plasmin together with recombinant monocyte/macrophage chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) resulted in induction of psoriasiform skin inflammation around the injection sites with several aspects of human psoriasis in mice.
Plasmin converted from plasminogen by plasminogen activators plays an essential role in amplification of psoriasiform skin inflammation in mice, and targeting plasmin receptor--annexin II--may harbor therapeutic potential for the treatment of human psoriasis.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(2):e16483. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CD28 costimulation is required for the generation of naturally derived regulatory T cells (nTregs) in the thymus through lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (Lck) signaling. However, it is not clear how CD28 costimulation regulates the generation of induced Tregs (iTregs) from naive CD4 T-cell precursors in the periphery. To address this question, we induced iTregs (CD25(+)Foxp3(+)) from naive CD4 T cells (CD25(-)Foxp3(-)) by T-cell receptor stimulation with additional transforming growth factorβ (TGFβ) in vitro, and found that the generation of iTregs was inversely related to the level of CD28 costimulation independently of IL-2. Using a series of transgenic mice on a CD28-deficient background that bears wild-type or mutated CD28 in its cytosolic tail that is incapable of binding to Lck, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), or IL-2-inducible T-cell kinase (Itk), we found that CD28-mediated Lck signaling plays an essential role in the suppression of iTreg generation under strong CD28 costimulation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that T cells with the CD28 receptor incapable of activating Lck were prone to iTreg induction in vivo, which contributed to their reduced ability to cause graft-versus-host disease. These findings reveal a novel mechanistic insight into how CD28 costimulation negatively regulates the generation of iTregs, and provide a rationale for promoting T-cell immunity or tolerance by regulating Tregs through targeting CD28 signaling.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) remodel the colorectal cancer (CRC) microenvironment. Yet, findings on the role of TAMs in CRC seem to be contradictory compared with other cancers. FoxP3(+) regulatory T (Treg)-cells dominantly infiltrate CRC. However, the underlying molecular mechanism in which TAMs may contribute to the trafficking of Treg-cells to the tumor mass remains unknown.
CRC was either induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) and H. pylori or established by subcutaneous injection of mouse colorectal tumor cell line (CMT93) in mice. CMT93 cells were co-cultured with primary macrophages in a transwell apparatus. Recruitment of FoxP3 green fluorescence protein positive (FoxP3(GFP+)) Treg-cells was assessed using the IVIS Imaging System or immunofluorescence staining. A role for macrophages in trafficking of Treg-cells and in the development of CRC was investigated in CD11b diphtheria toxin receptor (CD11b-DTR) transgenic C57BL/6J mice in which macrophages can be selectively depleted. Treg-cells remarkably infiltrated solid tumor, and predominantly expressed the homing chemokine receptor (CCR) 6 in the induced CRC model. Both CMT93 cancer cells and macrophages produced a large amount of CCL20, the sole ligand of CCR6 in vitro and in vivo. Injection of recombinant mouse CCL20 into tumor sites promoted its development with a marked recruitment of Treg-cells in the graft CRC model. Conditional macrophage ablation decreased CCL20 levels, blocked Treg-cell recruitment and inhibited tumor growth in CD11b-DTR mice grafted with CMT93.
TAMs recruit CCR6(+) Treg-cells to tumor mass and promote its development via enhancing the production of CCL20 in a CRC mouse model.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(4):e19495. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plasmin is recognized as a potent signaling molecule in particular human monocytes, inducing a pro-inflammatory response. Recently, the annexin A2 heterotetramer, a plasmin receptor, was described at the surface of the human monocytes. Plasmin is initiating a signaling in monocytes by cleavage of the annexin A2 subunit of the receptor and the apparent dissociation of the heterotetramer at the surface of cell. However, the exact mechanism linking this dissociation and the activation of the intracellular pathway remains undefined. Here we report that the molecular mechanism of monocyte activation may rely on a new molecule containing the amino-terminal end of annexin A2 (A2NP) generated by plasmin cleavage of its receptor - the annexin A2 heterotetramer - as in vitro A2NP is able to mimic plasmin activation of the tyrosine kinase JAK1 and STAT3 and the subsequent increase in expression and release of monocyte/macrophage chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, which is a major chemokine released by monocytes/macrophages. Additionally, we show that plasmin-induced the phosphorylation of STAT3 is similar to that of IL-6 and IL-31, and protease-activated receptor 1 does not affect plasmin-induced cytokine MCP-1 release in human monocytes. Finally, our data demonstrate that plasmin triggers the production of MCP-1 in macrophages in vivo. Thus, A2NP generated by plasmin cleavage of the annexin A2 heterotetramer could serve as a new proteolytically generated signaling molecule activating an associated transmembrane co-receptor, such as type I cytokine receptors.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Expressed on leucocytes, beta(2) integrins (CD11/CD18) are specifically involved in leucocyte function. Using a CD18-deficient (CD18(-/-)) mouse model, we here report on their physiological role in lymphocyte differentiation and trafficking. CD18(-/-) mice present with a defect in the distribution of lymphocytes with highly reduced numbers of naïve B and T lymphocytes in inguinal and axillary lymph nodes. In contrast, cervical lymph nodes were fourfold enlarged harbouring unconventional T-cell receptor-alphabeta (TCR-alphabeta) and TCR-gammadelta CD3(+) CD4(-) CD8(-) (double-negative; DN) T cells that expanded in situ. Using adoptive transfer experiments, we found that these cells did not home to peripheral lymph nodes of CD18(wt) recipients but, like antigen-experienced T or natural killer (NK) T cells, recirculated through non-lymphoid organs. Lacking regulatory functions in vitro, CD18(-/-) TCR-alphabeta DN T cells did not suppress the proliferation of polyclonally activated CD4(+) or CD8(+) (single-positive; SP) T cells. Most interestingly, CD18(-/-) TCR-alphabeta DN T cells showed intermediate TCR expression levels, an absent activation through allogeneic major histocompatibility complex and a strong proliferative dependence on interleukin-2, hence, closely resembling NKT cells. However, our data oppose former reports, clearly showing that, because of an absent reactivity with CD1d-alphaGalCer dimers, these cells are not mature classical NKT cells. Our data indicate that CD18(-/-) TCR-alphabeta DN T cells, like NKT and TCR-gammadelta T cells, share characteristics of both adaptive and innate immune cells, and may accumulate as a compensatory mechanism to the functional defect of adaptive immunity in CD18(-/-) mice.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Psoriasis vulgaris is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease involving cytokines and an activated cellular immune system. At variance to skin from patients with atopic dermatitis or from healthy subjects, human psoriatic skin lesions exhibit strong activation of transcription factor NF-kappaB that is mainly confined to dermal macrophages, whereas only a few dendritic cells but no CD3+ lymphocytes show activated NF-kappaB. Since NF-kappaB signaling is required for the induction and/or function of many cytokines and aberrant cytokine expression has been proposed as an underlying cause of psoriasis, we investigated whether NF-kappaB targeting would affect the course of the disease in the CD18 hypomorphic (CD18(hypo)) mouse model of psoriasis. When mice with severe psoriasiform lesions were treated systemically or locally with the IkappaB kinase inhibitor acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKbetaBA), NF-kappaB signaling and the subsequent NF-kappaB-dependent cytokine production as shown by the TNF-alpha production of macrophages were profoundly suppressed. Additionally, application of the compound counteracted the intradermal MCP-1, IL-12, and IL-23 expression in previously lesional skin areas, led to resolution of the abundant immune cell infiltrates, and significantly reduced the increased proliferation of the keratinocytes. Overall, the AKbetaBA treatment was accompanied by a profound improvement of the psoriasis disease activity score in the CD18(hypo) mice with reconstitution of a nearly normal phenotype within the chosen observation period. Our data demonstrate that NF-kappaB signaling is pivotal for the pathogenesis in the CD18(hypo) mouse model of psoriasis. Therefore, targeting NF-kappaB might provide an effective strategy for the treatment of psoriasis.
The Journal of Immunology 10/2009; 183(7):4755-63. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Psoriasis is a T-cell-mediated inflammatory disease. Previous studies focused on lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1)-expressing T cells as a molecular target for therapeutic intervention. By contrast, information on therapeutic effects and the underlying mechanism of blocking the LFA-1 counter receptor, ICAM-1 is scarce. Here, we used the CD18 (beta2-integrin) hypomorphic (CD18hypo) mouse model of psoriasis to investigate the therapeutic role of extracellular adherence protein (Eap) of Staphylococcus aureus, which exerts antiinflammatory activities by interacting with the ICAM-1 function. We show that ICAM-1 is predominantly upregulated on endothelial cells in lesional skin of CD18hypo mice. In vitro Eap was found to disrupt cell-cell contacts between T cells and dendritic cells, and inhibit T-cell proliferation. By contrast, in vivo Eap rather blocked transmigration of T cells from vessels to inflamed skin of CD18hypo mice, but did not inhibit their proliferation and activation. Most importantly, Eap successfully suppressed the disease by blocking T-cell extravasation into the inflamed skin. Together, these data indicate that interaction between LFA-1 and ICAM-1 is causally involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasiform skin inflammation, and targeting ICAM-1 to selectively block T-cell extravasation by Eap without immune suppression may represent a potential therapeutic strategy for psoriasis.
Journal of Investigative Dermatology 10/2009; 130(3):743-54. · 6.19 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deregulation of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) resulting in either too high or too low concentrations are commonly recognized to be at least in part responsible for many changes associated with aging. This article reviews ROI-dependent mechanisms critically contributing to the decline of immune function during physiologic - or premature - aging. While ROI serve important effector functions in cellular metabolism, signalling and host defence, their fine-tuned generation declines over time, and ROI-mediated damage to several cellular components and/or signalling deviations become increasingly prevalent. Although distinct ROI-associated pathomechanisms contribute to immunosenescence of the innate and adaptive immune system, mutual amplification of dysfunctions may often result in hyporesponsiveness and immunodeficiency, or in chronic inflammation with hyperresponsiveness/deregulation, or both. In this context, we point out how imbalanced ROI contribute ambiguously to driving immunosenescence, chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. Although ROI may offer a distinct potential for therapeutic targeting along with the charming opportunity to rescue from deleterious processes of aging and chronic inflammatory diseases, such modifications, owing to the complexity of metabolic interactions, may carry a marked risk of unforeseen side effects.
Mechanisms of ageing and development 08/2009; 130(9):564-87. · 4.18 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Psoriasis is a chronic skin disorder of unsolved pathogenesis affecting skin in 2-3% of the general population. Research into the pathogenesis of psoriasis has profited from suitable animal models. Previously, we reported on the CD18 hypomorphic (CD18(hypo)) PL/J mouse model clinically resembling human psoriasis, which is characterized by reduced expression of the common chain of beta(2)-integrins (CD11/CD18) to only 2-16% of wild-type levels. Aside from common clinical and pathophysiological features shared with human psoriasis, the psoriasiform skin disease in CD18(hypo) PL/J mice also depends on the presence of CD4(+) T-cells. This review focuses on the role of activated macrophages in the pathogenesis of CD18(hypo) T-cell-mediated mouse model of psoriasis, and extends our understanding in unrestrained pathogenic T-cells whose activation may be crucial for the recruitment and activation of macrophages within skin. The findings in the CD18(hypo) PL/J model are discussed in the context of current literatures of human and other autoimmune disorders.
Journal of Investigative Dermatology 03/2009; 129(5):1100-14. · 6.19 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vav proteins are guanine-nucleotide exchange factors implicated in leukocyte functions by relaying signals from immune response receptors and integrins to Rho-GTPases. We here provide first evidence for a role of Vav3 for beta(2)-integrins-mediated macrophage functions during wound healing. Vav3(-/-) and Vav1(-/-)/Vav3(-/-) mice revealed significantly delayed healing of full-thickness excisional wounds. Furthermore, Vav3(-/-) bone marrow chimeras showed an identical healing defect, suggesting that Vav3 deficiency in leukocytes, but not in other cells, is causal for the impaired wound healing. Vav3 was required for the phagocytotic cup formation preceding macrophage phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils. Immunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy revealed Vav3 activation and colocalization with beta(2)-integrins at the macrophage membrane upon adhesion to ICAM-1. Moreover, local injection of Vav3(-/-) or beta(2)-integrin(CD18)(-/-) macrophages into wound margins failed to restore the healing defect of Vav3(-/-) mice, suggesting Vav3 to control the beta(2)-integrin-dependent formation of a functional phagocytic synapse. Impaired phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils by Vav3(-/-) macrophages was causal for their reduced release of active transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta(1), for decreased myofibroblasts differentiation and myofibroblast-driven wound contraction. TGF-beta(1) deficiency in Vav3(-/-) macrophages was causally responsible for the healing defect, as local injection of either Vav3-competent macrophages or recombinant TGF-beta(1) into wounds of Vav3(-/-) mice fully rescued the delayed wound healing.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dysfunctional Tregs have been identified in individuals with psoriasis. However, their role in the pathogenesis of the disease remains unclear. Here we explored the effect of diminished CD18 (beta2 integrin) expression on the function of CD4+CD25+CD127(-) Tregs using the Cd18 hypomorphic (Cd18hypo) PL/J mouse model of psoriasis that closely resembles the human disease. We found that reduced CD18 expression impaired cell-cell contact between Tregs and DCs. This led to dysfunctional Tregs, which both failed to suppress the pathogenic T cells and promoted the onset and severity of the disease. This failure was TGF-beta-dependent, as Tregs derived from Cd18hypo PL/J mice had diminished TGF-beta1 expression. Adoptive transfer of Tregs expressing wild-type levels of CD18 into affected Cd18hypo PL/J mice resulted in a substantial improvement of the psoriasiform skin disease, which did not occur upon coinjection of the cells with TGF-beta-specific neutralizing antibody. Our data indicate a primary dysfunction of Cd18hypo Tregs, allowing subsequent hyperproliferation of pathogenic T cells in the Cd18hypo PL/J mouse model of psoriasis. This study may provide a step forward in our understanding of the unique role of CD18 expression levels in avoiding autoimmunity.
Journal of Clinical Investigation 07/2008; 118(7):2629-39. · 12.81 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Psoriasis is a complex genetic disease of unresolved pathogenesis with both heritable and environmental factors contributing to onset and severity. In addition to a disfiguring skin inflammation, approximately 10-40% of psoriasis patients suffer from destructive joint involvement. Previously, we reported that the CD18 hypomorphic PL/J mouse carrying a mutation resulting in reduced expression of the common chain of beta(2) integrins (CD11/CD18) spontaneously develops a skin disease that closely resembles human psoriasis. In contrast, the same mutation on C57BL/6J background did not demonstrate this phenotype. By a genome-wide linkage analysis, two major loci were identified as contributing to the development of psoriasiform dermatitis under the condition of low CD18 expression. Using a congenic approach, we now demonstrate that the introduction of a 9-centimorgan fragment of chromosome 10 derived from the PL/J strain into the disease-resistant CD18 hypomorphic C57BL/6J was promoting the development of psoriasiform skin disease and notably also arthritis. We therefore designated this locus psoriasiform skin disease-associated locus 1 (PSD1). High numbers of CD4(+) T cells and TNF-alpha producing macrophages were detected both in inflamed skin and joints in these congenic mice, with a complete resolution upon TNF-alpha inhibitor therapy or depletion of CD4(+) T cells. For the first time, we have identified a distinct genetic element that contributes to the T cell-dependent development of both psoriasiform skin disease and associated arthritis. This congenic model will be suitable to further investigations of genetic and molecular pathways that cause psoriasiform dermatitis and arthritis, and it may also be relevant for other autoimmune diseases.
The Journal of Immunology 05/2008; 180(8):5520-9. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Psoriasis is a frequently occurring inflammatory skin disease characterized by thickened erythematous skin that is covered with silvery scales. It is a complex genetic disease with both heritable and environmental factors contributing to onset and severity. The CD18 hypomorphic PL/J mouse reveals reduced expression of the common chain of beta(2) integrins (CD11/CD18) and spontaneously develops a skin disease that closely resembles human psoriasis. In contrast, CD18 hypomorphic C57BL/6J mice do not demonstrate this phenotype. In this study, we have performed a genome-wide scan to identify loci involved in psoriasiform dermatitis under the condition of low CD18 expression. Backcross analysis of a segregating cross between susceptible CD18 hypomorphic PL/J mice and the resistant CD18 hypomorphic C57BL/6J strain was performed. A genome-wide linkage analysis of 94 phenotypically extreme mice of the backcross was undertaken. Thereafter, a complementary analysis of the regions of interest from the genome-wide screen was done using higher marker density and further mice. We found two loci on chromosome 10 that were significantly linked to the disease and interacted in an additive fashion in its development. In addition, a locus on chromosome 6 that promoted earlier onset of the disease was identified in the most severely affected mice. For the first time, we have identified genetic regions associated with psoriasis in a mouse model resembling human psoriasis. The identification of gene regions associated with psoriasis in this mouse model might contribute to the understanding of genetic causes of psoriasis in patients and pathological mechanisms involved in development of disease.
The Journal of Immunology 11/2006; 177(7):4612-9. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The beta 2 integrin family (CD11/CD18) of leukocyte adhesion molecules plays a key role in inflammation. Absence of the common chain (CD18) leads to leukocyte adhesion deficiency-1 (LAD1) in humans. We here summarize data of two genetically defined mice models of beta 2 integrin deficiency, one with a CD18 null mutation (CD18-/-), and the other one with a hypomorphic CD18 mutation (CD18hypo). Firstly, we focus on the underlying mechanism of a severely impaired wound healing in CD18-/- mice, outlining a scenario in which a defective extravasation and phagocytosis of CD18-/- neutrophils results in delayed myofibroblast-dependent wound contraction owing to a deficient transforming growth factor-beta 1 release. Based on this, we have identified a potential therapy that fully rescued the impaired wound healing in CD18-/- mice. Secondly, we expand on a CD18hyp0 PL/J mouse model closely resembling human psoriasis. Apart from common clinical and pathophysiological features, this psoriasiform dermatitis also depends on the presence of activated CD4+ T cells. We here recapitulate the influence of a reduced CD18 gene expression on T-cell function, also with regard to CD18 gene-dose effects, and its contribution to the pathogenesis of this disease. Taken together, these unique features make this model a valuable tool for investigations into the pathogenesis of human psoriasis--including its polygenic base--and future preclinical studies.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The CD18 hypomorphic (CD18hypo) PL/J mouse model clinically resembling human psoriasis is characterized by reduced expression of the common chain of beta2 integrins (CD11/CD18) to only 2-16% of WT levels. Previously we found that this chronic psoriasiform skin inflammation also depends on the presence of CD4+ T cells. Herein we investigated the role of macrophages in this CD18hypo mouse model. Activated macrophages were significantly increased in lesional skin as well as in inflamed skin draining lymph nodes (DLNs) of affected CD18hypo mice and were identified as being an important source of TNF-alpha in vivo. Both depletion of macrophages and neutralization of TNF-alpha resulted in a significant alleviation of psoriasiform skin inflammation. As monocyte chemotactic protein 1 was enhanced in lesional skin of affected CD18hypo mice, we intradermally injected recombinant murine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (rJE/MCP-1) alone or in combination with rTNF-alpha into the skin of healthy CD18hypo mice. Only simultaneous injection of rJE/MCP-1 and rTNF-alpha, but neither substance alone, resulted in the induction of psoriasiform skin inflammation around the injection sites with recruitment and activation of macrophages. Collectively, our data suggest that maintenance of psoriasiform skin inflammation critically depends on efficient recruitment and activation of macrophages with sufficient release of TNF-alpha.
Journal of Clinical Investigation 09/2006; 116(8):2105-14. · 12.81 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 2 integrin family (CD11/CD18) of leukocyte adhesion molecules plays a key role in inflammation. Absence of the common chain (CD18) leads to leukocyte adhesion deficiency-1 (LAD1) in humans. We here summarize data of two genetically defined mice models of 2 integrin deficiency, one with a CD18 null mutation (CD18-/-), and the other one with a hypomorphic CD18 mutation (CD18hypo). Firstly, we focus on the underlying mechanism of a severely impaired wound healing in CD18-/- mice, outlining a scenario in which a defective extravasation and phagocytosis of CD18-/- neutrophils results in delayed myofibroblast-dependent wound contraction owing to a deficient transforming growth factor-1 release. Based on this, we have identified a potential therapy that fully rescued the impaired wound healing in CD18-/- mice. Secondly, we expand on a CD18hypo PL/J mouse model closely resembling human psoriasis. Apart from common clinical and pathophysiological features, this psoriasiform dermatitis also depends on the presence of activated CD4+T cells. We here recapitulate the influence of a reduced CD18 gene expression on T-cell function, also with regard to CD18 gene–dose effects, and its contribution to the pathogenesis of this disease. Taken together, these unique features make this model a valuable tool for investigations into the pathogenesis of human psoriasis – including its polygenic base – and future preclinical studies.Abbreviations: EPC, endothelial progenitor cell; hypo, hypomorphic; LAD1, leukocyte-adhesion deficiency type-1; PASI, psoriasis area and severity index; SMA, smooth muscle actin; TGF, transforming growth factor; WT, wild type
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied the mechanisms underlying the severely impaired wound healing associated with human leukocyte-adhesion deficiency syndrome-1 (LAD1) using a murine disease model. In CD18(-/-) mice, healing of full-thickness wounds was severely delayed during granulation-tissue contraction, a phase where myofibroblasts play a major role. Interestingly, expression levels of myofibroblast markers alpha-smooth muscle actin and ED-A fibronectin were substantially reduced in wounds of CD18(-/-) mice, suggesting an impaired myofibroblast differentiation. TGF-beta signalling was clearly involved since TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta receptor type-II protein levels were decreased, while TGF-beta(1) injections into wound margins fully re-established wound closure. Since, in CD18(-/-) mice, defective migration leads to a severe reduction of neutrophils in wounds, infiltrating macrophages might not phagocytose apoptotic CD18(-/-) neutrophils. Macrophages would thus be lacking their main stimulus to secrete TGF-beta1. Indeed, in neutrophil-macrophage cocultures, lack of CD18 on either cell type leads to dramatically reduced TGF-beta1 release by macrophages due to defective adhesion to, and subsequent impaired phagocytic clearance of, neutrophils. Our data demonstrates that the paracrine secretion of growth factors is essential for cellular differentiation in wound healing.
The EMBO Journal 11/2005; 24(19):3400-10. · 9.82 Impact Factor