Takashi Tamura

Okayama University, Okayama, Okayama, Japan

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Publications (28)59.67 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cys116, Lys240*, and Asp241* (asterisks indicate residues from the second subunit of the active dimer) at the active site of L-methionine γ-lyase of Pseudomonas putida (MGL_Pp) are highly conserved among heterologous MGLs. In a previous study, we found that substitution of Cys116 for His led to a drastic increase in activity toward L-cysteine and a decrease in that toward L-methionine. In this study, we examined some properties of the C116H mutant by kinetic analysis and 3D structural analysis. We assumed that substitution of Cys116 for His broke the original hydrogen-bond network and that this induced a significant effect of Tyr114 as a general acid catalyst, possibly due to the narrow space in the active site. The C116H mutant acquired a novel β-elimination activity and lead a drastic conformation change in the histidine residue at position 116 by binding the substrate, suggesting that this His residue affects the reaction specificity of C116H. Furthermore, we suggest that Lys240* is important for substrate recognition and structural stability and that Asp241* is also involved in substrate specificity in the elimination reaction. Based on this, we suggest that the hydrogen-bond network among Cys116, Lys240*, and Asp241* contributes to substrate specificity that is, to L-methionine recognition at the active site in MGL_Pp.
    Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 07/2012; 76(7):1275-84. · 1.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, we have solved the crystal structure of L-glutamate oxidase (LGOX) from Streptomyces sp. X-119-6 (PDB code: 2E1M), the substrate specificity of which is strict toward L-glutamate. By a docking simulation using L-glutamate and structure of LGOX, we selected three residues, Arg305, His312, and Trp564 as candidates of the residues associating with recognition of L-glutamate. The activity of LGOX toward L-glutamate was significantly reduced by substitution of selected residues with Ala. However, the enzyme, Arg305 of which was substituted with Ala, exhibited catalytic activity toward various L-amino acids. To investigate the role of Arg305 in substrate specificity, we constructed Arg305 variants of LGOX. In all mutants, the substrate specificity of LGOX was markedly changed by the mutation. The results of kinetics and pH dependence on activity indicate that Arg305 of LGOX is associated with the interaction of enzyme and side chain of substrate.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/2011; 417(3):951-5. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Selenite (SeO(3)(2-)) assimilation into a bacterial selenoprotein depends on thioredoxin (trx) reductase in Esherichia coli, but the molecular mechanism has not been elucidated. The mineral-oil overlay method made it possible to carry out anaerobic enzyme assay, which demonstrated an initial lag-phase followed by time-dependent steady NADPH consumption with a positive cooperativity toward selenite and trx. SDS-PAGE/autoradiography using (75)Se-labeled selenite as substrate revealed the formation of trx-bound selenium in the reaction mixture. The protein-bound selenium has metabolic significance in being stabilized in the divalent state, and it also produced the selenopersulfide (-S-SeH) form by the catalysis of E. coli trx reductase (TrxB).
    Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 06/2011; 75(6):1184-7. · 1.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mammalian thioredoxin reductases (TrxRs) contain selenium as selenocysteine (Sec) in the C-terminal redox center -Gly-Cys-Sec-Gly-OH to reduce Trx and other substrates; a Sec-to-Cys substitution in mammalian TrxR yields an almost inactive enzyme. The corresponding tetrapeptide sequence in Drosophila melanogaster TrxR (Dm-TrxR), -Ser-Cys-Cys-Ser-OH, endows the orthologous enzyme with a catalytic competence similar to mammalian selenoenzymes, but implementation of the Ser-containing tetrapeptide sequence SCCS into the mammalian enzyme does not restore the activity of the Sec-to-Cys mutant form (turnover number <2/min). MOPAC calculation suggested that the C-terminal hexapeptide Pro-Ala-Ser-Cys-Cys-Ser-OH functions as a redox center that alleviates the necessity for selenium in Dm-TrxR, and a mutant form of human lung TrxR that mimics this hexapeptide sequence showed improved catalytic turnover (17.4/min for DTNB and 13.2/min for E. coli trx) compared to the Sec-to-Cys mutant. MOPAC calculation also suggested that the dominant form of the Pro-containing hexapeptide is a C+ conformation, which perhaps has a catalytic advantage in facile reduction of the intramolecular disulfide bond between Cys497 and Cys498 by the N-terminal redox center in the neighboring subunit.
    Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 03/2011; 75(3):516-21. · 1.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sinefungin, a nucleoside antibiotic with potent antifungal, antiviral, and anti-trypanosome activities, has been a target for production enhancement in the past decades through medium optimization and strain improvement. For the purpose of introducing a more rational approach, we induced rpoB mutation in the producer strain, Streptomyces incarnatus NRRL 8089, by optimized UV-irradiation, and a resulting rifampicin-resistant strain rif-400 increased the sinefungin production by 7-fold. The growth and melanin production were obviously accelerated in the rifampicin-resistant high-producer mutant, while the morphological differentiation such as aerial mycelia and spiked-spore formation was retained. Molecular cloning and DNA sequencing identified a single mutation A1340G in the rpoB gene, which encodes the beta-subunit of RNA polymerase, and the resulting amino acid substitution Asp447Gly corresponded to one of mutations that reportedly allowed the transcriptional up-regulation of actinorhodin production in S. coelicolor A3(2). Sinefungin production was further enhanced by resting cell system using the rpoB mutant strain in the presence of 10 mM L-Arg. D-Arg or L-ornithine did not enhance the sinefungin production, and >50 mM urea strongly suppressed the nucleoside antibiotic production, supporting the proposed biosynthetic mechanism by which urea is liberated from the guanidino-group-bearing intermediate that is produced by enzymatic condensation of L-Arg and ATP.
    Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 05/2010; 109(5):459-65. · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: L-Glutamate oxidase (LGOX) from Streptomyces sp. X-119-6, which catalyzes the oxidative deamination of L-glutamate, has attracted increasing attention as a component of amperometric L-glutamate sensors used in the food industry and clinical biochemistry. The precursor of LGOX, which has a homodimeric structure, is less active than the mature enzyme with an alpha(2)beta(2)V(2) structure; enzymatic proteolysis of the precursor forms the stable mature enzyme. We solved the crystal structure of mature LGOX using molecular replacement with a structurally homologous model of L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO) from snake venom: LGOX has a deeply buried active site and two entrances from the surface of the protein into the active site. Comparison of the LGOX structure with that of LAAO revealed that LGOX has three regions that are absent from the LAAO structure, one of which is involved in the formation of the entrance. Furthermore, the arrangement of the residues composing the active site differs between LGOX and LAAO, and the active site of LGOX is narrower than that of LAAO. Results of the comparative analyses described herein raise the possibility that such a unique structure of LGOX is associated with its substrate specificity.
    FEBS Journal 07/2009; 276(14):3894-903. · 4.25 Impact Factor
  • Actinomycetologica 01/2009; 23(2):51-55.
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    ABSTRACT: The cysteinyl residue at the active site of L-methionine gamma-lyase from Pseudomonas putida (MGL_Pp) is highly conserved among the heterologous MGLs. To determine the role of Cys116, we constructed 19 variants of C116X MGL_Pp by saturation mutagenesis. The Cys116 mutants possessed little catalytic activity, while their affinity for each substrate was almost the same as that of the wild type. Especially, the C116S, C116A, and C116H variants composed active site catalytic function as measured by the kinetic parameter k(cat) toward L-methionine. Furthermore, the mutagenesis of Cys116 also affected the substrate specificity of MGL_Pp at the active center. Substitution of Cys116 for His led to a marked increase in activity toward L-cysteine and a decrease in that toward L-methionine. Propargylglycine inactivated the WT MGL, C116S, and C116A mutants. Based on these results, we postulate that Cys116 plays an important role in the gamma-elimination reaction of L-methionine and in substrate recognition in the MGLs.
    Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 08/2008; 72(7):1722-30. · 1.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Escherichia coli growing under anaerobic conditions produce H(2) and CO(2) by the enzymatic cleavage of formate that is produced from pyruvate at the end of glycolysis. Selenium is an integral part of formate dehydrogenase H (FDH H), which catalyses the first step in the formate hydrogen lyase (FHL) system. The genes of FHL system are transcribed only under anaerobic conditions, in the presence of a sigma 54-dependent transcriptional activator FhlA that binds formate as an effector molecule. Although the formate addition to the nutrient media has been an established procedure for inducing high FDH H activity, we have identified a low-salt nutrient medium containing <0.1% NaCl enabled constitutive, high expression of FDH H even without formate and d-glucose added to the medium. The novel conditions allowed us to study the effects of disrupting genes like trxB (thioredoxin reductase) or gor (glutathione reductase) on the production of FDH H activity and also reductive assimilation of selenite ( SeO 3(2-)) into the selenoprotein. Despite the widely accepted hypothesis that selenite is reduced by glutathione reductase-dependent system, it was demonstrated that trxB gene was essential for FDH H production and for labelling the FDH H polypeptide with 75Se-selenite. Our present study reports for the first time the physiological involvement of thioredoxin reductase in the reductive assimilation of selenite in E. coli.
    Journal of Biochemistry 04/2008; 143(4):467-73. · 3.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The crystal structure of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans isocitrate dehydrogenase complexed with NAD+ and citrate has been solved to a resolution of 1.9 A. The protein fold of this NAD+-dependent enzyme shares a high similarity with those of NADP+-dependent bacterial ICDHs. The NAD+ and the citrate are clearly identified in the active site cleft with a well-defined electron density. Asp-357 is the direct cofactor-specificity determinant that interacts with 2'-OH and 3'-OH of the adenosine ribose. The adenosine ribose takes a C2'-endo puckering conformation as previously reported for an NAD+-specific isopropylmalate dehydrogenase. The nicotinamide moiety of NAD+ has the amide NH2 group oriented in cis conformation with respect to the C4 carbon of the nicotinamide ring, slanted toward the bound citrate molecule with a dihedral angle of -21 degrees . The semi-empirical molecular orbital calculation suggests that the pro-R hydrogen atom at C4 of NADH would bear the largest negative charge when the amide NH2 group is in such conformation, suggesting that the amide group has a catalytically significant role in stabilizing the transition state as NADH is being formed during the hydride transfer catalysis.
    Proteins Structure Function and Bioinformatics 02/2008; 70(1):63-71. · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The cysteinyl residue at the active site of L-methionine -lyase from Pseudomonas putida (MGL Pp) is highly conserved among the heterologous MGLs. To determine the role of Cys116, we constructed 19 variants of C116X MGL Pp by saturation mutagenesis. The Cys116 mu- tants possessed little catalytic activity, while their affinity for each substrate was almost the same as that of the wild type. Especially, the C116S, C116A, and C116H variants composed active site catalytic function as measured by the kinetic parameter kcat toward L-methionine. Furthermore, the mutagenesis of Cys116 also affected the substrate specificity of MGL Pp at the active center. Substitution of Cys116 for His led to a marked increase in activity toward L-cysteine and a decrease in that toward L-methionine. Propargylglycine inactivated the WT MGL, C116S, and C116A mutants. Based on these results, we postulate that Cys116 plays an important role in the -elimination reaction of L-methionine and in substrate recognition in the MGLs.
    Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry - BIOSCI BIOTECHNOL BIOCHEM. 01/2008; 72(7):1722-1730.
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    ABSTRACT: l-Methionine gamma-lyase (EC 4.4.1.11, MGL_Pp) from Pseudomonas putida is a multifunctional enzyme, which belongs to the gamma-family of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) dependent enzymes. In this report, we demonstrate that the three-dimensional structure of MGL_Pp has been completely solved by the molecular replacement method to an R-factor of 20.4% at 1.8 A resolution. Detailed information of the overall structure of MGL_Pp supplies a clear picture of the substrate- and PLP-binding pockets. Tyr59 and Arg61 of neighbouring subunits, which are strongly conserved in other gamma-family enzymes, contact the phosphate group of PLP. These residues are important as the main anchor within the active site. Lys240, Asp241 and Arg61 of one partner monomer and Tyr114 and Cys116 of the other partner monomer form a hydrogen-bond network in the MGL active site which is specific for MGLs. It is also suggested that electrostatic interactions at the subunit interface are involved in the stabilization of the structural conformation. The detailed structure will facilitate the development of MGL_Pp as an anticancer drug.
    Journal of Biochemistry 05/2007; 141(4):535-44. · 3.07 Impact Factor
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    Proteins Structure Function and Bioinformatics 09/2006; 64(2):552-8. · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Catalase plays a key role in protecting cells against toxic reactive oxygen species. Here we report on the cloning, purification and characterization of a catalase (KatA, DR1998) from the extremely radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans. The size of purified D. radiodurans KatA monomer was 65 kDa while gel filtration revealed that the size of the enzyme was 240 kDa, suggesting that KatA formed a homotetramer in solution. Purified KatA displayed a final specific activity of 68,800 U/mg of protein. The catalase activity of KatA was inhibited by sodium azide, sodium cyanide and 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole. The absorption spectrum of KatA exhibited a Soret band at 408 nm. The position of the spectral peak remained unchanged following reduction of KatA with dithionite. No peroxidase activity was found for KatA. These results demonstrate that D. radiodurans KatA is a typical monofunctional heme-containing catalase. The stability of KatA with respect to H2O2 stress was superior to that of commercially available Aspergillus niger and bovine liver catalases. The relative abundance of KatA in cells in addition to the H2O2 resistance property may play a role in the survival strategy of D. radiodurans against oxidative damage.
    Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 05/2006; 101(4):315-21. · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) with an unique coenzyme specificity from Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans was purified and characterized, and its gene was cloned. The native enzyme was homodimeric with a subunit of Mr 45 000 and showed a 78-fold preference for NAD+ over NADP+. The cloned ICDH gene (icd) was expressed in an icd-deficient strain of Escherichia coli EB106; the activity was found in the cell extract. The gene encodes a 429-amino acid polypeptide and is located between open reading frames encoding a putative aconitase gene (upstream of icd) and a putative succinyl-CoA synthase β-subunit gene (downstream of icd). A. thiooxidans ICDH showed high sequence similarity to bacterial NADP+-dependent ICDH rather than eukaryotic NAD+-dependent ICDH, but the NAD+-preference of the enzyme was suggested due to residues conserved in the coenzyme binding site of the NAD+-dependent decarboxylating dehydrogenase.
    FEMS Microbiology Letters 01/2006; 214(1):127 - 132. · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Large-scale production of l-glutamate oxidase (l-GlOx) from Streptomyces sp. X-119-6 was conducted with the use of an Escherichia coli expression system. The active 2 2 2 -subunit structure of the enzyme was obtained by proteolysis of a precursor form using metalloendopeptidase. The performance of this recombinant enzyme was tested in an amperometric sensing system to determine the l-glutamate concentration. To this end, a thin-film, three-electrode system was formed. Hydrogen peroxide produced by an enzymatic reaction was detected by using a platinum working electrode. The sensitivity of the l-glutamate sensor was 220 nA/mM, and the lower detection limit was 3 M (S/N = 3). Up to 800 M, a linear relationship was observed between the output current and the l-glutamate concentration. Furthermore, we used a microanalysis system to determine the activities of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and, ultimately, to test whether the recombinant enzyme can additionally be used to analyze enzyme activities. A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) flow channel with a mixing compartment was also used. The substrate solution and the sample solution for either GOT or GPT were mixed as they were being removed from the flow channel. As time elapsed, the l-glutamate concentration in the mixed solution increased because of the enzymatic reaction of GOT or GPT; consequently, a constant increase in current was observed. The relation between the slope of the response curve and the enzyme activity was linear up to 127 U/l for GOT and to 88 U/l for GPT. The results of this series of experiments demonstrate that recombinant l-GlOx can be used to construct micro sensors and microanalysis systems.
    Sensors and Actuators B. 01/2006; 119:570-576.
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    ABSTRACT: A labile selenium donor compound monoselenophosphate is synthesized from selenide and ATP by selenophosphate synthetase (SPS). In the present study, Sps1 and Sps2 were cloned from a cDNA library prepared from human lung adenocarcinoma cells (NCIH441). The human lung Sps1 has been cloned as an ORF of 1,179 bp, identical in sequence to that of the recently revised human liver Sps1. The in-frame TGA codon of the lung Sps2 was genetically altered to TGT (Cys) to obtain the Sps2Cys gene. Expression of the recombinant plasmids containing Sps1 or Sps2Cys was highly toxic to Escherichia coli host cells grown aerobically. Accordingly, the human lung Sps homologs were characterized by an in vivo complementation assay using a selD mutant strain. An added selenium source and a low salt concentration (0.1-0.25% NaCl) in the medium were required for reproducible and sensitive in vivo complementation. Sps2Cys effectively complemented the selD mutant, and the resulting formate dehydrogenase H activity was as high as that of WT E. coli MC4100. In contrast, only a weak complementation of the selD mutant by the Sps1 gene was observed when cells were grown in selenite media. Better complementation with added l-selenocysteine suggested involvement of a selenocysteine lyase for mobilization of selenium. Based on this apparent substrate specificity of the Sps1 and Sps2 gene products we suggest that the Sps1-encoded enzyme depends on a selenium salvage system that recycles l-selenocysteine, whereas the Sps2 enzyme can function with a selenite assimilation system.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/2004; 101(46):16162-7. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: L-glutamate oxidase (LGOX) from Streptomyces sp. X-119-6 is a protein of 150 kDa that has hexamer structure alpha2beta2gamma2. The gene encoding LGOX was cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. LGOX isolated from the E. coli transformant had the structure of a one chain polypeptide. Although the recombinant LGOX exhibited catalytic activity, it was inferior to the LGOX isolated from Streptomyces sp. X-119-6 in catalytic efficiency. The recombinant LGOX exhibited low thermostability compared to the LGOX isolated from Streptomyces sp. X-119-6 and was an aggregated form. Proteolysis of the recombinant LGOX with the metalloendopeptidase from Streptomyces griseus (Sgmp) improved its catalytic efficiency at various pH. Furthermore, the Sgmp-treated recombinant LGOX had a subunit structure of alpha2beta2gamma2 and nearly the same enzymological character as the LGOX isolated from Streptomyces sp. X-119-6. A higher molecular species observed for the recombinant LGOX was not detected for the Sgmp-treated recombinant LGOX. These results prove that proteolysis by Sgmp is involved in the stabilization of the recombinant LGOX.
    Journal of Biochemistry 01/2004; 134(6):805-12. · 3.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Streptomyces cattleya NRRL 8057 produces monofluoroacetate and 4-fluorothreonine from inorganic fluoride. Mutants blocked in fluorometabolite production were prepared by chemical mutagenesis, and cosynthesis experiments with these blocked mutants were carried out by suspending cells of one blocked mutant in the supernatant broth of another blocked mutant. The harvest age of the cells, pH of the buffer, potassium fluoride concentration and glycerol supplementation were optimized for the monofluoroacetate production by a resting-cell suspension of S. cattleya. Successful cosynthesis with pairs of the mutants characterized four distinctive blocked sites in the order N-82, N-44, N-43 and N-47. Additional preparation of blocked mutants by UV irradiation and their cosynthesis assay confirmed that U-303, U-304, U-400 and U-500 were blocked in later steps than N-47. O’Hagan et al. recently proposed that fluoroacetaldehyde, the hypothetical precursor of monofluoroacetate and 4-fluorothreonine, derives from 5′-fluoro-5′-deoxyadenosine, the first fluorinated metabolite synthesized from S-adenosyl-l-methionine and inorganic fluoride by the novel enzyme ‘fluorinase’. We were able to detect fluorinase activity in crude extracts of wild type and N-47 mutant strains, but not in the other mutant strains whose blocked steps flanked that of N-47.
    Journal of Molecular Catalysis B Enzymatic 01/2003; 23(2):257-263. · 2.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: α-Ketobutyrate decarboxylase encoded in the l-methionine catabolism operon of Pseudomonas putida is homologous with the E1 component of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from gram-negative bacteria. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity from the cell extract of an Escherichia coli transformant. The purified enzyme was homodimeric with a subunit of Mr 93,000 on SDS-PAGE. The enzyme activity was activated by the addition of both thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) and a divalent cation, such as Mg2+, Mn2+, and Co2+. The enzyme showed high activity for α-ketobutyrate and α-keto-n-valerate rather than pyruvate, but the α-keto acids with increasing length of the side chain as well as branching, such as α-keto-n-caproate and α-keto-3-methylvalerate, were not used by the enzyme. The Km values for α-ketobutyrate and pyruvate were 0.016 and 0.147 mM, respectively, and the kcat/Km value (10.69 s−1 mM−1) for α-ketobutyrate was 29-fold greater than that for pyruvate. Thus, α-ketobutyrate decarboxylase is distinguished from the pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component with respect to the substrate specificity, although their structural and enzymological properties were similar. These results suggest that the unique substrate specificity of α-ketobutyrate decarboxylase is due to a slight difference in the highly conserved active sites of both enzymes.
    Journal of Molecular Catalysis B Enzymatic 01/2003; · 2.82 Impact Factor