[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess ultrahigh (UH; prostate-specific antigen [PSA] levels ≥50 ng/ml) patient outcomes by comparison to other high-risk patient outcomes and to identify outcome predictors.
Prostate cancer patients (PCP) from two Phase III Radiation Therapy Oncology Group clinical trials (studies 9202 and 9413) were divided into two groups: high-risk patients with and without UH baseline PSA levels. Predictive variables included age, Gleason score, clinical T stage, Karnofsky performance score, and treatment arm. Outcomes included overall survival (OS), distant metastasis (DM), and biochemical failure (BF). Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using either the Cox or Fine and Gray's regression model with associated 95% confidence intervals (CI) and p values.
There were 401 patients in the UH PSA group and 1,792 patients in the non-UH PSA PCP group of a total of 2,193 high-risk PCP. PCP with UH PSA were found to have inferior OS (HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.02-1.39, p = 0.02), DM (HR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.19-1.92; p = 0.0006), and BF (HR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.29-1.73; p < 0.0001) compared to other high-risk PCP. In the UH cohort, PSA level was found to be a significant factor for the risk of DM (HR, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.001-1.02) but not OS and BF. Gleason grades of 8 to 10 were found to consistently predict for poor OS, DM, and BF outcomes (with HR estimates ranging from 1.41-2.36) in both the high-risk cohort and the UH cohort multivariable analyses.
UH PSA levels at diagnosis are related to detrimental changes in OS, DM, and BF. All three outcomes can be modeled by various combinations of all predictive variables tested.
International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 06/2011; 80(2):445-52. · 4.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Late gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) morbidity from external beam irradiation used to treat adenocarcinoma of the prostate continue to be a concern of physicians and patients alike. In addition, for locally advanced/high-risk cancer, the appropriate use of hormonal manipulation in addition to radiation therapy (RT) may increase toxicity. We analyzed three large Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) studies (85-31, 86-10, and 92-02) to try to address these issues.
A total of 2,922 patients were accrued with a median follow-up of 10.3 years for surviving patients. The RTOG scoring scheme was used to assess GI, GU, and other toxicities. Toxicity reported was Grade 3 or higher late toxicity. Patient toxicity level was assessed by study and by treatment type combining RT only vs. RT + short-course hormone therapy (STH) vs. RT + long-term hormone therapy (LTH).
Multivariate analysis reveals that age >70 was statistically significantly associated with a decrease in late any Grade 3+ toxicity (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.78, p = 0.0476) adjusted for treatment type. Comparing treatment type, patients treated with RT+STH had a statistically significant lower probability of Grade 3+ GI, GU, and other toxicity compared with RT alone (p = .00006; p = 0.0037; p = 0.0127, respectively). Patients treated with RT+LTH had a statistically significant lower probability of Grade 3+ GU toxicity compared with RT alone (p = 0.023).
These data show that external beam radiation therapy remains a safe option for locally advanced/high-risk prostate cancer, and the use of hormonal manipulation does appear to be protective for GU and GI toxicity depending upon length of treatment.
International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 02/2008; 70(2):437-41. · 4.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Guidelines for screening men at high risk for prostate cancer remain under investigation. We report our 10-year cancer detection data from the Prostate Cancer Risk Assessment Program, a longitudinal screening program for men at high risk.
Men between ages 35 and 69 years with a family history of prostate cancer, any black man regardless of family history or any patient with a known mutation in the BRCA 1 gene are eligible for the Prostate Cancer Risk Assessment Program and undergo longitudinal followup. Cancer detection, prostate cancer features and the predictive value of screening parameters were determined based on Prostate Cancer Risk Assessment Program biopsy criteria.
A total of 609 men were accrued to the Prostate Cancer Risk Assessment Program as of the end of June 2006, of whom 61.2% were black. Of all participants 19% underwent prostate biopsies. The prostate cancer incidence was 9.0%, more than 90% of prostate cancers were Gleason score 6 or higher and 22% were Gleason score 7 or higher. The majority were organ confined. Of men diagnosed with prostate cancer 20% had a prostate specific antigen of less than 2.5 ng/ml and a free prostate specific antigen of less than 25% with a normal digital rectal examination.
Our results support aggressive screening measures for men at high risk for prostate cancer. The majority of cancers detected were at a prostate specific antigen of less than 4.0 ng/ml with a fifth diagnosed at a prostate specific antigen of below 2.5 ng/ml. These cancers were intermediate to high grade and organ confined, indicating a greater likelihood of cure following local therapy in these men.
The Journal of Urology 12/2007; 178(5):1920-4; discussion 1924. · 3.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inherited genotypes may explain the inferior outcomes of African American (AA) men with prostate cancer. To understand how variation in CYP3A4 correlated with outcomes, a retrospective examination of the CYP3A4 *1B genotype was performed on men treated with Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 92-02.
From 1,514 cases, we evaluated 56 (28.4%) of 197 AA and 54 (4.3%) of 1,274 European American (EA) patients. All patients received goserelin and flutamide for 2 months before and during RT (STAD-RT) +/- 24 months of goserelin (long-term androgen deprivation plus radiation [LTAD-RT]). Events studied included overall survival and biochemical progression using American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology consensus guidelines.
There were no differences in outcome in patients in with or without CYP3A4 data. There was an association between race and CYP3A4 polymorphisms with 75% of EAs having the Wild Type compared to only 25% of AA men (p <0.0001). There was no association between CYP3A4 classification or race and survival or progression.
The samples analyzed support previously reported observations about the distribution of CYP3A4 *1B genotype by race, but race was not associated with poorer outcome. However, patient numbers were limited, and selection bias cannot be completely ruled out.
International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 09/2007; 69(1):79-87. · 4.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify factors significantly influencing accrual to clinical protocols by analyzing radiation Patterns of Care Study (PCS) surveys of 3,047 randomly selected radiotherapy (RT) patients.
Patterns of Care Study surveys from disease sites studied for the periods 1992-1994 and 1996-1999 (breast cancer, n = 1,080; prostate cancer, n = 1,149; esophageal cancer, n = 818) were analyzed. The PCS is a National Cancer Institute-funded national survey of randomly selected RT institutions in the United States. Patients with nonmetastatic disease who received RT as definitive or adjuvant therapy were randomly selected from eligible patients at each institution. To determine national estimates, individual patient records were weighted by the relative contribution of each institution and patients within each institution. Data regarding participation in clinical trials were recorded. The factors age, gender, race, type of insurance, and practice type of treating institution (academic or not) were studied by univariate and multivariate analyses.
Overall, only 2.7% of all patients were accrued to clinical protocols. Of these, 57% were enrolled on institutional review board-approved institutional trials, and 43% on National Cancer Institute collaborative group studies. On multivariate analysis, patients treated at academic facilities (p = 0.0001) and white patients (vs. African Americans, p = 0.0002) were significantly more likely to participate in clinical oncology trials. Age, gender, type of cancer, and type of insurance were not predictive.
Practice type and race significantly influence enrollment onto clinical oncology trials. This suggests that increased communication and education regarding protocols, particularly focusing on physicians in nonacademic settings and minority patients, will be essential to enhance accrual.
International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 08/2007; 68(4):1145-50. · 4.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deregulation of the retinoblastoma (RB) pathway is commonly found in virtually all known human tumors. p16, the upstream regulator of RB, is among the most commonly affected member of this pathway. In the present study, we examined the prognostic value of p16 expression in men with locally advanced prostate cancer who were enrolled on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 9202.
RTOG 9202 was a phase III randomized study comparing long-term (LT) versus short-term (ST) androgen-deprivation therapy (AD). Of the 1,514 eligible cases, 612 patients had adequate tumor material for p16 analysis. Expression levels of p16 were determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC). IHC staining was scored quantitatively using an image analysis system.
On multivariate analysis, intact p16 expression was significantly associated with decreased rate of distant metastases (P = .0332) when both STAD and LTAD treatment arms were considered together. For patients with intact (high levels of immunostaining) p16 (mean p16 index > 81.3%), LTAD plus radiotherapy (RT) significantly improved prostate cancer survival (PCS) compared with STAD plus RT (P = .0008) and reduced the frequency of distant metastasis (P = .0069) compared with STAD plus RT. In contrast, for patients with tumors demonstrating p16 loss (low levels of immunostaining, mean p16 index < or = 81.3%), LTAD plus RT significantly improved biochemical no evidence of disease survival over STAD (P < .0001) primarily by decreasing the frequency of local progression (P = .02), as opposed to distant metastasis, which was the case in the high-p16 cohort.
Low levels of p16 on image analysis appear to be associated with a significantly higher risk of distant metastases among all study patients. p16 expression levels also appear to identify patients with locally advanced prostate cancer with distinct patterns of failure after LTAD.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 08/2007; 25(21):3082-9. · 18.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 1996 the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) sponsored a Consensus Conference to establish a definition of biochemical failure after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). The ASTRO definition defined prostate specific antigen (PSA) failure as occurring after three consecutive PSA rises after a nadir with the date of failure as the point halfway between the nadir date and the first rise or any rise great enough to provoke initiation of therapy. This definition was not linked to clinical progression or survival; it performed poorly in patients undergoing hormonal therapy (HT), and backdating biased the Kaplan-Meier estimates of event-free survival. A second Consensus Conference was sponsored by ASTRO and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group in Phoenix, Arizona, on January 21, 2005, to revise the ASTRO definition. The panel recommended: (1) a rise by 2 ng/mL or more above the nadir PSA be considered the standard definition for biochemical failure after EBRT with or without HT; (2) the date of failure be determined "at call" (not backdated). They recommended that investigators be allowed to use the ASTRO Consensus Definition after EBRT alone (no hormonal therapy) with strict adherence to guidelines as to "adequate follow-up." To avoid the artifacts resulting from short follow-up, the reported date of control should be listed as 2 years short of the median follow-up. For example, if the median follow-up is 5 years, control rates at 3 years should be cited. Retaining a strict version of the ASTRO definition would allow comparisons with a large existing body of literature.
International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 08/2006; 65(4):965-74. · 4.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The specific aim of the current study was to compare freedom from biochemical failure, distant metastases-free survival, and overall survival in men age < or = 55 years, men ages 60 to 69 years, and men age > or = 70 years presenting with localized prostate cancer.
A matched pair analysis compared patients age < or = 55 years (Group 1) who were treated with 3-dimension conformal radiation without androgen deprivation to men age > or = 60 years and < 70 years (Group 2), and men age > or = 70 years (Group 3) who were treated at the Fox Chase Cancer Center between November 1989 and October 2001. The groups were matched for disease stage (T1/T2b vs. T2C/T3), Gleason grade (2-6 vs. 7-10), radiation dose (< 70 Gray [Gy] vs. > or = 70-76 Gy vs. > or = 76 Gy), and pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level. Estimates of outcome were accomplished using Kaplan-Meier methodology and compared by age group using the log-rank test.
Eighty-four men were identified according to the selection criteria. No statistically significant difference was found in the 5-year overall survival rates for Group 1, Group 2, and Group 3 (94%, 95%, and 87%, respectively) or the 5-year rate of freedom from biochemical failure in Group 1, Group 2, and Group 3 (82%, 76%, and 70%, respectively), or freedom from distant metastases (96%, 97%, and 98%, respectively).
Men age < or = 55 years who present with localized prostate cancer do not appear to have a worse prognosis. External beam radiation therapy appears to be a viable treatment alternative and should be offered to men age < or = 55 years who present with organ-confined prostate cancer.
Cancer 06/2006; 106(12):2598-602. · 5.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) trial 92-02, after men received neoadjuvant hormone cytoreduction and radiotherapy for locally advanced prostate carcinoma, they were randomized to receive either 2 years of long-term androgen-deprivation (LTAD) or no further treatment (short-term androgen-deprivation [STAD]). The specific objective of the current study was to determine whether LTAD was a cost-effective treatment for patients with locally advanced prostate carcinoma.
The cost-effectiveness of LTAD was tested using a Markov model that was designed using proprietary software. The analysis took a payor's perspective. Unit costs were obtained by estimation using a global Medicare fee schedule. Costs and outcomes were discounted by 3%. Distributions were sampled at random from the treatment utilities, transition probabilities, and costs using a second-order Monte Carlo simulation technique.
The expected mean cost was 32,564 dollars for LTAD compared with 33,039 dollars for STAD after accounting for the additional cost of salvage treatment for men who were treated with STAD. The mean number of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for men who received LTAD was 4.13 QALYs compared with a mean of 3.68 QALYs for men who received STAD. The cost-effectiveness acceptability curve analysis showed a 91% probability that LTAD was cost-effective compared with STAD. Although overall survival was similar in the LTAD and STAD groups, the patients who received LTAD experienced gains in QALYs and had lower costs, because LTAD prevented biochemical failure and the necessitating salvage hormone therapy.
The current analysis showed that LTAD was cost-effective for the entire population studied in RTOG trial 92-02.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the preferences and utilities for prostate cancer health state scenarios of men treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and the predictors of treatment preferences.
The preferences and utilities for probabilistic health states of impotence and incontinence associated with prostate cancer therapies were elicited from prostate cancer registry participants using a modified time trade-off interview. Sociodemographic, disease, and treatment characteristics, as well as quality-of-life scores, were assessed to determine the predictors of preferences.
Fifty-seven men treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy completed the time trade-off interview. Of these men, 83% had Stage T1-T2 and 30% were receiving hormonal therapy. The utilities followed a linear trend with declining scores for increasing risk of poorer health states. Men showed an increased preference for health states associated with radiotherapy compared with surgery or hormonal therapy. Univariate predictors of preference included income and marital status. Multivariate predictors of preferences included more aggressive therapy and better prognostic indicators. Current quality-of-life scores in terms of global, sexual, or urinary function were poor predictors of preferences.
Preference elicitation can assist in decision-making, and understanding the predictors of patient preferences can assist in identifying factors that may increase patient perceptions of poorer outcomes.
International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 02/2004; 58(1):34-42. · 4.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The optimal management of patients with clinically localized prostate carcinoma remains undefined due in part to the absence of well-designed, prospective, randomized trials. The current study was conducted to compare and contrast outcomes with different forms of therapy for patients with prostate carcinoma who were treated at several institutions using predefined prognostic categories.
A retrospective study of 6877 men with prostate carcinoma who were treated between 1989 and 1998 at 7 different institutions with 6 different types of therapy was conducted. Five-year actuarial rates of prostate specific antigen (PSA) failure were calculated based on predefined prognostic categories, which included combinations of pretreatment PSA level, tumor stage, and Gleason score. In addition, outcome was calculated using consistent biochemical failure definitions and a minimum, median length of follow-up.
Substantial differences in outcome were observed for the same type of treatment and at the same institution, depending on the number of prognostic variables used to define treatment groups. However, estimates of 5-year PSA outcomes after all forms of therapy for low-risk and intermediate-risk patient groups were remarkably similar (regardless of the type of treatment) when all three pretreatment variables were used to define prognostic categories. For patients in high-risk groups, the 5-year PSA outcomes were suboptimal, regardless of the treatment technique used.
The current data suggest that interinstitutional and interspecialty comparisons of treatment outcome for patients with prostate carcinoma are possible but that results must be based on all major prognostic variables to be meaningful. Analyzed in this fashion, 5-year PSA results were similar for patients in low-risk and intermediate-risk groups, regardless of the form of therapy. Findings from prospective, randomized trials using survival (cause specific and overall) as the end point for judging treatment efficacy and longer follow-up will be needed to validate these findings and to identify the most appropriate management option for patients with all stages of disease.
Cancer 12/2002; 95(10):2126-35. · 5.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: To conduct a study of the process of treatment planning and treatment of adenocarcinoma of the rectum and sigmoid in the United States, and to compare survery results to consensus guidelines.Methods and Materials: A consensus committee developed guidelines for the radiotherapeutic management of adenocarcinoma of the rectum and sigmoid, and also developed a survey form that was used to gather data to evaluate the practice patterns for patients treated in 1989 and 1990 against the consensus guidelines. Seventy-three facilities were randomly selected for site visits from the 1321 radiation therapy facilities in the US: 21 academic, 26 hospital based, and 26 free standng. During the site visits, the radiotherapy records were examined by the surveyor physicist and radiation oncologist to extract and record and the required data. Data collected included items related to treatment specific parameters, including treatment planning considerations. Analyses included stratification as to the typs of institutions, academic, hospital based, or free standing.Results: For many treatment parameters there are discrepancies between the patterns of practice determined by the surveys and the consensus guidelines for radiotherapy treatment of adenocarcinoma of the rectum and sigmoid. Significant differences in practice among the stratified institution types were found in only a few parameters.
International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics - INT J RADIAT ONCOL BIOL PHYS. 01/1997; 37(2):305-311.