[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In recent years, hantavirus infections producing severe diseases have obtained an increased attention from public health authorities from the countries of Eurasia to the Americas. Brazil has reported 1,300 cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) from 1993 to 2010, with about 80 of them occurring in the northeast of the State of São Paulo, with 48% fatality rate. Araraquara virus was the causative agent of HCPS in the region. Considering that hantaviruses causing human disease in the Americas were unknown until 1993, we have looked for hantavirus infections in the population of Cássia dos Coqueiros county, northeast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, before this time. This county has about 2,800 inhabitants and an economy based on agriculture, including cultivation of Brachiaria decumbens grass. The grass seeds are an important rodent attraction, facilitating transmission of hantavirus to man. Four HCPS cases were reported so far in the county.
In this study, 1,876 sera collected from 1987 to 1990 were tested for IgG to hantavirus by IgG-ELISA, using the N recombinant protein of Araraquara virus as antigen.
Positive results were observed in 89 (4.7%) samples, which were all collected in 1987. The positivity among urban inhabitants was 5.3%, compared with 4.3% among those living in rural areas.
Our results showed that hantavirus infections occurred in Cássia dos Coqueiros, completely unrecognized, even before hantaviruses were described in the Americas.
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical 07/2012; 45(4):468-70. · 0.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate the frequency of positive results for hepatitis B and C, HIV and syphilis in blood donations at the Centro Regional de Hemoterapia de Ribeirão Preto, to describe donors with positive results according to some demographic and socioeconomic variables, to identify risk factors associated to these donors and the reasons that they were not detected during clinical screening.
A descriptive study was performed between July 1(st) 2005 and July 31(st) 2006 by interviewing 106 donorsafter medical consultations where they were informed of positive results for hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV or syphilis.
There was a predominance of first-time donors, males, under 50-year olds, married individuals, from Ribeirão Preto, with elementary education, low economic status and of people who donated at the request of friends or relatives. Hepatitis C was the most frequently detected infection (56.6%), followed by hepatitis B (20.7%), HIV (12.3%) and syphilis(10.4%). About 40% of donors had omitted risk factors for different reasons: because they trusted the results of serological tests, did not feel comfortable about talking of risk factors or did not consider them relevant. Other justifications were the duration of the interview, the interviewer was unskilled, embarrassment and doubts about confidentiality.
The results indicate the need for changes in the approach to clinical screening and a review of methods to attract and guide potential donors.
Revista Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia 01/2012; 34(6):411-5.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To estimate the prevalence and evaluate the characteristics and severity of restless legs syndrome (RLS) in an urban Brazilian community.
A transversal study was conducted over an 18-month period. A neurologist conducted 1155 interviews using the diagnostic criteria of the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG).
The lifetime prevalence of RLS was found to be 6.40%. Prevalence during the last year, the last month, and the last week were found to be 5.71%, 5.36%, and 4.15%, respectively. A greater proportion of women met diagnostic criteria for RLS compared to men (OR: 2.63, CI 95%: 1.54-4.51). Furthermore, participants with low monthly family income (<$1575 USD) had a lower prevalence of disease compared to those with a high monthly family income (>$1575 USD) (OR: 2.91, CI 95%: 1.41-5.98).
This is the first epidemiologic study of RLS conducted in a Brazilian population. The overall prevalence of disease and the greater proportion of RLS in women found in this study are similar to the findings of other studies conducted in western countries. The association of RLS with high family income is unpublished and should be confirmed in subsequent studies.
Sleep Medicine 08/2011; 12(8):762-7. · 3.49 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Surgical-site infection (SSI) is the most prevalent type of hospital infection in surgical patients and is associated with an increase in hospital stay, costs and morbidity/lethality. The knowledge of the main risk factors for this type of infection is important for the establishment of prevention measures regarding modifiable risks factors. The objective of the preset study was to assess the occurrence of SSI and study the risk factors in oncologic surgeries of the digestive system at Hospital de Câncer in Barretos, São Paulo, Brazil. Individuals undergoing oncologic surgeries of the digestive system in the period of 08/01/2007 to 08/10/2008 were prospectively followed for 30 days after surgery. Possible risk factors related to the patient and to the surgical procedure were also studied. A total of 210 surgeries were analyzed, with a global SSI incidence of 23.8%. The following variables were independently associated with SSI: time and type of surgery, radiotherapy before surgery and surgeon's years of experience. The risk factors found in this study have been described by other authors and are not amenable to intervention for SSI prevention. Further studies are recommended with the objective of investigating interventions that could reduce the risk for SSI in this type of surgery.
The Brazilian journal of infectious diseases: an official publication of the Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases 04/2011; 15(2):109-15. · 0.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatitis B is common in Brazil, although there are regional differences regarding the degree of endemicity, the most frequent forms of transmission and the presence of different evolutive stages of chronic disease. The present study aimed to determine the clinical, demographic and epidemiological characteristics of patients chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) residing in the Ribeirão Preto region, southeastern Brazil.
A total of 529 medical records of individuals with HBV monoinfection were reviewed.
More than 60% of the subjects were males, with a mean age of 38 years-old. The HBeAg-negative serological pattern was verified in 84.4% of the patients, among whom the risk of vertical/intrafamily transmission was 43.2% (p = 0.02). The consumption of alcohol in amounts exceeding 20 g a day was observed in 21.3% of the subjects and was more frequent among men (33%) (p < 0.001). Among patients with cirrhosis, 54.1% were alcohol abusers (p = 0.04), all of them males. The presence of cirrhosis was more frequent in the HBeAg-positive group (24.4%) than in the HBeAg-negative group (10.2%) (p < 0.001).
High proportions of HBV-infected subjects with an HBeAg-negative pattern were observed, with a higher risk of vertical/intrafamily transmission. Alcohol abuse was associated with male subjects and with cirrhosis of the liver in this group. A tendency toward an increase in the number of HBeAg-negative cases was observed over time.
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical 02/2011; 44(1):13-7. · 0.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article aims to correlate the main results of three large national surveys on Chagas disease (entomologic, seroprevalence and electrocardiographic) carried out in Brazil from late 1970's to early 1980's, which served as baseline for definition of the control measures adopted in the country. The proportion of infected people was much higher in areas where Triatoma infestans, the most efficient vector of Chagas disease among the five principal species involved in transmission at that time, was predominant. Similar result was observed in places where Triatoma sordida was dispersed, mainly in the country's central region, which corresponds to its native area. This finding is due to the coincidence observed in the geographic distribution of both vectors, since T. sordida is not considered to play an important role in transmission. In the Northeastern semi-arid, endemic area for Triatoma brasiliensis and Triatoma pseudomaculata, rates of human infection were much lower, although both vectors may have some relevance in the maintenance of the disease. As for areas with Panstrongylus megistus, human infection varied according to the levels of domiciliation. Whenever domiciled, like in the humid northeastern coastal area, its involvement in transmission can be clearly demonstrated. In some parts of Bahia State it represented the exclusive vector of the disease. Based upon the results of the seroprevalence survey an electrocardiographic study was carried out in 11 Brazilian states, which showed marked differences in the presence of cardiac alterations when comparing different areas of the country.
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical 01/2011; 44 Suppl 2:47-50. · 0.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A survey for seroprevalence of Chagas disease was held in a representative sample of Brazilian individuals up to 5 years of age in all the rural areas of Brazil, with the single exception of Rio de Janeiro State. Blood on filter paper was collected from 104,954 children and screened in a single laboratory with two serological tests: indirect immunofluorescence and enzyme linked immunoassay. All samples with positive or indetermined results, as well as 10% of all the negative samples were submitted to a quality control reference laboratory, which performed both tests a second time, as well as the western blot assay of TESA (Trypomastigote Excreted Secreted Antigen). All children with confirmed final positive result (n = 104, prevalence = 0.1%) had a follow-up visit and were submitted to a second blood collection, this time a whole blood sample. In addition, blood samples from the respective mothers and familiar members were collected. The infection was confirmed in only 32 (0.03%) of those children. From them, 20 (0.025%) had maternal positive results, suggesting congenital transmission; 11 (0.01%) had non-infected mothers, indicating a possible vectorial transmission; and in one whose mother had died the transmission mechanism could not be elucidated. In further 41 visited children the infection was confirmed only in their mothers, suggesting passive transference of maternal antibodies; in other 18, both child and mother were negative; and in 13 cases both were not localized. The 11 children that acquired the infection presumably through the vector were distributed mainly in the Northeast region of Brazil (States of Piauí, Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba and Alagoas), in addition to one case in Amazonas (North region) and another in Parana (South region). Remarkably, 60% of the 20 cases of probably congenital transmission were from a single State, Rio Grande do Sul, with the remaining cases distributed in other states. This is the first report demonstrating regional geographical differences in the vertical transmission of Chagas disease in Brazil, which probably reflects the predominant Trypanosoma cruzi group IId and IIe (now TcV and TcVI) found in this state. Overall, these results show that the regular and systematic control programs against the transmission of Chagas disease, together with socioeconomic changes observed in Brazil in the last decades, interrupted the vectorial transmission in Brazil, resumed in the few cases found in this national survey. Furthermore they reinforce the need for maintenance of control programs for the consolidation of this major advance in public health.
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical 01/2011; 44 Suppl 2:108-21. · 0.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The durability of the sustained virologic response (SVR) in patients with chronic hepatitis C after treatment and the ideal follow-up time for these patients remains undefined. The objective of the study was to evaluate the durability of the virologic response in patients with chronic hepatitis C followed up for at least 12 months after SVR at HCFMRP-USP.
The study was conducted on 174 patients with chronic hepatitis C treated with different antiviral regimens who had achieved SVR. Qualitative serum HCV-RNA was determined by the commercial kit (COBAS AMPLICOR HCV, v2.0).
There was predominance of male (73%) with a mean age of 45.6 ± 10 years. Liver cirrhosis was present in 16.1% of the study subjects. Mean follow-up time after SVR was 47 months (12-156 months). Twenty-two patients received monotherapy with interferon; 94 received interferon plus ribavirin, and 58 received pegylated interferon plus ribavirin. A total of 134 patients (77.0%) received one treatment course, 29 (16.7%) received two courses, and 11 (6.3%) received three courses. The distribution of HCV genotypes was: genotype 1 (40.2%), genotype 3 (40.8%) and genotype 2 (10.3%). Genotype was undetermined in 8.7% of cases. None of the 174 patients had recurrence of HCV infection. Two cirrhotic patients developed hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) during follow-up.
Among patients with SVR there was no recurrence of HCV infection or evidence of liver disease progression in any patient followed up for a mean of 47 months after SVR, except for patients with advanced hepatic disease before treatment, who may develop HCC despite SVR. Therefore, one can assume that SVR is associated with long term good prognosis.
The Brazilian journal of infectious diseases: an official publication of the Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases 08/2010; 14(4):330-4. · 0.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the driving behavior of medical students, comparing current patterns with those found in a study previously conducted at the same school of medicine.
We administered standardized questionnaires to a sample of students enrolled at the medicine major of the Ribeirão Preto School of Medicine, Universidade de São Paulo (USP), in order to collect demographic and socioeconomic data, as well as information on their driving behavior and involvement in traffic accidents. Our findings were compared with those found in a similar study conducted in 1997.
We included 354 students in the present study conducted in 2008. The sample of the study conducted in 1997 included 377 students. Of the total number of participants, 431 (59%) had driven after drinking alcohol, and of these, 21.5% had consumed large amounts of alcohol. Participation in illegal street racing was reported by 10.5% of the participants, with significant difference between sexes (12.5% of men and 3.4% of women). Involvement in accidents with fatal or non-fatal casualties was reported by 19.2% of the participants. These percentages reached 31.1% among those who have already driven while being heavily intoxicated and 42.9% among those who participated in illegal street racing. The 2008 study showed higher use of helmets and seat belts in urban areas and reduced use of alcohol before driving. On the other hand, the same study showed an increased disrespect for traffic lights.
Driving risk behaviors were always highly frequent among the participants, being directly related to involvement in accidents with casualties. Since this sample includes a privileged portion of the population, which is aware of and has direct contact with the consequences of such accidents, we expected lower rates of high-risk behaviors. Our findings may lead the academic community to consider the implementation of educational programs that can effectively change students' behavior.
Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira 01/2010; 56(5):535-40. · 0.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJETIVOS: Estudar o comportamento de estudantes de medicina em relação ao trânsito, comparando os padrões atuais com aqueles observados em estudo realizado anteriormente na mesma instituição. MÉTODOS: Foram aplicados questionários padronizados em uma amostra de estudantes regularmente matriculados no curso médico da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, objetivando coletar informações demográficas, socioeconômicas e referentes ao comportamento no trânsito e envolvimento em acidentes. Esses resultados foram comparados com os obtidos em investigação semelhante, realizada em 1997. RESULTADOS: Foram estudados 354 alunos em 2008 e 377 em 1997. Do total, 431 (59%) já haviam dirigido logo após a ingestão de álcool, sendo que, desses, 21,5% em condições de intensa alcoolização. Participação em rachas foi referida por 10,5% dos participantes, com diferença marcante entre os sexos (12,5% entre homens e 3,4% em mulheres). Envolvimento em acidentes com vítimas, fatais ou não, foi referido por 19,2% dos participantes. Esses percentuais atingiram 31,1% entre os que já dirigiram intensamente alcoolizados e 42,9% entre os que participaram de rachas. O estudo de 2008 evidenciou maior uso de capacete e de cinto de segurança em meio urbano e redução de uso de bebidas alcoólicas antes de dirigir. Por outro lado, mostrou redução de respeito contínuo à sinalização de semáforos. CONCLUSÃO: Comportamentos de risco no trânsito fazem-se presentes com elevada frequência entre os participantes, estando diretamente relacionados com o envolvimento em acidentes que provocam vítimas. Visto ser essa uma parcela populacional diferenciada, com conhecimento e contato direto com as consequências desses acidentes, esperar-se-ia uma menor presença de comportamentos de elevado risco. As informações oriundas desse trabalho devem conduzir a uma reflexão por parte da comunidade acadêmica com vistas à introdução de programas educativos capazes de produzir mudança efetiva de atitude dos estudantes.
Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira 12/2009; 56(5):535-540. · 0.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effectiveness of the oral application of a 0.12% solution of chlorhexidine for prevention of respiratory tract infections among intensive care unit (ICU) patients.
The study design was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.
The study was performed in an ICU in a tertiary care hospital at a public university. PATIENTS. Study participants comprised 194 patients admitted to the ICU with a prospective length of stay greater than 48 hours, randomized into 2 groups: those who received chlorhexidine (n = 98) and those who received a placebo (n = 96).
Oral rinses with chlorhexidine or a placebo were performed 3 times a day throughout the duration of the patient's stay in the ICU. Clinical data were collected prospectively.
Both groups displayed similar baseline clinical features. The overall incidence of respiratory tract infections (RR, 1.0 [95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63-1.60]) and the rates of ventilator-associated pneumonia per 1,000 ventilator-days were similar in both experimental and control groups (22.6 vs 22.3; P = .95). Respiratory tract infection-free survival time (7.8 vs 6.9 days; P = .61), duration of mechanical ventilation (11.1 vs 11.0 days; P = .61), and length of stay (9.7 vs 10.4 days; P = .67) did not differ between the chlorhexidine and placebo groups. However, patients in the chlorhexidine group exhibited a larger interval between ICU admission and onset of the first respiratory tract infection (11.3 vs 7.6 days; P = .05). The chances of surviving the ICU stay were similar (RR, 1.08 [95% CI, 0.72-1.63]).
Oral application of a 0.12% solution of chlorhexidine does not prevent respiratory tract infections among ICU patients, although it may retard their onset.
Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 11/2009; 30(10):952-8. · 4.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has quite high prevalence in the prison system, reaching rates of up to 40%. This survey aimed to estimate the prevalence of HCV infection and evaluate risk factors for this exposure among male inmates at the Ribeirão Preto Prison, State of São Paulo, Brazil, between May and August 2003. A total of 333 participants were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire and underwent immunoenzymatic assaying to investigate anti-HCV. The prevalence of HCV infection among the inmates was 8.7% (95% CI: 5.7-11.7). The participants'mean age was 30.1 years, and the prevalence was predominantly among individuals over 30 years of age. Multivariate analysis showed that the variables that were independently associated with HCV infection were age > 30 years, tattooing, history of previous hepatitis, previous injection drug use and previous needle-sharing.
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical 08/2009; 42(4):369-72. · 0.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This survey aimed to estimate the prevalence of HBV serological markers and risk factors for this infection in male inmates at the Penitentiary of Ribeirão Preto, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Out of 1030 inmates, a simple random sample of 333 participants answered a questionnaire and had blood samples collected, from May to August 2003. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to diagnose HBV infection (HBsAg, anti-HBsAg, and total anti-HBc). The overall prevalence for HBV markers in inmates was 19.5% (CI95%: 15.2 - 23.8). The participants' mean age was 30.1 years. In univariate analysis, HBV infection was associated with age > 30 years (p<0.001), previous injecting drug use (p<0.001) and previous sharing of needles (p<0.001). In a logistic regression multivariate model, HBV infection was associated with age > 30 years (OR = 3.3; CI95%: 1.8 - 6.1) and previous injecting drug use (OR = 2.7; CI95%: 1.9 - 6.4). HBV infection on prisons represents a major health problem, mainly associated with age over 30 years and previous injecting drug use.
Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia 06/2009; 12(2):124-131.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article aimed to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis C in Botafogo, a district of Bebedouro, São Paulo State, Brazil, and investigate possible risk factors. One individual over 18 years of age was selected from each household to answer a questionnaire on socio-demographic variables and factors associated with hepatitis C. Blood samples were also drawn for immunoenzymatic tests. Positive HCV-antibody samples were submitted to viral RNA detection. HCV prevalence was 8.8% (95%CI: 5.8-11.7), and independent variables associated with risk of infection were: male gender, time of local residence > 30 years, and history of injected medication using non-disposable material, sterilized by boiling. The high prevalence of hepatitis C infection in this relatively isolated rural population appears to result from previous exposure to injections with inadequately sterilized material, with some evidence suggesting a specific elderly pharmacy employee who customarily applied such injections and may have been a chronic HCV carrier.
Cadernos de saúde pública / Ministério da Saúde, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública 02/2009; 25(2):460-4. · 0.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Trauma is the third most important cause of death in Brazil. However, its impact on survivors' quality of life has been scarcely studied in this country. This study aimed to assess trauma victims' quality of life, cared for in an emergency hospital unit, six months after discharge.
A total of 35 patients from the emergency unit of a university hospital in the city of Ribeirão Preto, Southeastern Brazil, were included in this study, between 2005 and 2006. Patients were interviewed in their homes, six months after hospital discharge. The short version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) instrument was applied to assess the physical, psychological, social relationships, and environmental domains. Associations between domain scores and hospital stay, age, sex and Injury Severity Score variables were analyzed with linear regression models.
Significant reduction in quality of life was found in the group studied, when compared to samples of normal people in national and international studies, especially as regards the physical, psychological, and environmental domains. The social relationships domain revealed the highest mean scores, with 69.7 points, whereas the environmental domain received the lowest score (52.4 points), both on the percentage scale. Variables associated with the physical domain were hospital stay (p=0.02), age (p<0.01) and sex (p=0.03). The analysis did not show association with the variables studied for the remaining domains.
Trauma victims showed a reduction in quality of life scores. Even though the physical aspect was the most affected, there is evidence that the psychological and environmental domains remained far from the ideal conditions expected for the general population.
Revista de saude publica 02/2009; 43(1):154-60. · 1.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was performed with the purpose of testing the hypothesis that the high prevalence of hepatitis C among former athletes is associated with their past use of injectable stimulants. The study involved the participation of 208 former professional and amateur soccer and basketball players from the region of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, who answered a questionnaire regarding their exposure to risk factors, including the use of injectable stimulants in the time they were engaged in sporting activities. ELISA tests were used to detect infection by the hepatitis C virus, and confirmed with PCR and genotyping for the positive cases. It was observed that the former use of injectable stimulants was a practice disseminated among the participants (24.5%), reaching 50.8% in the professionals. The overall prevalence for hepatitis C was 7.2%, with values of 11% among professionals and 5.5% among amateurs. In both categories, the presence of infection was markedly higher among those who admitted past use of injectable stimulants when compared to those who denied such practice (36% and 0.8% among amateurs; 21.9% and 0% among professionals, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that the use of those substances was the only variable associated with the risk of hepatitis C. This confirms previous observations, performed with reduced sample sizes and without comparison groups, which indicated that the use of injectable vitamins was a risk factor of hepatitis C among former athletes.
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 01/2009; 103(8):809-12. · 1.36 Impact Factor