C J Herold

Medical University of Vienna, Wien, Vienna, Austria

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Publications (119)282.83 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Lungenveränderungen im Rahmen der rheumatoiden Arthritis stellen einen klinisch bedeutsamen Aspekt dieser in Schüben verlaufenden chronischen Arthropathie dar. Die mit dem Bestehen einer rheumatoiden Arthritis verbundenen pulmonalen Veränderungen können alle anatomischen Teile des Lungenparenchyms, die Pleura sowie Teile des knöchernen Thorax betreffen. Die wichtigsten thorakalen Veränderungen im Rahmen der rheumatoiden Arthritis sind die nekrobiotischen Rheumaknoten, pleurale Veränderungen, das Caplan-Syndrom, die Lungenfibrose, die Bronchiolitis obliterans und medikamentös induzierte Lungenveränderungen. Der vorliegende Artikel beschreibt das Spektrum der Lungenveränderungen, die im Rahmen der rheumatoiden Arthritis vorkommen. Hierbei werden die klinischen und radiologischen Charakteristika dieser Veränderungen vorgestellt. Die Bedeutung der verschiedenen bildgebenden Methoden im diagnostischen Algorithmus wird diskutiert. Pulmonary complications caused by rheumatoid arthritis are a clinically relevant aspect of this chronic arthropathy. Those complications can involve all parts of the thorax, including the lung parenchyma, the pleura, and the thoracic cage. The most common complications are necrobiotic nodules, pleural abnormalities, Caplan's syndrome, parenchymal fibrosis, bronchiolitis obliterans, and iatrogenic damage of lung the parenchyma. This article reviews pulmonary abnormalities induced by rheumatoid arthritis and their clinical and radiological findings. In addition, the role of different imaging modalities in the diagnostic work-up of pulmonary complications caused by rheumatoid arthritis is discussed.
    Der Radiologe 08/2014; 36(8):637-645. · 0.41 Impact Factor
  • Der Radiologe 05/2014; 54(5):425-6. · 0.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To determine whether gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can be used to distinguish between simple steatosis and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), defined according to the steatosis activity and fibrosis (SAF) scoring system, which is based on the semiquantitative scoring of steatosis activity and liver fibrosis. Materials and Methods The local institutional review committee approved this study and waived written informed consent. This was a retrospective study of gadoxetic acid-enhanced 3-T MR imaging performed in 81 patients with NAFLD (45 men [56%]; mean age, 56 years; range, 25-78 years). The MR images were analyzed by using the relative enhancement (the ratio of signal intensities of the liver parenchyma before and 20 minutes after intravenous administration of gadoxetic acid). Univariate and multiple regression analyses were applied to identify variables associated with relative enhancement measurements. The ability of relative enhancement to allow differentiation between simple steatosis and NASH was assessed by using area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results Relative enhancement negatively correlated with the degree of lobular inflammation (r = -0.59, P < .0001), ballooning (r = -0.44, P < .0001), and fibrosis (r = -0.59, P ≤.0001), but not with steatosis (r = -0.16, P = .15). Patients with NASH had a significantly lower relative liver enhancement (0.82 ± 0.22) than those with simple steatosis (1.39 ± 0.52) (P < .001). Relative enhancement measurements performed well in the differentiation between simple steatosis and NASH, with an area under the ROC curve of 0.85 (95% confidence interval: 0.75, 0.91) (cutoff = 1.24, sensitivity = 97%, specificity = 63%). Conclusion Gadoxetic acid relative enhancement was significantly lower in patients with NASH than in patients with simple steatosis, but further prospective studies are warranted. © RSNA, 2014.
    Radiology 02/2014; · 6.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Die chronisch thrombembolische pulmonale Hypertension (CTEPH) ist ein seltenes Krankheitsbild, das vermutlich eine Folgeerscheinung nach rezidivierenden Pulmonalembolien darstellt. Die chirurgische Pulmonalisthrombendarteriektomie ist heute die Therapieoption der Wahl. Zur Planung dieser Operation ist eine exakte Darstellung der thrombotischen Gefäßwandveränderungen Voraussetzung. Als diagnostischer Goldstandard gilt bis heute die Pulmonalisangiographie. Die Einführung der Spiral-CT ermöglichte nun erstmals nichtinvasiv eine gute Kontrastierung der gesamten Pulmonalarterien und damit eine direkte und suffiziente Darstellung der Thromben in zentralen Pulmonalarterien. Sie ist in der Darstellung der Thromben in den zentralen Pulmonalarterien der Pulmonalisangiographie leicht überlegen, während dessen die Angiographie eine bessere Darstellung der Veränderungen in den Segmentarterien gibt. Die Diagnose der CTEPH ist alleine durch die Spiral-CT im Literaturvergleich in etwa 90 % zu stellen. Sowohl die Literatur als auch unsere eigenen Ergebnisse zeigen, daß bei ca. 80 % der Patienten die Entscheidung über die Operabilität des Patienten allein aufgrund der Spiral-CT Untersuchung möglich ist. Die Spiral-CT ist als nichtinvasive Untersuchung sowohl zum Screening als auch zur postoperativen Verlaufskontrolle geeignet und ermöglicht in Kombination mit der Pulmonalisangiographie eine optimale Operationsplanung. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a rare result of recurrent pulmonary embolism and is treated by pulmonary thromboendarterectomy. Knowledge of the exact location of the thrombi is necessary in planning this operation. To date, pulmonary, angiography is the diagnostic imaging gold standard. Since the introduction of spiral CT excellent vascular opacification of the pulmonary arteries has become feasible, and thrombi in the pulmonary arteries can be visualized directly. Spiral CT is superior to angiography in demonstrating thrombi in the central pulmonary arteries, whereas angiography proves superior to CT in the evaluation of abnormalities within segmental arteries. The sensitivity of spiral CT in confirming the diagnosis of CTEPH is reported to be more than 90 %. According to the literature and based on our own results, the decision concerning operability is possible on the basis of spiral CT images in more than 80 % of patients with CTEPH. Spiral CT as a non-invasive tool may be used for CTEPH screening, for postoperative follow-up after pulmonary thrombendarterectomy and, combined with pulmonary angiography, to optimize operation planning.
    Der Radiologe 06/2013; 36(6):496-502. · 0.41 Impact Factor
  • C Herold, M F Reiser, A Graser
    Der Radiologe 04/2013; · 0.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objectives: To evaluate the fetal magnetic resonance imaging findings of lymphangiomas. Methods: The magnetic resonance scans of eight fetuses with lymphangiomas were evaluated. Magnetic resonance evaluation included: number; size; signal intensities of the lesions; thickness of the septae; configuration of the margins; presence of blood breakdown products; change in size or signal intensity (in four patients with multiple examinations); exact expansion of the lesions to the adjacent anatomical structures; and concomitant pathological findings. Results were compared with postpartum clinical assessment and imaging in seven patients and with autopsy in one patient. Results: Two retroperitoneal, three thoracic, and three cervical lymphangiomas (diameters between 3.3 and 15.6 cm) were included. All lesions consisted of macrocysts, and additional microcystic parts were found in three lymphangiomas. Blood breakdown products were found in one lesion. Agreement with postpartum imaging was excellent. One patient received intrauterine drainage for chylothorax, and one pregnancy was terminated. Conclusions: Fetal lymphangiomas display the same magnetic resonance imaging features as postnatal lymphangiomas. Intrauterine magnetic resonance characterization of lymphangiomas provides the exact delineation, detection of associated and/or concomitant pathologies, and differential diagnosis among other cystic pathologies. Patient management may be altered with respect to the type and/or time of treatment, and with regard to the continuation or termination of pregnancy.
    Journal of Perinatal Medicine 01/2013; · 1.43 Impact Factor
  • C Herold, H Prosch
    Der Radiologe 10/2012; 52(10):891. · 0.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Non-traumatic chest pain is a common symptom in patients who present in the emergency department. From a clinical point of view, it is important to differentiate cardiac chest pain from non-cardiac chest pain (NCCP). Among the plethora of potential causes of NCCP, life-threatening diseases, such as aortic dissection, pulmonary embolism, tension pneumothorax, and esophageal rupture, must be differentiated from non-life threatening causes. The majority of NCCP, however, is reported to be benign in nature. The presentation of pain plays an important role in narrowing the differential diagnosis and initiating further diagnostic management and treatment. As the benign causes tend to recur, and may lead to patient anxiety and great costs, a meticulous evaluation of the patient is necessary to diagnose the underlying disorder or disease.
    European journal of radiology 04/2011; · 2.65 Impact Factor
  • Journal of thoracic imaging 01/2010; 25(1):3-7. · 1.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate developmental changes in the apparently unaffected contralateral lung by using signal intensity ratios (SIR) and lung volumes (LV), and to search for correlation with clinical outcome. Twenty-five fetuses (22-37 weeks' gestation) were examined. Lung/liver signal intensity ratios (LLSIR) were assessed on T1-weighted and T2-weighted sequences for both lungs, then together with LV compared with age-matched controls of 91 fetuses by using the U test. Differences in LLSIRs and lung volumes were correlated with neonatal outcomes. LLSIRs in fetuses with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) were significantly higher in both lungs on T1-weighted images and significantly lower on T2-weighted images, compared with normals (p < 0.05), increasing on T2-weighted imaging and decreasing on T1-weighted imaging during gestation. Total LV were significantly smaller in the CDH group than in controls (p < 0.05). No significant differences in LLSIR of the two lungs were found. Outcomes correlated significantly with total LV, but not with LLSIR. Changes in LLSIR seem to reflect developmental impairment in CDH; however, they provide no additional information in predicting outcome. LV remains the best indicator on fetal MR imaging of neonatal survival in isolated, left-sided CDH.
    European Radiology 11/2009; 20(4):829-37. · 4.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Screening of the liver for hepatic lesion detection and characterization is usually performed with either ultrasound or CT. However, both techniques are suboptimal for liver lesion characterization and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has emerged as the preferred radiological investigation. In addition to unenhanced MR imaging techniques, contrast-enhanced MR imaging can demonstrate tissue-specific physiological information, thereby facilitating liver lesion characterization. Currently, the classes of contrast agents available for MR imaging of the liver include non-tissue-specific extracellular gadolinium chelates and tissue-specific hepatobiliary or reticuloendothelial agents. In this review, we describe the MR features of the more common focal hepatic lesions, as well as appropriate imaging protocols. A special emphasis is placed on the clinical use of non-specific and liver-specific contrast agents for differentiation of focal liver lesions. This may aid in the accurate diagnostic workup of patients in order to avoid invasive procedures, such as biopsy, for lesion characterization. A diagnostic strategy that considers the clinical situation is also presented.
    European Radiology 10/2008; 19(2):342-57. · 4.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tractography are noninvasive tools that enable the study of three-dimensional diffusion characteristics and their molecular, cellular, and microstructural correlates in the human brain. To date, these techniques have mainly been limited to postnatal MR studies of premature infants and newborns. The primary aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the potential of in utero DTI and tractography to visualize the main projection and commissural pathways in 40 living, non-sedated human fetuses between 18 and 37 gestational weeks (GW) of age, with no structural brain pathologies. During a mean time of 1 min and 49 s, an axial, single-shot, echo planar DT sequence, with 32 diffusion gradient encoding directions and a reconstructed voxel size of 1.44 mm/1.45 mm/4.5 mm, was acquired. Most (90%) of the fetuses were imaged in the cephalic presentation. In 40% of examined fetuses, DTI measurements were robust enough to successfully calculate and visualize bilateral, craniocaudally oriented (mainly sensorimotor), and callosal trajectories in utero. Furthermore, fiber lengths, ADC, FA, and eigenvalues (lambda(1), lambda(2) and lambda(3)) were determined at different anatomically defined areas. FA values and the axial eigenvalue (lambda(1)) showed a characteristic distribution, with the highest values for the splenium, followed by the genu, the right, and the left posterior limb of the internal capsule. The right-sided sensorimotor trajectories were found to be significantly longer than on the left side (p=0.007), reflecting higher right-sided lambda(1) values (14 cases vs. 9 cases). Based on the good correlation of these initial in utero tractography results with prior documented postmortem and ex utero DTI data, this new imaging technique promises new insights into the normal and pathological development of the unborn child.
    NeuroImage 08/2008; 43(2):213-24. · 6.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare iomeprol 400 and iodixanol 320 in pulmonary artery MDCTA in subjects with suspected pulmonary embolism. Eighty randomized subjects received equi-iodine intravenous doses (48 g) of iomeprol 400 (n=40) or iodixanol 320 (n=40), via power injector at 4 mL/s. Four-row (35 subjects) and 64-row (45 subjects) scanners were used. Lumen attenuation was determined on-site and by two off-site blinded readers in the main, lobar, segmental and subsegmental pulmonary arteries. Statistical comparison between groups was performed for demographics and lumen attenuation. There were no between-group differences (p>0.05) in demographics. Pulmonary artery attenuation was significantly (p<or=0.03) higher with iomeprol 400 for all readers. Attenuation quality was excellent in more patients after iomeprol 400 than after iodixanol-320 (80% vs. 62.5%; 82.5% vs. 77.5%; off-site readers 1 and 2, respectively). No safety concerns were noted. The greater iodine delivery rate achievable with iomeprol 400 compared to iodixanol-320 at equi-iodine dose and injection rate permits consistently greater attenuation at all levels of the pulmonary arterial tree.
    European journal of radiology 04/2008; 70(3):579-88. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our purpose was to assess the effect of computer-aided detection (CAD) on lesion detection as a second reader in computed tomographic colonography, and to compare the influence of CAD on the performance of readers with different levels of expertise. Fifty-two CT colonography patient data-sets (37 patients: 55 endoscopically confirmed polyps > or =0.5 cm, seven cancers; 15 patients: no abnormalities) were retrospectively reviewed by four radiologists (two expert, two nonexpert). After primary data evaluation, a second reading augmented with findings of CAD (polyp-enhanced view, Siemens) was performed. Sensitivities and reading time were calculated for each reader without CAD and supported by CAD findings. The sensitivity of expert readers was 91% each, and of nonexpert readers, 76% and 75%, respectively, for polyp detection. CAD increased the sensitivity of expert readers to 96% (P = 0.25) and 93% (P = 1), and that of nonexpert readers to 91% (P = 0.008) and 95% (P = 0.001), respectively. All four readers diagnosed 100% of cancers, but CAD alone only 43%. CAD increased reading time by 2.1 min (mean). CAD as a second reader significantly improves sensitivity for polyp detection in a high disease prevalence population for nonexpert readers. CAD causes a modest increase in reading time. CAD is of limited value in the detection of cancer.
    European Radiology 10/2007; 17(10):2598-607. · 4.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multi-detector computed tomography (CT) offers new opportunities in the imaging of the gastrointestinal tract. Its ability to cover a large volume in a very short scan time, and in a single breath hold with thin collimation and isotropic voxels, allows the imaging of the entire esophagus with high-quality multiplanar reformation and 3D reconstruction. Proper distention of the esophagus and stomach (by oral administration of effervescent granules and water) and optimally timed administration of intravenous contrast material are required to detect and characterize disease. In contrast to endoscopy and double-contrast studies of the upper GI tract, CT provides information about both the esophageal wall and the extramural extent of disease. Preoperative staging of esophageal carcinoma appears to be the main indication for MDCT. In addition, MDCT allows detection of other esophageal malignancies, such as lymphoma and benign esophageal tumors, such as leiomyma. A diagnosis of rupture or fistula of the esophagus can be firmly established using MDCT. Furthermore, miscellaneous esophageal conditions, such as achalasia, esophagitis, diverticula, and varices, are incidental findings and can also be visualized with hydro-multi-detector CT. Multi-detector CT is a valuable tool for the evaluation of esophageal wall disease and serves as an adjunct to endoscopy.
    Abdominal Imaging 08/2007; 34(1):3-18. · 1.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thin-section multi-detector row computed tomographic (CT) colonography is a powerful tool for the detection and classification of colonic lesions. However, each step in the process of a CT colonographic examination carries the potential for misdiagnosis. Suboptimal patient preparation, CT scanning protocol deficiencies, and perception and interpretation errors can lead to false-positive and false-negative findings, adversely affecting the diagnostic performance of CT colonography. These problems and pitfalls can be overcome with a variety of useful techniques and observations. A relatively clean, dry, and well-distended colon can be achieved with careful patient preparation, thereby avoiding the problem of residual stool and fluid. Knowledge of the morphologic and attenuation characteristics of common colonic lesions and artifacts can help identify bulbous haustral folds, impacted diverticula, an inverted appendiceal stump, or mobile polyps, any of which may pose problems for the radiologist. A combined two-dimensional and three-dimensional imaging approach is recommended for each colonic finding. A thorough knowledge of the various pitfalls and pseudolesions that may be encountered at CT colonography, along with use of dedicated problem-solving techniques, will help the radiologist differentiate between definite colonic lesions and pseudolesions.
    Radiographics 03/2007; 27(2):431-54. · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to analyze pulmonary embolism (PE) occurrence and retrospective clinical outcome in patients with clinically suspected acute PE and a negative spiral CT angiography (SCTA) of the pulmonary arteries. Within a 35-month period, 485 consecutive patients with clinical symptoms of acute PE underwent SCTA of the pulmonary arteries. Patients with a negative SCTA and without anticoagulation treatment were followed-up and formed the study group. Patient outcome and recurrence of PE was evaluated retrospectively during a period of 6 months after the initial SCTA, and included a review of computerized patient records, and interviews with physicians and patients. Patients were asked to fill out a questionnaire concerning all relevant questions about their medical history and clinical course during the follow-up period. Special attention was focused on symptoms indicating recurrent PE, as well as later confirmation and therapy of PE. Of the 485 patients, 325 patients (67%) had a negative scan, 134 (27.6%) had radiological signs of PE, and 26 (5.4%) had an indeterminant result. Of 325 patients with a negative scan, 269 (83%) were available for follow-up. The main reasons for loss to follow-up were change of address, name, or phone number, or non-resident patients who left abroad. Of 269 patients available for follow-up, 49 patients (18.2% of 269) received anticoagulant treatment because of prior or recent deep venous thrombosis (32.6%) or a history of PE (34.7%), cardiovascular disease (18.4%), high clinical probability (8.2%), positive ventilation-perfusion scan (4.2%), and elevated D-dimer test (2%). The remaining 220 patients, who did not receive anticoagulant medication, formed the study group. Of this study group, 1 patient died from myocardial infarction 6 weeks after the initial SCTA, and the postmortem examination also detected multiple peripheral emboli in both lungs ( p=0.45%; 0.01-2.5, 95% confidence interval). The PE did not occur in any other patient. In patients with suspected PE and negative SCTA without anticoagulant therapy, the risk of recurrent PE in this study was less than 1% and similar to that in patients after a negative pulmonary angiogram. Therefore, we conclude that patients can be managed safely without anticoagulation therapy; however, this approach may not be appropriate for critically ill patients and those with persistent high clinical suspicion of acute PE.
    European Radiology 02/2004; 14(1):93-8. · 4.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Flat panel detectors are characterized by improved handling and increased dose efficiency. This allows for increasing of work flow efficiency and for reducing the exposure dose by about 50% compared to current systems with a sensitivity of 400. Whether the increased dose efficiency should be used to reduce acquisition dose or to increase image quality in the chest, will be shown by further clinical experience and will be also determined by the subjective preference of the radiologists. The decreased level of image noise opens new perspectives for image processing that way that elaborated multifrequency processing allows for optimizing the display of very small and low contrast structures that was so far limited by overlying image noise. Specialized applications of dual energy subtraction and temporal subtraction will also profit by the new detector technology and will be further driven forward in context with applications such as computed assisted diagnosis even though this is currently not yet broadly applied. Storage phosphor radiography still represents an important alternative technique based on its larger flexibility with respect to equipment configuration, its broader application options in intensive care and emergency radiology and due to economic reasons. These facts are further underlined by the fact that image quality also in storage phosphor radiography could be constantly increased by improving detector technology and image processing and consequently has a high standard.
    Der Radiologe 06/2003; 43(5):351-61. · 0.41 Impact Factor
  • S Metz-Schimmerl, W Schima, C J Herold
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    ABSTRACT: Quality management (QM) systems are widely established management tools in the industry and business world today. In the health care sector, the need for quality, the implementation of quality management systems and economic orientation of the hospital management are strongly encouraged. Centers of excellence are created to offer special medical services of the highest possible quality. Furthermore, there is a worldwide tendency to establish standards in clinical medical settings, in teaching profession and medical science. These trends make the implementation of a quality management system in health care system highly desirable. The present manuscript reviews the fundamental principles and concepts and the aims of internationally accepted QM systems. It focuses on the ISO-9000 certificates and the European Foundation of Quality Management (EFQM) model. The advantages and disadvantages are discussed. The resources necessary for installation of a QM system and the different phases of implementation are reported. According to the experience of several groups, QM systems can be reliably used in a radiology department and lead to continuous improvement of the quality of services.
    Der Radiologe 06/2002; 42(5):380-6. · 0.41 Impact Factor
  • S. Metz-Schimmerl, W. Schima, C. J. Herold
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    ABSTRACT: Qualitätsmanagementsysteme (QM-Systeme) sind seit langem etablierte Führungsinstrumente in Industrie und Technik. Im Gesundheitsbereich werden der Qualitätsgedanke, die Etablierung von QM-Systemen und die wirtschaftlich orientiertere Leitung von Organisationen zunehmend gefordert. Es sollen Kompetenzzentren gebildet werden, die ihre Produkt- und Leistungsqualität darlegen. Zusätzlich besteht der weltweite Trend zur Etablierung von Standards in der klinischen Medizin, Lehre und der medizinischen Forschung. Diese Entwicklungen lassen die Einführung eines QM-Systems auch im Gesundheitswesen sinnvoll erscheinen. In den letzten Jahren haben sich zunehmend niedergelassene Ärzte, Institute, Abteilungen und ganze Krankenhäuser mit QM-Systemen beschäftigt und diese eingeführt. Der vorliegende Artikel gibt einen Überblick über Grundbegriffe, Wesen und Ziele von international eingesetzten QM-Systemen und fokussiert insbesondere auf die ISO-9000-Reihe und das European Foundation of Quality Management-(EFQM-)Modell. Weiter werden Argumente für die Einführung eines QM-Systems erörtert und potenzielle Nachteile und Probleme diskutiert. Die Einführung eines QM-Systems wird phasenhaft dargestellt, am Erreichten bewertet, und der zeitliche, personelle und finanzielle Ressourcenbedarf skizziert. QM-Systeme sind an allen Einrichtungen im Gesundheitswesen einsetzbar, und stellen einen Prozess der kontinuierlichen Qualitätsverbesserung in allen Aufgabenbereichen einer radiologischen Universitätsabteilung sicher. Quality management (QM) systems are widely established management tools in the industry and business world today. In the health care sector, the need for quality, the implementation of quality management systems and economic orientation of the hospital management are strongly encouraged. Centers of excellence are created to offer special medical services of the highest possible quality. Furthermore, there is a worldwide tendency to establish standards in clinical medical settings, in teaching profession and medical science. These trends make the implementation of a quality management system in health care system highly desirable. The present manuscript reviews the fundamental principles and concepts and the aims of internationally accepted QM systems. It focuses on the ISO-9000 certificates and the European Foundation of Quality Management (EFQM) model. The advantages and disadvantages are discussed. The resources necessary for installation of a QM system and the different phases of implementation are reported. According to the experience of several groups, QM systems can be reliably used in a radiology department and lead to continuous improvement of the quality of services.
    Der Radiologe 04/2002; 42(5):380-386. · 0.41 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
282.83 Total Impact Points


  • 2001–2013
    • Medical University of Vienna
      • Department of Radiology
      Wien, Vienna, Austria
  • 2001–2008
    • Vienna General Hospital
      Wien, Vienna, Austria
  • 2002
    • Ludwig Boltzmann Institut für Experimentelle und Klinische Traumatologie
      Wien, Vienna, Austria
  • 1987–2002
    • University of Vienna
      • • Department of Anaesthesiology and General Intensive Care
      • • Department of Internal Medicine III
      • • Department of Neurobiology
      • • MR Institute
      Wien, Vienna, Austria
  • 1991–1996
    • Ludwig Boltzmann Institute Of Electrical Stimulation
      Wien, Vienna, Austria