M L Garcia

Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, United States

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Publications (85)365.52 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a “Full Text” option. The original article is trackable via the “References” option.
    ChemInform 08/2010; 26(34).
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    ABSTRACT: The gene cluster required for paxilline biosynthesis in Penicillium paxilli contains two cytochrome P450 monooxygenase genes, paxP and paxQ. The primary sequences of both proteins are very similar to those of proposed cytochrome P450 monooxygenases from other filamentous fungi, and contain several conserved motifs, including that for a haem-binding site. Alignment of these sequences with mammalian and bacterial P450 enzymes of known 3-D structure predicts that there is also considerable conservation at the level of secondary structure. Deletion of paxP and paxQ results in mutant strains that accumulate paspaline and 13-desoxypaxilline, respectively. These results confirm that paxP and paxQ are essential for paxilline biosynthesis and that paspaline and 13-desoxypaxilline are the most likely substrates for the corresponding enzymes. Chemical complementation of paxilline biosynthesis in paxG (geranygeranyl diphosphate synthase) and paxP, but not paxQ, mutants by the external addition of 13-desoxypaxilline confirms that PaxG and PaxP precede PaxQ, and are functionally part of the same biosynthetic pathway. A pathway for the biosynthesis of paxilline is proposed on the basis of these and earlier results. Electrophysiological experiments demonstrated that 13-desoxypaxilline is a weak inhibitor of mammalian maxi-K channels (Ki=730 nM) compared to paxilline (Ki=30 nM), indicating that the C-13 OH group of paxilline is crucial for the biological activity of this tremorgenic mycotoxin. Paspaline is essentially inactive as a channel blocker, causing only slight inhibition at concentrations up to 1 microM.
    Molecular Genetics and Genomics 11/2003; 270(1):9-23. · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    Toxicon 07/2001; 39(6):739-48. · 2.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen/nitrogen species are readily generated in vivo, playing roles in many physiological and pathological conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, by oxidatively modifying various proteins. Previous studies indicate that large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels (BK(Ca) or Slo) are subject to redox regulation. However, conflicting results exist whether oxidation increases or decreases the channel activity. We used chloramine-T, which preferentially oxidizes methionine, to examine the functional consequences of methionine oxidation in the cloned human Slo (hSlo) channel expressed in mammalian cells. In the virtual absence of Ca(2+), the oxidant shifted the steady-state macroscopic conductance to a more negative direction and slowed deactivation. The results obtained suggest that oxidation enhances specific voltage-dependent opening transitions and slows the rate-limiting closing transition. Enhancement of the hSlo activity was partially reversed by the enzyme peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase, suggesting that the upregulation is mediated by methionine oxidation. In contrast, hydrogen peroxide and cysteine-specific reagents, DTNB, MTSEA, and PCMB, decreased the channel activity. Chloramine-T was much less effective when concurrently applied with the K(+) channel blocker TEA, which is consistent with the possibility that the target methionine lies within the channel pore. Regulation of the Slo channel by methionine oxidation may represent an important link between cellular electrical excitability and metabolism.
    The Journal of General Physiology 04/2001; 117(3):253-74. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Correolide (1 - 10 microM), a nortriterpene purified from Spachea correae and a selective blocker of Kv1 potassium channels, elicits repetitive twitching in guinea-pig ileum. This effect is not seen in guinea-pig duodenum, portal vein, urinary bladder or uterine strips, nor in rat or mouse ileum. The time course and amplitude of the correolide-induced twitches in guinea-pig ileum are similar to those elicited by electrical stimulation of the enteric nervous system. The correolide-induced twitching is not affected by pre-treatment with capsaicin (1 microM), but is facilitated by the NO synthase inhibitor, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl esther (L-NAME, 200 microM). The correolide-induced twitching is abolished by tetrodotoxin (1 microM) or hexamethonium (100 microM), and is markedly inhibited by nifedipine (0.3 microM) or atropine (0.2 microM). The atropine-resistant component is inhibited by selective antagonists of NK1 and NK2 tachykinin receptors, namely GR 82334 and GR 94800 (1 microM each). The former compound is more effective in inhibiting the correolide-induced, atropine-resistant activity. Correolide intensified the twitching of ileum segments exposed to saturating concentrations of margatoxin (MgTX), which suggests that Kv1 sub-types other than Kv1.1 (Kv1.4 or Kv1.5) are involved in the relatively greater degree of stimulation of the enteric nervous system by correolide, as compared to MgTX. We propose that blockade of Kv1 channels by correolide increases the excitability of intramural nerve plexuses promoting release of acetylcholine and tachykinins from excitatory motor neurons. This, in turn, leads to Ca(2+)-dependent action potentials and twitching of the muscle fibres.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 11/2000; 131(4):772-8. · 4.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The maxi-K channel from bovine aortic smooth muscle consists of a pore-forming alpha subunit and a regulatory beta1 subunit that modifies the biophysical and pharmacological properties of the alpha subunit. In the present study, we examine ChTX-S10A blocking kinetics of single maxi-K channels in planar lipid bilayers from smooth muscle or from tsA-201 cells transiently transfected with either alpha or alpha+beta 1 subunits. Under low external ionic strength conditions, maxi-K channels from smooth muscle showed ChTX-S10A block times, 48 +/- 12 s, that were similar to those expressing alpha+beta 1 subunits, 51 +/- 16 s. In contrast, with the alpha subunit alone, ChTX-S10A block times were much shorter, 5 +/- 0.6 s, and were qualitatively similar to previously reported values for the skeletal muscle maxi-K channel. Increasing the external ionic strength caused a decrease in ChTX-S10A block times for maxi-K channel complexes of alpha+beta 1 subunits but not of alpha subunits alone. These findings indicate that it may be possible to predict the association of beta 1 subunits with native maxi-K channels by monitoring the kinetics of ChTX blockade of single channels, and they suggest that maxi-K channels in skeletal muscle do not contain a beta 1 subunit like the one present in smooth muscle. To further test this hypothesis, we examined the binding and cross-linking properties of [(125)I]-IbTX-D19Y/Y36F to both bovine smooth muscle and rabbit skeletal muscle membranes. [(125)I]-IbTX-D19Y/Y36F binds to rabbit skeletal muscle membranes with the same affinity as it does to smooth muscle membranes. However, specific cross-linking of [(125)I]-IbTX-D19Y/Y36F was observed into the beta 1 subunit of smooth muscle but not in skeletal muscle. Taken together, these data suggest that studies of ChTX block of single maxi-K channels provide an approach for characterizing structural and functional features of the alpha/beta 1 interaction.
    Biochemistry 06/2000; 39(20):6115-22. · 3.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Peptidyl toxins are used extensively to determine the pharmacology of ion channels. Four families of peptides have been purified from scorpion venom. In this article, the classification of K+-channel-blocking peptides belonging to family 2 peptides and comprising 30-40 amino acids linked by three or four disulfide bridges, will be discussed. Evidence is provided for the existence of 12 molecular subfamilies, named alpha-KTx1-12, containing 49 different peptides. Because of the pharmacological divergence of these peptides, the principle of classification was based on a primary sequence alignment, combined with maximum parsimony and Neighbour-Joining analysis.
    Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 12/1999; 20(11):444-7. · 9.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Correolide, a novel nortriterpene natural product, potently inhibits the voltage-gated potassium channel, K(v)1.3, and [(3)H]dihydrocorreolide (diTC) binds with high affinity (K(d) approximately 10 nM) to membranes from Chinese hamster ovary cells that express K(v)1.3 (Felix, J. P., Bugianesi, R. M., Schmalhofer, W. A., Borris, R., Goetz, M. A., Hensens, O. D., Bao, J.-M., Kayser, F. , Parsons, W. H., Rupprecht, K., Garcia, M. L., Kaczorowski, G. J., and Slaughter, R. S. (1999) Biochemistry 38, 4922-4930). Mutagenesis studies were used to localize the diTC binding site and to design a high affinity receptor in the diTC-insensitive channel, K(v)3.2. Transferring the pore from K(v)1.3 to K(v)3.2 produces a chimera that binds peptidyl inhibitors of K(v)1.3 with high affinity, but not diTC. Transfer of the S(5) region of K(v)1.3 to K(v)3.2 reconstitutes diTC binding at 4-fold lower affinity as compared with K(v)1.3, whereas transfer of the entire S(5)-S(6) domain results in a normal K(v)1.3 phenotype. Substitutions in S(5)-S(6) of K(v)1.3 with nonconserved residues from K(v)3.2 has identified two positions in S(5) and one in S(6) that cause significant alterations in diTC binding. High affinity diTC binding can be conferred to K(v)3.2 after substitution of these three residues with the corresponding amino acids found in K(v)1.3. These results suggest that lack of sensitivity of K(v)3.2 to diTC is a consequence of the presence of Phe(382) and Ile(387) in S(5), and Met(458) in S(6). Inspection of K(v)1.1-1.6 channels indicates that they all possess identical S(5) and S(6) domains. As expected, diTC binds with high affinity (K(d) values 7-21 nM) to each of these homotetrameric channels. However, the kinetics of binding are fastest with K(v)1.3 and K(v)1.4, suggesting that conformations associated with C-type inactivation will facilitate entry and exit of diTC at its binding site. Taken together, these findings identify K(v)1 channel regions necessary for high affinity diTC binding, as well as, reveal a channel conformation that markedly influences the rate of binding of this ligand.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/1999; 274(36):25237-44. · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The iminodihydroquinoline WIN 17317-3 was previously shown to inhibit selectively the voltage-gated potassium channels, K(v)1.3 and K(v)1.4 [Hill, R. J., et al. (1995) Mol. Pharmacol. 48, 98-104; Nguyen, A., et al. (1996) Mol. Pharmacol. 50, 1672-1679]. Since these channels are found in brain, radiolabeled WIN 17317-3 was synthesized to probe neuronal K(v)1 channels. In rat brain synaptic membranes, [(3)H]WIN 17317-3 binds reversibly and saturably to a single class of high-affinity sites (K(d) 2.2 +/- 0.3 nM; B(max) 5.4 +/- 0.2 pmol/mg of protein). However, the interaction of [(3)H]WIN 17317-3 with brain membranes is not sensitive to any of several well-characterized potassium channel ligands. Rather, binding is modulated by numerous structurally unrelated sodium channel effectors (e.g., channel toxins, local anesthetics, antiarrhythmics, and cardiotonics). The potency and rank order of effectiveness of these agents in affecting [(3)H]WIN 17317-3 binding is consistent with their known abilities to modify sodium channel activity. Autoradiograms of rat brain sections indicate that the distribution of [(3)H]WIN 17317-3 binding sites is in excellent agreement with that of sodium channels. Furthermore, WIN 17317-3 inhibits sodium currents in CHO cells stably transfected with the rat brain IIA sodium channel with high affinity (K(i) 9 nM), as well as agonist-stimulated (22)Na uptake in this cell line. WIN 17317-3 interacts similarly with skeletal muscle sodium channels but is a weaker inhibitor of the cardiac sodium channel. Together, these results demonstrate that WIN 17317-3 is a new, high-affinity, subtype-selective ligand for sodium channels and is a potent blocker of brain IIA sodium channels.
    Biochemistry 09/1999; 38(34):11137-46. · 3.19 Impact Factor
  • Gregory J Kaczorowski, Maria L Garcia
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    ABSTRACT: Several important new findings have furthered the development of voltage-gated and calcium-activated potassium channel pharmacology. The molecular constituents of several members of these large ion channel families were identified. Small-molecule modulators of some of these channels were reported, including correolide, the first potent, small-molecule, natural product inhibitor of the Shaker family of voltage-gated potassium channels to be disclosed. The initial crystal structure of a bacterial potassium channel was determined; this work gives a physical basis for understanding the mechanisms of ion selectivity and ion conduction. With the recent molecular characterization of a potassium channel structure and the discovery of new templates for channel modulatory agents, the ability to rationally identify and develop potassium channel agonists and antagonists may become a reality in the near future.
    Current Opinion in Chemical Biology 09/1999; 3(4):448-58. · 7.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Potent and selective peptidyl blockers of the Shaker-type (Kv1) voltage-gated potassium channels were used to determine the role of these channels in regulating the spontaneous motility of smooth muscle preparations. Margatoxin (MgTX), kaliotoxin, and agitoxin-2 at 1 to 10 nM and agitoxin-1 at 50 to 100 nM induce twitches in guinea pig ileum strips. These twitches are abolished by tetrodotoxin (TTX, 0.5 microM), atropine (1 microM), hexamethonium (10 microM), or nifedipine (0.1 microM). It is proposed that blockade of Kv1 channels by MgTX, kaliotoxin, or the agitoxins increases excitability of intramural nerve plexuses in the ileum, promoting release of acetylcholine from excitatory motor nerve terminals. This, in turn, leads to Ca2+-dependent action potentials and twitching of the muscle fibers. MgTX does not induce twitches in several other guinea pig and/or rat vascular, genitourinary, or gastrointestinal smooth muscles, although small increases in spontaneous myogenic activity may be seen in detrusor muscle exposed to >30 nM MgTX. This effect is not reversed by TTX or atropine. The TTX- and atropine-sensitive twitches of guinea pig ileum are also induced by nanomolar concentrations of alpha-dendrotoxin, a selective blocker of Shaker Kv1.1 and 1.2 subtypes, or stichodactylatoxin, a peptide isolated from sea anemone that displays high affinity for Kv1.1 and 1.3, but not by charybdotoxin, which blocks Kv1.2 and 1.3 but not 1.1. The data taken together suggest that high-affinity blockade of Kv1.1 underlies the ability of MgTX, kaliotoxin, agitoxin-1, agitoxin-2, alpha-dendrotoxin, and stichodactylatoxin to elicit TTX-sensitive twitches in guinea pig ileum.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 06/1999; 289(3):1517-22. · 3.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A novel nortriterpene, termed correolide, purified from the tree Spachea correae, inhibits Kv1.3, a Shaker-type delayed rectifier potassium channel present in human T lymphocytes. Correolide inhibits 86Rb+ efflux through Kv1.3 channels expressed in CHO cells (IC50 86 nM; Hill coefficient 1) and displays a defined structure-activity relationship. Potency in this assay increases with preincubation time and with time after channel opening. Correolide displays marked selectivity against numerous receptors and voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels. Although correolide is most potent as a Kv1.3 inhibitor, it blocks all other members of the Kv1 family with 4-14-fold lower potency. C20-29-[3H]dihydrocorreolide (diTC) was prepared and shown to bind in a specific, saturable, and reversible fashion (Kd = 11 nM) to a single class of sites in membranes prepared from CHO/Kv1.3 cells. The molecular pharmacology and stoichiometry of this binding reaction suggest that one diTC site is present per Kv1.3 channel tetramer. This site is allosterically coupled to peptide and potassium binding sites in the pore of the channel. DiTC binding to human brain synaptic membranes identifies channels composed of other Kv1 family members. Correolide depolarizes human T cells to the same extent as peptidyl inhibitors of Kv1.3, suggesting that it is a candidate for development as an immunosuppressant. Correolide is the first potent, small molecule inhibitor of Kv1 series channels to be identified from a natural product source and will be useful as a probe for studying potassium channel structure and the physiological role of such channels in target tissues of interest.
    Biochemistry 05/1999; 38(16):4922-30. · 3.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In rat brain, high-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channels are targeted to axons and nerve terminals [Knaus, H. G., et al. (1996) J. Neurosci. 16, 955-963], but absolute levels of their regional expression and subunit composition have not yet been fully established. To investigate these issues, an IbTX analogue ([125I]IbTX-D19Y/Y36F) was employed that selectively binds to neuronal BK channels with high affinity (Kd = 21 pM). Cross-linking experiments with [125I]IbTX-D19Y/Y36F in the presence of a bifunctional reagent led to covalent incorporation of radioactivity into a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 25 kDa. Deglycosylation and immunoprecipitation studies with antibodies raised against alpha- and smooth muscle beta-subunits of the BK channel suggest that the beta-subunit that is associated with the neuronal BK channel is a novel protein. Quantitative receptor autoradiography reveals the highest levels of BK channel expression in the outer layers of the neocortex, hippocampal perforant path projections, and the interpeduncular nucleus. This distribution pattern has also been confirmed in immunocytochemical experiments with a BK channel-selective antibody. Taken together, these findings imply that neuronal BK channels exhibit a restricted distribution in brain and have a subunit composition different from those of their smooth muscle congeners.
    Biochemistry 05/1999; 38(17):5392-400. · 3.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Iberiotoxin (IbTX or alpha-KTx 1.3), a selective, high-affinity blocker of the large-conductance, calcium-activated (maxi-K) channel, exhibits a unique, asymmetric distribution of charge. To test how these charges control kinetics of IbTX binding, we generated five mutants at two positions, K27 and R34, that are highly conserved among other isotoxins. The dissociation and association rate constants, koff and kon, were determined from toxin-blocked and -unblocked durations of single maxi-K channels incorporated into planar lipid bilayers. Equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) values were calculated from koff/kon. The IbTX mutants K27N, K27Q, and R34N caused large increases in Kd values compared to wild-type, suggesting that the IbTX interaction surface encompasses these residues. A well-established pore-blocking mechanism for IbTX predicts a voltage dependence of toxin-blocked times following occupancy of a potassium binding site in the channel pore. Time constants for block by K27R were approximately 5-fold slower at -20 mV versus +40 mV, while neutralization of K27 relieved the voltage dependence of block. This suggests that K27 in IbTX interacts with a potassium binding site in the pore. Neutralized mutants of K27 and R34, with zero net charge, displayed toxin association rate constants approximately 10-fold slower than wild-type. Association rates for R34N diminished approximately 19-fold when external potassium was increased from 30 to 300 mM. These findings suggest that simple net charge and diffusional processes do not control ingress of IbTX into the channel vestibule.
    Biochemistry 03/1999; 38(8):2395-402. · 3.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The search for peptidyl inhibitors of K+ channels is a very active area of investigation. In addition to scorpion venoms, other venom sources have been investigated; all of these sources have yielded novel peptides with interesting properties. For instance, spider venoms have provided peptides that block other families of K+ channels (e.g., Kv2 and Kv4) that act via mechanisms which modify the gating properties of these channels. Such inhibitors bind to a receptor on the channel that is different from the pore region in which the peptides discussed in this chapter bind. In fact, it is possible to have a channel occupied simultaneously by both inhibitor types. It is expected that many of the methodologies concerning peptidyl inhibitors from scorpion venom, which have been developed in the past and outlined above, will be extended to the new families of K+ channel blockers currently under development.
    Methods in Enzymology 02/1999; 294:624-39. · 2.19 Impact Factor
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    Methods in Enzymology 02/1999; 294:274-87. · 2.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Over the last period of time, a large number of scorpion toxins have been characterized. These peptidyl inhibitors of K+ channels have been very useful as probes for determining the molecular architecture of these channels, for purifying channels from native tissue and determining their subunit composition, for developing the pharmacology of K+ channels, and for determining the physiologic role that K+ channels play in target tissues. The large knowledge that we have developed regarding K+ channel function would not have been possible without the discovery of these peptidyl inhibitors. It is expected that as more novel peptides are discovered, our understanding of K+ channel structure and function will be further enhanced.
    Toxicon 12/1998; 36(11):1641-50. · 2.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Coexpression of alpha and beta subunits of the high conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (maxi-K) channel leads to a 50-fold increase in the affinity for 125I-charybdotoxin (125I-ChTX) as compared with when the alpha subunit is expressed alone (Hanner, M., Schmalhofer, W. A., Munujos, P., Knaus, H.-G., Kaczorowski, G. J., and Garcia, M. L. (1997) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 94, 2853-2858). To identify those residues in the beta subunit that are responsible for this change in binding affinity, Ala scanning mutagenesis was carried out along the extracellular loop of beta, and the resulting effects on 125I-ChTX binding were determined after coexpression with the alpha subunit. Mutagenesis of each of the four Cys residues present in the loop causes a large reduction in toxin binding affinity, suggesting that these residues could be forming disulfide bridges. The existence of two disulfide bridges in the extracellular loop of beta was demonstrated after comparison of reactivities of native beta and single-Cys-mutated subunits to N-biotin-maleimide. Negatively charged residues in the loop of beta, when mutated individually or in combinations, had no effect on toxin binding with the exception of Glu94, whose alteration modifies kinetics of ligand association and dissociation. Further mutagenesis studies targeting individual residues between Cys76 and Cys103 indicate that four positions, Leu90, Tyr91, Thr93, and Glu94 are critical in conferring high affinity 125I-ChTX binding to the alpha.beta subunit complex. Mutations at these positions cause large effects on the kinetics of ligand association and dissociation, but they do not alter the physical interaction of beta with the alpha subunit. All these data, taken together, suggest that the large extracellular loop of the maxi-K channel beta subunit has a restricted conformation. Moreover, they are consistent with the view that four residues appear to be important for inducing an appropriate conformation within the alpha subunit that allows high affinity ChTX binding.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/1998; 273(26):16289-96. · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The distribution of iodinated margatoxin ([125I]margatoxin) binding sites in rat was investigated by autoradiography. Rat striatum expresses a high density of margatoxin binding sites and, therefore, the effects of margatoxin, charybdotoxin and iberiotoxin have been studied on [3H]dopamine release from rat striatal slices in vitro. Margatoxin (0.1-100 nM) and charybdotoxin (10-1000 nM), but not iberiotoxin increased the spontaneous and the electrically evoked [3H]dopamine release. [3H]dopamine release by margatoxin was inhibited by tetrodotoxin and omega-conotoxin GVIA, but not by atropine, naloxone, N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine and neurokinin or neurotensin receptor antagonists. In the buffer solution used for release experiments, [125I]margatoxin labels a maximum of 0.12 pmol of sites/mg protein in rat striatal membranes with a Kd of 5 pM. [125I]margatoxin binding was inhibited by margatoxin (Ki of 4 pM), charybdotoxin (Ki of 162 pM) but not by iberiotoxin. We conclude that inhibition of margatoxin-sensitive voltage-gated K+ channels increases [3H]dopamine release demonstrating their role in repolarization of nigrostriatal projections. In contrast, iberiotoxin-sensitive, high-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels are not involved in release of [3H]dopamine.
    European Journal of Pharmacology 03/1998; 343(2-3):193-200. · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Five novel peptidyl inhibitors of Shaker-type (Kv1) K+ channels have been purified to homogeneity from venom of the scorpion Centruroides limbatus. The complete primary amino acid sequence of the major component, hongotoxin-1 (HgTX1), has been determined and confirmed after expression of the peptide in Escherichia coli. HgTX1 inhibits 125I-margatoxin binding to rat brain membranes as well as depolarization-induced 86Rb+ flux through homotetrameric Kv1.1, Kv1. 2, and Kv1.3 channels stably transfected in HEK-293 cells, but it displays much lower affinity for Kv1.6 channels. A HgTX1 double mutant (HgTX1-A19Y/Y37F) was constructed to allow high specific activity iodination of the peptide. HgTX1-A19Y/Y37F and monoiodinated HgTX1-A19Y/Y37F are equally potent in inhibiting 125I-margatoxin binding to rat brain membranes as HgTX1 (IC50 values approximately 0.3 pM). 125I-HgTX1-A19Y/Y37F binds with subpicomolar affinities to membranes derived from HEK-293 cells expressing homotetrameric Kv1.1, Kv1.2, and Kv1.3 channels and to rat brain membranes (Kd values 0.1-0.25 pM, respectively) but with lower affinity to Kv1.6 channels (Kd 9.6 pM), and it does not interact with either Kv1.4 or Kv1.5 channels. Several subpopulations of native Kv1 subunit oligomers that contribute to the rat brain HgTX1 receptor have been deduced by immunoprecipitation experiments using antibodies specific for Kv1 subunits. HgTX1 represents a novel and useful tool with which to investigate subclasses of voltage-gated K+ channels and Kv1 subunit assembly in different tissues.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/1998; 273(5):2639-44. · 4.60 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

5k Citations
365.52 Total Impact Points


  • 2000
    • Temple University
      • Department of Biochemistry
      Philadelphia, PA, United States
  • 1999
    • Merck
      Whitehouse Station, New Jersey, United States
  • 1995–1999
    • University of Innsbruck
      • Institut für Pharmakologie und Toxikologie
      Innsbruck, Tyrol, Austria
  • 1991–1999
    • Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
      Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • Department of Physiology
      Philadelphia, PA, United States
  • 1980
    • Roche Institute of Molecular Biology
      Nutley, New Jersey, United States