Mark Oette

Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

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Publications (80)198.2 Total impact

  • A Stelzer · S vom Dahl · T Feldt · K Göbels · M Oette · D Häussinger ·

    Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie 08/2015; 41(08). DOI:10.1055/s-0035-1555310 · 1.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is effective and well tolerated, but hepatotoxicity is relatively common. Different non-invasive methods are available for detecting liver fibrosis in patients with chronic liver disease. Patients who were HIV positive and who had given their informed consent were included in this cross-sectional study. Transient elastography [FibroScan(®) (FS); Echosens], serum hyaluronic acid (HA), Hepascore (HS), Fibrosis-4 (FIB-4), and aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI) were used to detect liver fibrosis in the patients. The agreement between FS and the other methods was evaluated. To observe the hepatotoxicity of HAART, patients with chronic viral hepatitis B or C were excluded by detection of hepatitis B surface antigens and hepatitis C virus antibodies. Patients with chronic alcohol intake were excluded by measuring carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT). FS correlation with the duration of therapy with protease inhibitors (PI), nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI), and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) was evaluated. Overall, 203 patients were included in the study. The agreement between the different tests ranged from 64% to 77%: FS vs. HA, 72%; FS vs. APRI, 74%; FS vs. HS, 77%; and FS vs. FIB-4, 64%. After excluding patients with chronic hepatitis B or C and elevated CDT, 153 patients remained for studying the hepatotoxicity of HAART. A significant correlation of FS with the duration of medication intake was observed for PIs (P = 0.026; r = 0.18). NRTI and NNRTI therapy duration did not correlate with FS. The agreement between FS and other tests ranged from 64% to 77%. A significant correlation was found between liver stiffness and the duration of therapy with PIs, which underlines the known hepatotoxicity of this substance group. Heinz-Ansmann Foundation.
    07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s40121-015-0073-y
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    ABSTRACT: Resistance analysis from viral RNA is restricted to detectable viral load. Therefore, analysis from proviral DNA could help in cases with low-level or suppressed viremia. Viral plasma RNA and the corresponding cellular proviral DNA of 78 EDTA samples from 48 therapy-naïve (TN) and 30 therapy-experienced (TE) HIV-1-infected patients were isolated and analyzed for their resistance profiles in the protease and reverse transcriptase genes. Overall, 175 drug-resistance mutations (DRMs) were detected in 25/30 TE (83.3%) and 5/48 TN (10.4%) samples. The TE patients displayed a mean number of 6.68 DRMs in RNA and 5.20 in DNA. In the TN patients, a mean of 0.8 DRMs was found in RNA and 1.0 in DNA; 75% of the DRMs were detected in RNA and DNA simultaneously. In the TE samples, 76% of the DRMs were detected simultaneously in RNA and DNA, 23% exclusively in RNA and 1% in DNA only. The TN samples revealed a significantly higher frequency of DRMs in DNA than in RNA. Proviral DNA resistance testing provides additional resistance information for TN patients. It is also a reliable alternative for TE patients with unsuccessful RNA testing and can provide valuable information when no records are available. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Intervirology 06/2015; 58(3):184-189. DOI:10.1159/000431093 · 1.68 Impact Factor
  • F. Schellhammer · T. Beckurts · M. Oette ·
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    ABSTRACT: Neben der klassischen, systemischen Chemotherapie und der Tumorchirurgie hat sich eine Vielzahl bildgesteuerter, minimalinvasiver Verfahren etabliert. Ihnen gemein ist ein hoher, lokaler Effekt ohne die charakteristischen Nebenwirkungen der Standardverfahren. Prinzipiell kann zwischen perkutan ablativen, transarteriellen und nichtinvasiven Verfahren differenziert werden. Sämtliche Verfahren lassen sich nahezu ubiquitär einsetzen. Sie haben aber zurzeit ihre überragende Bedeutung bei der Behandlung tumoröser Prozesse der Leber. Im Folgenden stellen wir die Grundprinzipien der wichtigsten Verfahren vor und diskutieren deren methodische Vor- und Nachteile. Strahlentherapeutische oder nuklearmedizinische Verfahren sind nicht Gegenstand dieses Artikels.
    best practice onkologie 02/2015; 10(1):6-12. DOI:10.1007/s11654-014-0518-x
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    ABSTRACT: Overall survival (OS) of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related Burkitt lymphoma (BL), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) was analysed in the German AIDS-related-Lymphoma-Cohort-Study. Of 291 patients prospectively included between January 2005 and December 2012, 154 had DLBCL, 103 BL and 34 PBL. Two-year OS rates were similar between BL (69%) and DLBCL patients (63%) but lower for PBL patients (43%). Intermediate (Hazard ratio [HR] 4·1 95% confidence interval [CI] 1·98-8·49) or high (HR 4·92 95% CI 2·1-11·61) International Prognostic Index, bone marrow involvement (HR 1·69 95% CI 1·00-2·84) and PBL histology (HR 2·24 95% CI 1·24-4·03) were independent predictors of mortality
    British Journal of Haematology 11/2014; 168(6). DOI:10.1111/bjh.13221 · 4.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives The incidence of HIV-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) but not that of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has been declining. The aim of the study was to compare HIV-infected patients with NHL and HL with respect to antiretroviral therapy (ART) exposure at the time of lymphoma diagnosis.MethodsHIV-infected patients with NHL and HL included in a prospective multicentre cohort study since January 2005 were compared with respect to ART exposure and viral load at the time of lymphoma diagnosis.ResultsAs of 31 December 2012, data for 329 patients with NHL and 86 patients with HL from 31 participating centres were available. Patients with HL were more likely to be on ART (73.5% vs. 39.1%, respectively; P < 0.001) and more frequently had a viral load below the detection limit (57.3% vs. 27.9%, respectively; P < 0.001) than patients with NHL. The proportion of patients with HL was 8.0% in ART-naïve patients, 34.8% in patients with current HIV RNA < 50 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL, and 50.0% in patients with both HIV RNA < 50 copies/mL for > 12 months and a CD4 cell count of > 200 cells/μL. Of note, 45.8% of all patients with NHL were not currently on ART and had a CD4 count of < 350 cells/μL.Conclusions This prospective cohort study shows that HL was as common as NHL in patients with sustained viral suppression and limited immune deficiency. In contrast to NHL, the majority of patients with HL were on effective ART, suggesting that ART provides insufficient protection from developing HL. The high proportion of untreated patients with NHL suggests missed opportunities for earlier initiation of ART.
    HIV Medicine 10/2014; 16(4). DOI:10.1111/hiv.12200 · 3.99 Impact Factor
  • Marko Schünemann · Mark Oette ·

    AIDS (London, England) 03/2014; 28(5):798-799. DOI:10.1097/QAD.0000000000000148 · 5.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The efficacy of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the treatment of HIV infection is influenced by factors such as potency of applied drugs, adherence of the patient, and resistance-associated mutations. Up to now, there is insufficient data on the impact of the therapeutic setting. Since 2001, the prospective multicenter RESINA study has examined the epidemiology of primary HIV drug resistance in Nordrhein-Westfalen, the largest federal state of Germany by population. Characteristics of patients treated in hospital-based outpatient units were compared to those of patients treated in medical practices. Longitudinal data of all participants are being followed in a cohort study. Overall, 1,591 patients were enrolled between 2001 and 2009 with follow-up until the end of 2010. Of these, 1,099 cases were treated in hospital-based units and 492 in private practices. Significant differences were found with respect to baseline characteristics. A higher rate of patients with more advanced disease and non-European nationality were cared for in hospital units. Patients in medical practices were predominantly Caucasian men who have sex with men (MSM) harboring HIV-1 subtype B, with lower CDC stage and higher CD4 cell count. Median viral load was 68,828 c/mL in hospital-based units and 100,000 c/mL in private practices (P = 0.041). Only median age and rate of primary drug resistance were not significantly different. After 48 weeks, 81.9% of patients in hospital units and 85.9% in private practices had a viral load below the limit of detection (P = 0.12). A similar result was seen after 96 weeks (P = 0.54). Although the baseline CD4 cell count was different (189.5/muL in hospital units and 246.5/muL in private practices, P <0.001), a consistent and almost identical increase was determined in both groups. The RESINA study covers a large HIV-infected patient cohort cared for in specialized facilities in Germany. Despite significant differences of patients' baseline characteristics in hospital-based units compared to medical practices, we could not find significant differences in treatment outcome up to 2 years after the initiation of HAART.
    11/2013; 18(1):48. DOI:10.1186/2047-783X-18-48
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    ABSTRACT: There was a growing need for practical guidelines for the most common OIs in Germany and Austria under consideration of the local epidemiological conditions. The German and Austrian AIDS societies developed these guidelines between March 2010 and November 2011. A structured Medline research was performed for 12 diseases, namely Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia, cerebral toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus manifestations, candidiasis, herpes simplex virus infections, varizella zoster virus infections, progressive multifocal leucencephalopathy, cryptosporidiosis, cryptococcosis, nontuberculosis mycobacteria infections and tuberculosis. Due to the lack of evidence by randomized controlled trials, part of the guidelines reflects expert opinions. The German version was accepted by the German and Austrian AIDS Societies and was previously published by the Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Wissenschaftlichen Medizinischen Fachgesellschaften (AWMF; German Association of the Scientific Medical Societies). The review presented here is a translation of a short version of the German-Austrian Guidelines of opportunistic infections in HIV patients. These guidelines are well-accepted in a clinical setting in both Germany and Austria. They lead to a similar treatment of a heterogeneous group of patients in these countries.
    Infection 09/2013; 41(S2). DOI:10.1007/s15010-013-0504-1 · 2.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: HIV's genetic instability means that sequence similarity can illuminate the underlying transmission network. Previous application of such methods to samples from the United Kingdom has suggested that as many as 86% of UK infections arose outside of the country, a conclusion contrary to usual patterns of disease spread. We investigated transmission networks in the Resina cohort, a 2,747 member sample from Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany, sequenced at therapy start. Transmission networks were determined by thresholding the pairwise genetic distance in the pol gene at 96.8% identity. At first blush the results concurred with the UK studies. Closer examination revealed four large and growing transmission networks that encompassed all major transmission groups. One of these formed a supercluster containing 71% of the sex with men (MSM) subjects when the network was thresholded at levels roughly equivalent to those used in the UK studies, though methodological differences suggest that this threshold may be too generous in the current data. Examination of the endo- versus exogenesis hypothesis by testing whether infections that were exogenous to Cologne or to Dusseldorf were endogenous to the greater region supported endogenous spread in MSM subjects and exogenous spread in the endemic transmission group. In intravenous drug using group subjects, it depended on viral strain, with subtype B sequences appearing to have origin exogenous to the Resina data, while non-B sequences (primarily subtype A) were almost completely endogenous to their local community. These results suggest that, at least in Germany, the question of endogenous versus exogenous linkages depends on subject group.
    Medical Microbiology and Immunology 01/2012; 201(3):259-69. DOI:10.1007/s00430-011-0228-8 · 3.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Older HIV patients are defined as aged 50 years and older. This group is a growing population in developed countries. In order to improve care for older HIV patients, we intended to gain insight into the specific features of transmission, epidemiology, immunology and antiretroviral treatment (ART) of this population. Patients and Methods: All patients from the RESINA cohort were analyzed, comprising 2,085 individuals at the beginning of 2010. RESINA is an ongoing study analyzing epidemiological and immunological data, resistance patterns and therapeutic data in treatment-naive HIV-positive patients from North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Patients are included in the RESINA cohort at the time of the intended start of ART. For statistical evaluation, we used χ2 and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: A total of 14.6% of patients in our cohort was above 50 years. Men were significantly more prevalent among older patients (86.8 vs. 78.6%; p Conclusions: Our results provide insight into the epidemiology of HIV in the elderly. In our cohort, the typical older patient was a Caucasian male who had acquired HIV through heterosexual contact. The prognosis in older patients is worsened as a result of several unfavorable circumstances, such as delayed start of ART, more frequent treatment changes and diminished immune reconstitution. As a consequence, better strategies for more frequent HIV testing in patients at risk for HIV are needed, and ART should be offered to older patients at earlier time points and higher CD4 cell counts.
    Intervirology 01/2012; 55(2):147-53. DOI:10.1159/000332014 · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transmitted HIV drug resistance may impair treatment efficacy of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). This study describes the epidemiology of transmitted resistance in chronically infected patients. In a prospective multicenter trial in Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany, transmitted drug resistance was determined by genotypic resistance testing in patients on initiation of first-line ART. From 2001 to 2009, 2,078 patients were enrolled in the study. 79.9% were male, 81.2% were Caucasians, and a homosexual transmission mode was found in 51.3%. Of these patients, 41.5% were at the stage of AIDS, median CD4 cell count was 230/μl, and median viral load was 64.466 copies/ml. Transmitted drug resistance mutations were seen in 9.2% (95% CI, 7.9-10.4). Resistance in the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor class was found in 5.8% (4.8-6.8), in the nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor class in 2.8% (2.1-3.6), and in the protease inhibitor class in 2.7% (2.0-3.4). After a continuous increase to a level above 10% in the years 2006 and 2007, a decline of drug resistance prevalence followed in 2008 and 2009. Transmitted HIV drug resistance was found in around 10% of chronically infected patients in Germany who started their ART. We showed a moderate decline of the prevalence of mutant virus strains in recent years. Further surveillance of this phenomenon is mandatory.
    Intervirology 01/2012; 55(2):154-9. DOI:10.1159/000332015 · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been shown to be effective in many recent trials. However, there is limited data on time trends of HAART efficacy after treatment change. Data from different European cohorts were compiled within the EuResist Project. The efficacy of HAART defined by suppression of viral replication at 24 weeks after therapy switch was analyzed considering previous treatment modifications from 1999 to 2008. Results: Altogether, 12,323 treatment change episodes in 7,342 patients were included in the analysis. In 1999, HAART after treatment switch was effective in 38.0% of the patients who had previously undergone 1-5 therapies. This figure rose to 85.0% in 2008. In patients with more than 5 previous therapies, efficacy rose from 23.9 to 76.2% in the same time period. In patients with detectable viral load at therapy switch, the efficacy rose from 23.3 to 66.7% with 1-5 previous treatments and from 14.4 to 55.6% with more than 5 previous treatments. The results of this large cohort show that the outcome of HAART switch has improved considerably over the last years. This result was particularly observed in the context after viral rebound. Thus, changing HAART is no longer associated with a high risk of treatment failure.
    Intervirology 01/2012; 55(2):160-6. DOI:10.1159/000332018 · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Maraviroc (MVC) is the first licensed antiretroviral drug from the class of coreceptor antagonists. It binds to the host coreceptor CCR5, which is used by the majority of HIV strains in order to infect the human immune cells (Fig. 1). Other HIV isolates use a different coreceptor, the CXCR4. Which receptor is used, is determined in the virus by the Env protein (Fig. 2). Depending on the coreceptor used, the viruses are classified as R5 or X4, respectively. MVC binds to the CCR5 receptor inhibiting the entry of R5 viruses into the target cell. During the course of disease, X4 viruses may emerge and outgrow the R5 viruses. Determination of coreceptor usage (also called tropism) is therefore mandatory prior to administration of MVC, as demanded by EMA and FDA. The studies for MVC efficiency MOTIVATE, MERIT and 1029 have been performed with the Trofile assay from Monogram, San Francisco, U.S.A. This is a high quality assay based on sophisticated recombinant tests. The acceptance for this test for daily routine is rather low outside of the U.S.A., since the European physicians rather tend to work with decentralized expert laboratories, which also provide concomitant resistance testing. These laboratories have undergone several quality assurance evaluations, the last one being presented in 2011. For several years now, we have performed tropism determinations based on sequence analysis from the HIV env-V3 gene region (V3). This region carries enough information to perform a reliable prediction. The genotypic determination of coreceptor usage presents advantages such as: shorter turnover time (equivalent to resistance testing), lower costs, possibility to adapt the results to the patients' needs and possibility of analysing clinical samples with very low or even undetectable viral load (VL), particularly since the number of samples analysed with VL < 1000 copies/μl roughly increased in the last years (Fig. 3). The main steps for tropism testing (Fig. 4) demonstrated in this video: Collection of a blood sample Isolation of the HIV RNA from the plasma and/or HIV proviral DNA from blood mononuclear cells Amplification of the env region Amplification of the V3 region Sequence reaction of the V3 amplicon Purification of the sequencing samples Sequencing the purified samples Sequence editing Sequencing data interpretation and tropism prediction.
    Journal of Visualized Experiments 12/2011; 58(58). DOI:10.3791/3264 · 1.33 Impact Factor

  • Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 08/2011; 66(8):1886-1896. DOI:10.1093/jac/dkr171 · 5.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Surgery has been the mainstay of therapy in patients with gastrointestinal perforations, leakage or fistulas. New techniques for endoscopic closure of gastrointestinal perforations provide tools for an effective treatment by less invasive procedures. Temporary placement of covered self-expanding stents is an established therapy for oesophageal perforations and anastomotic leaks. Using conventional endoclips small perforations and leaks in the oesophagus and gastrointestinal tract may be closed. With the new over-the-scope-clips a more effective endoscopic full wall closure is possible in the upper gastrointestinal tract and the rectum. Endoscopically guided endoluminal vacuum therapy using polyurethane sponges is an established method for treating rectal leaks and is now increasingly used also in oesophageal leaks. Biliary leakage following endoscopic or surgical interventions is effectively treated with temporary bile stenting in most cases, but closure using metal stents or coiling may be necessary. Pancreatic leaks are a major therapeutic problem and may require multimodal therapies.
    Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie 06/2011; 49(6):740-8. DOI:10.1055/s-0031-1273422 · 1.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: CD8 cells are key to antiviral immunity and can be divided by phenotype into early (CD28+ CD27+), intermediate (CD28-CD27+) and terminally differentiated subsets (CD28- CD27-). Despite effective HAART there is an unexplained expansion of CD8+CD28-CD27-T cells in HIV-infected children. The cytokine production and specificity of this terminally differentiated CD8 T cell subset in chronic virus infection is unclear. PATIENTS, METHODS & RESULTS: In a cohort of 26 HIV-infected children the cytokine production of terminally differentiated CD8 cells was analyzed by intracellular staining and FACS analysis and was compared to children with chronic hepatitis B infection and to healthy children. The specificity of CD8 subsets was analyzed by staining with Gag/Pol tetramers in a cohort of 13 patients. We show that an increased production of interferon-γ in terminally and early/intermediate differentiated CD8 cell subsets after stimulation is specific for HIV-infection. The expanded population of terminally differentiated CD8+CD28-CD27- T cells does include HIV Gag/Pol specific T cells in adults but not in children. CONCLUSION: The expansion of terminally differentiated CD8 cells might be important for immunomodulation but in children it does not appear to play a role in HIV Gag and Pol specific immunity.
    Klinische Pädiatrie 04/2011; 223(4):214-20. DOI:10.1055/s-0030-1269917 · 1.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The high number of Turkish immigrants in the German state North-Rhine Westphalia (NRW) compelled us to look for HIV-infected patients with Turkish nationality. In the AREVIR database, we found 127 (107 men, 20 women) Turkish HIV patients living in NRW. In order to investigate transmission clusters and their correlation to gender, nationality and self-reported transmission mode, a phylogenetic analysis including pol gene sequences was performed. Subtype distribution and the number of HIV drug resistance mutations in the Turkish patient group were found to be similar to the proportion in the non-Turkish patients. Great differences were observed in self-reported mode of transmission in the heterosexual Turkish male subgroup. Neighbour-joining tree of pol gene sequences gave indication that 59% of these reported heterosexual transmissions cluster with those of men having sex with men in the database. This is the first study analysing HIV type distribution, drug resistance mutations and transmission mode in a Turkish immigrant population.
    Medical Microbiology and Immunology 04/2011; 200(4):219-23. DOI:10.1007/s00430-011-0193-2 · 3.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In HIV-infected treatment-naïve patients, we analyzed risk factors for either chronic hepatitis B (HBV) infection, occult HBV infection (OHBV) or a positive hepatitis C (HCV) serostatus. A total of 918 patients of the RESINA-cohort in Germany were included in this study. Before initiating antiretroviral therapy, clinical parameters were collected and blood samples were analyzed for antibodies against HIV, HBV and HCV, HBs antigen and viral nucleic acids for HIV and HBV. Present or past HBV infection (i.e. HBsAg and/or anti-HBc) was found in 43.4% of patients. HBsAg was detected in 4.5% (41/918) and HBV DNA in 6.1% (34/554), resulting in OHBV infection in 2.9% (16/554) of patients. OHBV infection could not be ruled out by the presence of anti-HBs (50.1%) or the absence of all HBV seromarkers (25%). A HCV-positive serostatus was associated with the IVDU transmission route, non-African ethnicity, elevated liver parameters (ASL or GGT) and low HIV viral load. Replicative HBV infection and HCV-positive serostatus both correlated with HIV resistance mutations (P = 0.001 and P = 0.028). HBV and HCV infection are frequent co-infections in HIV treatment-naive patients. These co-infections influence viral evolution, clinical parameters and serological markers. Consequently, HIV patients should routinely be tested for HBV and HCV infection before initiating HIV treatment. OHBV infection constituted almost half of all HBV infections with detectable HBV DNA. Due to a lack of risk factors indicating OHBV infection, HBV diagnosis should not only include serological markers but also the detection of HBV DNA.
    Medical Microbiology and Immunology 02/2011; 200(1):39-49. DOI:10.1007/s00430-010-0172-z · 3.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sporadic observations have shown changing patterns of transmitted drug resistance mutations (TDRMs) in HIV infection even without selection pressure by antiretroviral treatment (ART). Repeated genotypic resistance analyses in treatment-naïve patients were performed, in order to analyze intraindividual variances of resistance patterns over time. Between the years 2001 and 2008 two genotypic resistance tests were performed at different time-points in 49 treatment-naïve HIV-positive patients aged >18 years. Wild-type virus was found at baseline and during follow-up in 31 patients (group A, median time between resistance tests 146 days), while resistance mutations were found either at baseline or during follow-up in 18 patients (group B, median time between resistance tests 297 days). In group B, the pattern of resistance changed in eight out of 18 patients over time, with three patients showing decreasing numbers and five patients showing increasing numbers of resistance mutations. The pattern of resistance mutations remained unchanged in 10 out of 18 patients. The mutational pattern in untreated HIV infection may change over time and a single resistance analysis may underestimate the true prevalence of preserved resistance mutations. If these findings can be confirmed in a larger number of patients, it would be prudent to perform genotypic resistance testing both at baseline and prior to the start of ART in order to capture a more complete picture of preserved mutations before initiating ART.
    Journal of Medical Virology 02/2011; 83(2):187-95. DOI:10.1002/jmv.21971 · 2.35 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

961 Citations
198.20 Total Impact Points


  • 2002-2009
    • Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf
      • Klinik für Gastroenterologie, Hepatologie und Infektiologie
      Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2007
    • University of Cologne
      • Institute of Virology
      Köln, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2002-2007
    • Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf
      Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2005
    • Universitätsklinikum Jena
      Jena, Thuringia, Germany