Erika Isolauri

University of Turku, Turku, Province of Western Finland, Finland

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Publications (342)1417.95 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The reports on atopic diseases and microbiota in early childhood remain contradictory and both decreased and increased microbiota diversity have been associated with atopic eczema. In this study, the intestinal microbiota signatures associated with the severity of eczema in 6-month-old infants were characterized. Further, the changes in intestinal microbiota composition related to the improvement of this disease 3 months later were assessed. The severity of eczema correlated inversely with microbiota diversity (r=-0.54, P=0.002) and with the abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria (r= -0.52, P=0.005). During the 3 months follow-up, microbiota diversity increased (P<0.001) and SCORAD values decreased (P<0.001) in all infants. This decrease coincided with the increase in bacteria related to butyrate-producing Coprococcus eutactus (r= -0.59, P=0.02). In conclusion, the high diversity of microbiota and high abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria were associated with milder eczema, thus suggesting they have a role in alleviating symptoms of atopic eczema.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Allergy 11/2014; · 6.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The core human gut microbiota contributes to the developmental origin of diseases by modifying metabolic pathways. To evaluate the predominant microbiota as an epigenetic modifier, we classified 8 pregnant women into two groups based on their dominant microbiota, i.e., Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria. Deep sequencing of DNA methylomes revealed a clear association between bacterial predominance and epigenetic profiles. The genes with differentially methylated promoters in the group in which Firmicutes was dominant were linked to risk of disease, predominantly to cardiovascular disease and specifically to lipid metabolism, obesity, and the inflammatory response. This is one of the first studies that highlights the association of the predominant bacterial phyla in the gut with methylation patterns. Further longitudinal and in-depth studies targeting individual microbial species or metabolites are recommended to give us a deeper insight into the molecular mechanism of such epigenetic modifications.IMPORTANCE Epigenetics encompasses genomic modifications that are due to environmental factors and do not affect the nucleotide sequence. The gut microbiota has an important role in human metabolism and could be a significant environmental factor affecting our epigenome. To investigate the association of gut microbiota with epigenetic changes, we assessed pregnant women and selected the participants based on their predominant gut microbiota for a study on their postpartum methylation profile. Intriguingly, we found that blood DNA methylation patterns were associated with gut microbiota profiles. The gut microbiota profiles, with either Firmicutes or Bacteroidetes as a dominant group, correlated with differential methylation status of gene promoters functionally associated with cardiovascular diseases. Furthermore, differential methylation of gene promoters linked to lipid metabolism and obesity was observed. For the first time, we report here a position of the predominant gut microbiota in epigenetic profiling, suggesting one potential mechanism in obesity with comorbidities, if proven in further in-depth studies.
    mBio 10/2014; 5(6). · 6.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Modern civilization is faced with a progressive increase in immune-mediated or inflammatory health problems such as allergic disease, autoimmune disorders and obesity. An extended version of the hygiene hypothesis has been introduced to emphasize the intimate interrelationship between diet, the immune system, microbiome and origins of human disease. the modern infant, particularly when delivered by caesarean section and without the recommended exclusive breast-feeding, may lack sufficient stimulation of the mucosal immune system to generate a tolerogenic immune milieu and instead be prone to develop chronic inflammatory conditions. These deviations may take the form of allergic or autoimmune disease, or predispose the child to higher weight gain and obesity. Moreover, evidence supports the role of first microbial contacts in promoting and maintaining a balanced immune response in early life and recent findings suggest that microbial contact begins prior to birth and is shaped by the maternal microbiota. Maternal microbiota may prove to be a safe and effective target for interventions decreasing the risk of allergic and non-communicable diseases in future generations. These results support the hypothesis that targeting early interaction with microbes might offer an applicable strategy to prevent disease.Pediatric Research (2014); doi:10.1038/pr.2014.173.
    Pediatric Research 10/2014; · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Microbial contact begins prior to birth and continues rapidly thereafter. Few long term follow-up studies have been reported and we therefore characterized the development of intestinal microbiota of ten subjects from the 2(nd) week of life to 13 years of age. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis combined with several bacterial group specific primer sets demonstrated the colonization steps of defined bacterial groups in the microbiota. Bifidobacterium species were seen throughout the test period in all subjects. Bacteroides fragilis group and Blautia coccoides-Eubacterium rectale group species were not detected in several subjects during the first 6 months of life but were commonly seen after 12 months of life. Streptococcus group appeared during early life but was not seen in several subjects at the age of 13 years. Although a few species were linked with the increasing age, major bacterial species in the groups did not change dramatically. Rather considerable changes were found in the relative abundances of each bacterial species. Clustering analysis of total bacterial flora indicated that the microbiota changed considerably between 6 months and 12 months of life, and, at the age of 12 months, the intestinal microbiota was already converted toward a profile characteristic of an adult microbiota. Probiotic supplementation in the beginning of life did not have major impacts on later microbiota development.
    Anaerobe 06/2014; · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As pregnancy may trigger overweight in women, new means for its prevention are being sought. The aim here was to investigate the effect of individual dietary counselling during and after pregnancy on post-partum weight and waist circumference up to 4 years post-partum. A cohort of women (n = 256) were randomized to receive repeated individual dietary counselling by a nutritionist during and after pregnancy, or as controls not receiving dietary counselling, from the first trimester of pregnancy until 6 months after delivery. Counselling aimed to bring dietary intake into line with recommendations, with particular focus on the increase in the intake of unsaturated fatty acids instead of saturated. Pre-pregnancy weight was taken from welfare clinic records. Weight and waist circumference were measured at 4 years after delivery. The proportion of overweight women increased from 26% prior to pregnancy to 30% at 4 years after delivery among women receiving dietary counselling, as against considerably more, from 32% to 57%, among controls. The prevalence of central adiposity was 31% in women receiving dietary counselling, 64% in controls. Likewise, both the risk of overweight (odds ratio: 0.23, 0.08-0.63, P = 0.005) and central adiposity (odds ratio: 0.18, 0.06-0.52, P = 0.002) were lower in women receiving dietary counselling compared with controls. Repeated dietary counselling initiated in early pregnancy can be beneficial in long-term weight control after delivery.
    Maternal and Child Nutrition 02/2014; · 2.97 Impact Factor
  • Henriina Hermansson, Ulla Hoppu, Erika Isolauri
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Caesarean section rates have increased in parallel with those of obesity. Decreased levels of adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived metabolic hormone present in abundant concentrations in cord blood and breast milk, have been documented in association with obesity in children and adults. Objective: To determine whether the mode of delivery affects adiponectin concentrations in cord blood of healthy term infants. Methods: The cord blood adiponectin concentration was measured in 159 consecutive term infants, of whom 131 (82.4%) were born by vaginal delivery, 15 (9.4%) by nonelective caesarean section and 13 (8.2%) by elective caesarean section. Results: The mean adiponectin level was significantly lower in infants born by elective caesarean section compared with those born by vaginal delivery: 15.3 µg/ml (SD = 6.8) and 21.6 µg/ml (SD = 7.3), respectively (p = 0.015). This difference remained significant after adjustment for the infants' gender and birth weight as well as maternal weight and weight gain during pregnancy. Conclusion: Elective caesarean section may carry a risk of obesity independently of maternal risk factors. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Neonatology 01/2014; 105(3):172-174. · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Microbial contact begins prior to birth and continues rapidly thereafter. Few long term follow-up studies have been reported and we therefore characterized the development of intestinal microbiota of ten subjects from the 2nd week of life to 13 years of age. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis combined with several bacterial group specific primer sets demonstrated the colonization steps of defined bacterial groups in the microbiota. Bifidobacterium species were seen throughout the test period in all subjects. Bacteroides fragilis group and Blautia coccoides-Eubacterium rectale group species were not detected in several subjects during the first 6 months of life but were commonly seen after 12 months of life. Streptococcus group appeared during early life but was not seen in several subjects at the age of 13 years. Although a few species were linked with the increasing age, major bacterial species in the groups did not change dramatically. Rather considerable changes were found in the relative abundances of each bacterial species. Clustering analysis of total bacterial flora indicated that the microbiota changed considerably between 6 months and 12 months of life, and, at the age of 12 months, the intestinal microbiota was already converted toward a profile characteristic of an adult microbiota. Probiotic supplementation in the beginning of life did not have major impacts on later microbiota development.
    Anaerobe 01/2014; · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract We aimed to explore whether maternal dietary counseling to increase the intake of unsaturated fatty acids (FA) is reflected in infant FA status. Serum cholesteryl ester (CE) and triacylglycerol (TAG) FA were analyzed from infants of 45 women randomized to receive dietary counseling from the first trimester of pregnancy and 45 control women. Counseling resulted in a higher intake of polyunsaturated FA and a lower intake of saturated FA. The dietary intake was reflected in cord blood TAGs: the n-6 to n-3 FA ratio was lower [mean difference -0.50 (95%CI -0.95 to -0.06)] and the sum of n-3 FA was higher in the intervention than in the control group [1.46 (0.44 to 2.48)% of total FA]. Reasons for the lack of changes in the cord blood CE fraction and FA fractions at 1-month remain unclear, but may indicate that the changes achieved in the maternal diet through counseling were too modest.
    International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 11/2013; · 1.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary counseling on blood lipid concentrations during and after pregnancy. Partcipants (N = 256) were randomized into three study groups: dietary counseling with probiotics or placebo and a control group at first trimester of pregnancy. Diet quality was evaluated from food records by an index of healthy eating and total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoproteins A-I and B, and lipoprotein (a) were measured at the first and third trimesters of pregnancy and 1, 6, and 12 mo postpartum. During pregnancy, no differences in lipid values were noted among the groups, but postpartum TC and LDL-C were lower in both dietary counseling groups compared with controls (P = 0.027 and P = 0.012, respectively). Higher points on the healthy eating index, normal weight, and regular exercise were associated with a more favorable lipid profile at 12 mo after delivery. Maternal dietary counseling may lower maternal TC and LDL-C levels postpartum. A healthy lifestyle during pregnancy and postpartum may benefit women's cardiovascular health.
    Nutrition 10/2013; · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Simple and safe strategies for the prevention of viral respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are needed. We hypothesized that early prebiotic or probiotic supplementation would reduce the risk of virus-associated RTIs during the first year of life in a cohort of preterm infants. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov no. NCT00167700), 94 preterm infants (gestational age, ≥32 + 0 and ≤36 + 6 weeks; birth weight, >1500 g) treated at Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland, were allocated to receive oral prebiotics (galacto-oligosaccharide and polydextrose mixture, 1:1), a probiotic (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, ATCC 53103), or placebo (microcrystalline cellulose) between days 3 and 60 of life. The primary outcome was the incidence of clinically defined virus-associated RTI episodes confirmed from nasal swabs by using nucleic acid testing. Secondary outcomes were the severity and duration of RTIs. A significantly lower incidence of RTIs was detected in infants receiving prebiotics (rate ratio [RR], 0.24; 95% CI, 0.12-0.49; P < .001) or probiotics (RR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.28-0.90; P = .022) compared with those receiving placebo. Also, the incidence of rhinovirus-induced episodes, which comprised 80% of all RTI episodes, was found to be significantly lower in the prebiotic (RR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.14-0.66; P = .003) and probiotic (RR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.24-1.00; P = .051) groups compared with the placebo group. No differences emerged among the study groups in rhinovirus RNA load during infections, duration of rhinovirus RNA shedding, duration or severity of rhinovirus infections, or occurrence of rhinovirus RNA in asymptomatic infants. Gut microbiota modification with specific prebiotics and probiotics might offer a novel and cost-effective means to reduce the risk of rhinovirus infections.
    The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 10/2013; · 12.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To find out whether there is an association between when complementary feeding is introduced and the appearance of atopic eczema in children with a family history of allergy. This prospective study followed 256 mother and child pairs until the child was four-years-old. Repeated skin prick testing was performed and a clinical diagnosis of eczema made by a physician. The mothers kept a continuous diary about the introduction of complementary feeding. To control for the possible reverse causation of delaying complementary food introduction due to presumed child allergy, parental suspicions of allergic reactions were recorded. The introduction of cereals and fish after seven-months-of-age was associated with an increased risk of atopic eczema. However, when the parents' suspicions that their child may be exhibiting symptoms of allergic disease were taken into account, this effect was no longer significant. We found no evidence that the timing of the introduction of complementary feeding increased the risk of atopic eczema in a high-risk cohort, when parental suspicions were taken into account. Therefore, it seems that families with a history of allergy can safely comply with current feeding recommendations, although confirmation in further studies is warranted. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Acta Paediatrica 10/2013; · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Objectives:The mother is an important mediator to the infant of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), the essential constituents of membranes particularly in the brain and retina. We here aimed in a prospective study initiated in early pregnancy to establish whether serum fatty acid (FA) compositions and concentrations in the mother can be modified by dietary means emphasizing counseling on a recommended diet.Subjects/Methods:Ninety women in the first trimester of pregnancy were randomized into intervention (n=45) or control (n=45) groups. The intervention comprised individual dietary counseling advocating choice of foods that will increase the intake of unsaturated and reduce that of saturated FA. To support this, appropriate products, including spreads, were provided for consumption at home. Dietary intakes were measured from food records and serum phospholipids, cholesteryl esters and triacylglycerols FA were analyzed by gas chromatography.Results:Dietary counseling resulted in lower intake of saturated and higher intake of unsaturated FA compared with the controls. These changes were reflected in higher proportions of serum phospholipid PUFA (mean difference between groups 0.61% (95% confidence interval, CI 0.05-1.17), P=0.03), docosahexaenoic acid (0.5% (0.15-0.85), P=0.01), sum of n-3 FA (0.61% (0.07-1.15), P=0.03) and lower ratio of n-6/n-3 FA (-0.42% (-0.81-0.03), P=0.03) in the intervention group at the third trimester of pregnancy but not at 1 month postpartum. Similar changes were seen in the FA of cholesteryl esters and triacylglycerols.Conclusion:Maternal serum n-3 FA status during pregnancy can be improved by dietary means emphasizing the importance of dietary advice.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 18 September 2013; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2013.169.
    European journal of clinical nutrition 09/2013; · 3.07 Impact Factor
  • JAMA pediatrics. 08/2013;
  • Merja Nermes, Seppo Salminen, Erika Isolauri
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    ABSTRACT: A balanced gut microbiota is crucial for the development of healthy immunoregulation and gut barrier function to allow brisk immune responses to pathogens and systemic hyporesponsiveness to harmless antigens such as food. Although the first allergic disease to manifest itself, atopic eczema, is not equivalent to food allergy, pre- and postnatal administration of specific probiotic strains has emerged as a promising tool for the prevention of this condition, with potential implications for food allergy development. For food allergy proper, however, we lack markers and risk factors and mechanisms, i.e., targets for preventive measures. The focus here is therefore on the treatment. Indeed, the potential of specific probiotic strains to alleviate food allergy resides in their ability to modify antigens, repair gut barrier functions, balance altered microbiota, and restore local and systemic immune regulation. In patients with multiple food allergies, induction of oral tolerance by specific probiotics continues to attract research interest.
    Current Allergy and Asthma Reports 08/2013; · 2.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the impact of early prebiotic and probiotic intervention on preterm infants' well-being, crying, growth, and microbiological programming. Ninety-four preterm infants (gestational age 32-36 weeks and birth weight >1500 g) randomized to receive prebiotics (mixture of galacto-oligosaccharide and polydextrose 1:1), probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG), or placebo during the first 2 months of life were followed up for 1 year. Infants were categorized based on the extent of crying and irritability during the first 2 months of life, and their gut microbiota was investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (n = 66) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (n = 63). A total of 27 of 94 infants (29%) infants were classified as excessive criers, significantly less frequently in the prebiotic and the probiotic groups than in the placebo group (19% vs 19% vs 47%, respectively; P = .02). The placebo group had a higher percentage of Clostridium histolyticum group bacteria in their stools than did the probiotic group (13.9% vs 8.9%, respectively; P = .05). There were no adverse events related to either supplementation. Early prebiotic and probiotic supplementation may alleviate symptoms associated with crying and fussing in preterm infants. This original finding may offer new therapeutic and preventive measures for this common disturbance in early life.
    The Journal of pediatrics 07/2013; · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To prospectively study how the early nutritional environment can programme blood pressure in a well-nourished population of children. By means of multivariate modelling, we assessed whether gestational and post-natal dietary intakes and growth influence childhood blood pressure programming in a cohort of 109 healthy mother-child pairs. They had been followed from early pregnancy until the children reached 4 years of age. Dietary intakes were evaluated using 3-day food diaries. Blood pressure levels in the children were measured using an automated oscillometric DINAMAP ProCare 100 (Criticon, Tampa, FL, USA) at the age of 4 years. In the final multivariate model, the predictor variables of childhood systolic blood pressure were maternal dietary carbohydrate and fat intake during pregnancy, as well as childhood weight and dietary fat intake at 4 years of age. Systolic blood pressure levels in the children were found to be positively associated with the maternal carbohydrate intake (P = 0.003), whereas blood pressure levels were lowest in children exposed to the middle tertile of maternal dietary fat intake during pregnancy (P = 0.003) and whose own dietary fat intake was in the middle tertile at the age of 4 years (P = 0.013). The model also showed that heavier children have a higher systolic blood pressure (P < 0.001). None of the maternal clinical characteristics fulfilled the criterion to be included in the model. The only determinant underlying childhood diastolic blood pressure was childhood weight at 4 years of age (r = 0.289, P = 0.026). Interventions focusing on cardiovascular health in young women during pregnancy and their children should be considered to reduce cardiovascular diseases risk factors in these children.
    Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 07/2013; · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to explore whether type of eating behavior is related to diet and overweight in women after childbirth. In a prospective mother-infant study, women's (N = 189) eating behavior, dietary intake from food diaries, weight, and waist circumference (WC) were measured at 6, 12, 24, and 48 mo after giving birth. Three aspects of eating behavior were measured by the validated Three Factor Eating Questionnaire-18: cognitive restraint (CR; restricting of eating without associated hunger or fullness), emotional eating (EE; overeating due to negative feelings), and uncontrolled eating (UE; overeating irrespective of physiologic need). High scores in CR associated with the lowest tertile of fat intake (% of energy [E%], P = 0.045). High UE scores associated with the highest tertiles of intakes of energy (kcal; P < 0.001), fiber (g; P < 0.001) and sucrose (E%; P < 0.001). High EE scores (P = 0.003) linked with overweight (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2)), whereas UE (P < 0.001) linked with central obesity (WC ≥ 80 cm). We demonstrated that certain types of eating behavior related to both energy-dense diet and weight and central adiposity. We propose that measuring eating behavior by the simple questionnaire could be a helpful tool in dietary counseling that aids in identifying women who are likely at risk for unhealthy dietary patterns and for developing overweight.
    Nutrition 06/2013; · 3.05 Impact Factor
  • Article: Reply.
    The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 03/2013; · 12.05 Impact Factor
  • American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 03/2013; 97(3):656-7. · 6.50 Impact Factor
  • Sanna Vähämiko, Erika Isolauri, Kirsi Laitinen
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    ABSTRACT: Leptin regulates energy homeostasis and immune and metabolic functions. Highly elevated leptin concentrations during pregnancy may be associated with aberrations in maternal metabolism and long-term health consequences both in women and children. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether dietary counselling, probiotic supplementation, maternal characteristics or dietary intake during pregnancy has an impact on serum leptin concentrations in women, cord blood or in children. A total of 256 pregnant women were randomised to a control group (n 85) or to receive dietary counselling with probiotics (n 85) or placebo (n 86). Dietary counselling aimed at affecting the type of fat used and to increase the amount of fibre in the women's diet. Women's dietary intake and serum leptin concentrations were analysed at the first and third trimesters of pregnancy and at 1 month postpartum. Furthermore, leptin concentrations were measured from the cord blood and from children's serum at 1 and 6 months of age. Weight status and dietary composition were the key determinants of leptin concentrations. Specifically, high dietary fibre and low SFA intakes were related to low serum leptin concentrations in women. Female sex and birth weight were associated with higher infant leptin, whereas cord blood leptin was additionally affected by maternal leptin concentration and protein intake. Probiotics or dietary counselling did not affect leptin concentrations. Weight control to recommended levels and modification of diet towards higher fibre and lower SFA intakes during pregnancy may through leptin concentrations provide health benefits to both women and children.
    The British journal of nutrition 02/2013; · 3.45 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

17k Citations
1,417.95 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1997–2014
    • University of Turku
      • • Division of Political Science
      • • Functional Foods Forum
      • • Department of Paediatrics
      Turku, Province of Western Finland, Finland
    • Tampere University Hospital (TAUH)
      Tammerfors, Province of Western Finland, Finland
  • 2013
    • Vaasa Central Hospital
      Vaasa, Province of Western Finland, Finland
  • 1998–2013
    • Turku University Hospital
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Turku, Western Finland, Finland
    • Åbo Akademi University
      Turku, Province of Western Finland, Finland
  • 2012
    • Spanish National Research Council
      • Department of Plant Biotechnology
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2007
    • University of Kuopio
      • Department of Clinical Nutrition
      Kuopio, Eastern Finland Province, Finland
    • University of Helsinki
      Helsinki, Southern Finland Province, Finland
  • 1983–2006
    • University of Tampere
      • • Department of Paediatrics
      • • Medical School
      Tampere, Western Finland, Finland
  • 2004
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      • Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2002
    • British Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition
      United Kingdom
    • National Public Health Institute
      Helsinki, Southern Finland Province, Finland
  • 2001
    • Satakunta Hospital District
      Björneborg, Province of Western Finland, Finland
    • Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany
  • 1999
    • Valio Ltd
      Helsinki, Southern Finland Province, Finland
    • Turku centre for biotechnology, finland
      Turku, Province of Western Finland, Finland
  • 1994
    • Helsinki University Central Hospital
      Helsinki, Southern Finland Province, Finland