[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds have half-lives typically between 7.2 years and 15 years. Our previous study of patients poisoned by extremely high concentrations of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF) in the 'Yusho incident' in 1968 found that in some the half-life of blood 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF tended towards infinity. This suggests that there are two groups of Yusho patients, those with 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF half-lives around 10 years, and those with half-lives near infinity. We sought to establish the proportions of each in a cohort of 395 Yusho patients, and whether the proportions were changing over time.
We undertook longitudinal measurement of the blood concentration of 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF in our cohort between 2002 and 2010. We estimated the change in concentration for each patient using linear regression for measured 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF concentration, then compared the distribution of changes in concentrations with our previous study.
In patients in whom the blood concentration of 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF exceeded 50 pg/g lipid, the proportion 8.0 % of patients exhibiting half-lives less than 13.3 years fell compared with our previous study (28.2 %), while the proportion with near infinity half-lives increased.
The prolongation of the half-lives was likely a consequence of age-related factors.
Environmental Health 09/2015; 14(1):76. DOI:10.1186/s12940-015-0059-y · 3.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Half-lives of blood levels of 2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF) are varied in Yusho patients. The objective was to evaluate a relationship between half-lives of PeCDF levels and types of SNP rs10249788 of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) gene in 93 Yusho patients. Based on physical symptoms, age, sex, body mass index and other factors, we set up suitable calculation formulas to fit the actual PeCDF levels thorough rates of change in PeCDF. We found that patients with C/T SNP had longer half lives than patients with C/C and T/T SNPs. Patients with T/T SNP are known to express higher amount of AHR mRNAs. However, detailed analysis could not be carried out in T/T group due to a limited number of patients (n = 11). Further research is warranted to determine the cause of the longer half-lives in C/T patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 1968, the contamination of cooking oil by heat-degraded polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) caused a case of mass poisoning, the so-called Yusho incident. The cause of Yusho disease is thought to be ingested toxic substances, including not only PCBs but also polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDFs) in Kanemi rice oil. We previously measured dioxins concentrations in the blood of 854 Yusho patients by annual medical examination from 2001 to 2013. We determined the concentrations of 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF, 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDF and 3,3',4,4',5,5'-HxCB (#169) in the blood of Yusho patients were more than double those of normal controls. In 2012, a new Yusho criteria was established. Family members living with a Yusho patient were also certified as Yusho patients and called Yusho family cohabitant patients. In this study, we compared the distribution of 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF concentration in the blood of Yusho patients and Yusho family cohabitant patients. It was suspected that the distribution of 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF concentration in Yusho family cohabitant patients would be lower than that of Yusho patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In 1968, many people developed dioxin poisoning (Yusho) in Japan. Ingestion of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF) was considered to be the cause of this poisoning. Although some patients had high concentrations of 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF in their blood, individuals' half-lives of 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF were long. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between clinical and laboratory parameters and the individual half-life of 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF in blood. METHODS: Clinical and laboratory data were collected during annual check-ups from 2001 to 2008. We enrolled 71 patients, who were measured more than 3 times, and who had 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF concentrations in blood >50pgg(-1) lipid. The half-life of 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF for each patient was estimated using linear regression. Moreover, relationships between clinical and laboratory parameters and individual half-life were investigated by linear regression. RESULTS: A shortened individual half-life for 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF was significantly correlated with an increased red blood cell count, increased viscous secretions from the meibomian glands, existing black comedones, and severe cedar pollen allergy. CONCLUSIONS: Symptoms that accelerate excretion of lipids from the body, such as viscous secretions from the meibomian glands, may lead to a shorter half-life of 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF. Red blood cells are related to the half-life of 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF. However, further studies are required to investigate the excretory mechanism of 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We developed a more effective method to measure the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and non-ortho-coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (non-ortho PCBs) in the blood of Yusho patients using high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) equipped with a newly large-volume injection system. The new injection system linked a LaviStoma system with a unique stomach-shaped inlet liner (SSIL) and a solvent-cut large-volume (SCLV) injection system. This approach made it possible to introduce volumes up to 200 microl into the HRGC/HRMS in comparison with the 20microl volume of the previously reported conventional SCLV method. Based on experiments conducted using the same blood sample, the concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, and non-ortho PCBs obtained by the developed method showed a close correlation to that by the conventional SCLV method. By improving the injection method, the operation time and labor for the purification procedure from blood could be reduced. Furthermore, the developed method was more effective than the conventional SCLV method for recovery of PCDDs, PCDFs, and non-ortho PCBs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) are well known as metabolites of PCBs in the human body. We improved a measurement method for OH-PCBs in blood samples using LC/MS/MS. A new 2 microm particle column was used, and the analytical conditions for the LC/MS/MS measurements were optimized. The improved method is more sensitive than the conventional method for 5g blood samples. And, this method is effective at determining the concentrations of OH-PCBs, PCBs and dioxins from the same sample without special treatment of the sample such as derivatization.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) are formed as major metabolites of PCBs by cytochrome P450 enzyme-mediated oxidation. It has been reported that their total concentration in serum samples of Yusho patients ranged from 390 to 1300 pg/g. We measured the concentration of OH-PCBs in blood collected from 183 Yusho patients living in Japan in 2010. The major OH-PCB metabolites were 4-OH-CB187 (ND-1300 pg/g-wet), 4-OH-CB146 + 3-OH-CB153 (8.4-1200 pg/g-wet), 4-OH-CB109 (ND-530 pg/g-wet) and 4'-OH-CB172 (ND-380 pg/g-wet). The total OH-PCBs ranged from 36 to 3800 pg/g-wet. A positive relationship between the concentrations of OH-PCBs and PCBs was observed, but no significant relationship between the concentrations of OH-PCBs and PCDD/DFs was observed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The relationships among dioxin isomers are not well understood. This study aimed to clarify the relationships among isomers using two methods. First, the relationships between isomers and symptoms were analyzed by analysis of variance. Second, concentrations and half-lives were determined for each isomer in each patient, and correlation coefficients for the concentrations and half-lives among isomers were calculated. Two isomers very similar to 2, 3, 4, 7, 8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (2, 3, 4, 7, 8-PeCDF) were correlated with symptoms of Yusho disease. The correlation coefficients among three isomers similar to 2, 3, 4, 7, 8-PeCDF were very high at 0.98, indicating that there may be a mechanism which maintains constant ratios among these isomers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We compared concentrations of PCB congeners between conventional 80 degrees C alkali digestion method and 30 degrees C alkali digestion method using 22 individual blood samples collected during 2009 annual Yusho examinations. The mean concentration of tri-CB in 30 degrees C alkali digestion method was lower than that of conventional method. However, concentration of total PCBs, 2,3',4,4',5-pentaCB (PCB118), 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexaCB (PCB153) and 2,3,3',4,4', 5-hexaCB (PCB156), which were used as index for Yusho diagnosis, were equivalent between the methods. It was considered that the 30 degrees C alkali digestion method was available for blood PCB congener specific analysis in Yusho diagnosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We developed an analytical method for accurately determining the concentrations of dioxin and polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs) in a blood volume of 5 g. Inter-laboratory crosscheck is available for maintaining the quality of dioxin and PCB analysis. We carried out the crosschecks of dioxin and PCB analysis in the blood with domestic analysis organizations. Two crosschecks each of dioxin and PCB analysis were carried out from 2007 through 2011. As a result, the findings of our analysis accorded well with the analyses of the other organizations. We believe that our analytical method is sufficiently reliable.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We measured the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blood collected from Yusho patients during medical health examinations performed from 2004 to 2010. Out of the 242 and 200 Yusho patients who received medical health examinations in 2004 and 2010, respectively, the concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs in the blood of 136 patients were measured in both of those years. The concentrations of individual congeners of PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs in the blood of these 136 Yusho patients measured in 2004 were compared with those measured in 2010. Among individual congeners of PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs, most congeners of these compounds did not significantly decrease from 2004 to 2010. However, the concentrations of 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8-heptaCDD, octaCDD, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8-hexaCDF, tetraCB 52/69, pentaCB 101, octaCB 198/201, and octaCB 196/203 in the blood of Yusho patients were significantly decreased from 2004 to 2010. In addition, the concentrations of 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8-hexaCDD, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8-pentaCDF, and 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8-hexaCDF tended to decrease slightly from 2004 to 2010. These findings suggest that the PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs have remained in the blood of Yusho patients for a very long time, with over 40 years having passed since the outbreak of Yusho.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dioxins are metabolized by cytochrome P450, family 1 (CYP1) via the aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). We determined whether different blood dioxin concentrations are associated with polymorphisms in AHR (dbSNP ID: rs2066853), AHR repressor (AHRR; rs2292596), CYP1 subfamily A polypeptide 1 (CYP1A1; rs4646903 and rs1048963), CYP1 subfamily A polypeptide 2 (CYP1A2; rs762551), and CYP1 subfamily B polypeptide 1 (CYP1B1; rs1056836) in pregnant Japanese women. These six polymorphisms were detected in 421 healthy pregnant Japanese women. Differences in dioxin exposure concentrations in maternal blood among the genotypes were investigated. Comparisons among the GG, GA, and AA genotypes of AHR showed a significant difference (genotype model: P=0.016 for the mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and toxicity equivalence quantities [TEQs]). Second, we found a significant association with the dominant genotype model ([TT+TC] vs. CC: P=0.048 for the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin TEQs; P=0.035 for polychlorinated dibenzofuran TEQs) of CYP1A1 (rs4646903). No significant differences were found among blood dioxin concentrations and polymorphisms in AHRR, CYP1A1 (rs1048963), CYP1A2, and CYP1B1. Thus, polymorphisms in AHR and CYP1A1 (rs4646903) were associated with maternal dioxin concentrations. However, differences in blood dioxin concentrations were relatively low.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We measured the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and non-dioxin-like PCBs in paired samples of blood and breast milk collected from 67 secundiparas in Sapporo City, Japan, and combined this data with those of the 30 secundiparas previously measured. The arithmetic mean total toxic equivalents (TEQ-WHO) concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, non-ortho PCBs, and mono-ortho PCBs in blood and breast milk of the 97 secundiparous subjects were 3.0-23 (mean: 13, median: 14) and 2.7-20 (mean: 8.6, median: 8.5) pg TEQ g(-1) lipid, respectively. The sums of the concentrations of 56 non-dioxin-like PCB congeners that were measured in the subjects' blood and breast milk were 16-326 (mean: 107, median: 100) and 12-252 (mean: 73, median: 67) ng g(-1) lipid, respectively. The partitioning ratios of individual congeners of PCDDs, PCDFs, dioxin-like PCBs, and non-dioxin-like PCBs from blood to breast milk in secundiparas were almost the same as those of primiparas that have been recently reported, suggesting that the partitioning ratios of these compounds from maternal blood to breast milk in women is little affected by delivery. Furthermore, the partition of PCB congeners with chlorine at the 2-, 3-, 4'-, and 5-positions or the 2-, 4-, 4'-, and 5-positions of the biphenyl ring from the blood to the breast milk tended to occur at a higher level than that of other congeners. In particular, the levels of tetraCB-74 and hexaCB-146 in the breast milk for both primiparous and secundiparous mothers were slightly higher than those in the blood.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Forty two years have passed since the outbreak of Kanemi rice oil poisoning, namely, Yusho in the western Japan. However, even now the Yusho patients have been still suffering from several objective and subjective symptoms. In order to improve or, if possible, to cure such symptoms, the most important therapeutic treatment is considered to actively excrete the causative agents, that is, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) from the bodies of the patients and to reduce their body burdens. In rats, chlorophyll and dietary fiber have been shown to promote the fecal excretion of PCDFs and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and to reduce their levels in rats. In this study, we have examined whether such kinds of effect are also observed by fermented brown rice with Aspergillus oryzae (FBRA) containing 5% spirulina, which is so-called spirulina HI * GENKI, the health food and relatively rich with chlorophyll and dietary fiber, in eighteen Yusho patients. They were divided into two groups, namely group A, ten patients (3 males and 7 females) with the mean age of 67.7 years old and group B, eight patients (4 males and 4 females) with the mean age of 64.1 years old. Among the patients of group A, three patients were especially highly contaminated with PCDFs and we classified them into group A (High). Respective mean concentrations of PCDFs in the blood just before initiating this study were as follows; group A : 145 pg/g lipid, group A (High) : 371 pg/g lipid and group B : 52.1 pg/g lipid. Contamination levels of PCDFs, PCDDs and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in group A (High) were 1.7 to 2.6 times higher than those in group A and 2.4 to 7.1 times higher than those in group B. Accordingly, concentrations of dioxins (PCDFs + PCDDs + dioxin-like PCBs) in the blood of groups A, A (High) and B were, respectively, 194, 458 and 85 pg-TEQ/g lipid. Concentrations of PCBs were also the highest in group A (High) : 1399 ng/g lipid, in group A : 748 ng/g lipid and the lowest in group B : 456 ng/g lipid. Groups A and A (High) took around 7.0 g of spirulina HI * GENKI after each meal and three times a day for the first one year and for the second one year, they did not take spirulina HI * GENKI anymore. Group B took spirulina HI * GENKI with the same manner as the group A only for the second one year. The concentrations of PCDFs, PCDDs, dioxin-like PCBs and PCBs in the blood were also measured at the end of the first and second year, respectively. Assuming the body fat is also contaminated with these compounds at their concentrations on lipid weight basis in the blood and the content of body fat is 20% of 60 kg body weight, we computed the average amounts in their net excretion from the body of the patients due to spirulina HI * GENKI in the three groups. As a result, in group A (High), 341 ng-TEQ/patient of dioxins was excreted from the body, which was 3.4 times greater than that in group A and 12 times higher than that in group B. Therefore, promotive excretions of causative agents of Yusho were the most effective in group A (High) and we consider spirulina HI * GENKI is more effective from the therapeutic point of view in more highly contaminated Yusho patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 1968, the contamination of cooking oil by heat-degraded polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) caused a case of mass poisoning, the so-called Yusho incident. The cause of Yusho disease is thought to be ingested toxic substances, including not only PCBs but polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDFs) in Kanemi rice oil. Extensive studies have been performed since 1995 by the Yusho study group involving follow-up surveys of human blood concentrations of the casual compounds in Yusho patients as well as clinical trials of the acceleration of the excretion of these compounds in Yusho patients. We have previously measured dioxin concentrations in the blood of 649 Yusho patients in annual medical examinations from 2001 to 2009. We determined that the concentrations of 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDF, and 3,3',4,4',5,5'-HxCB (#169) in the blood of Yusho patients were more than twice as high levels to as those of normal controls. In this study, we compared the concentrations of 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF, 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDF, and 3,3',4,4',5,5'-HxCB (#169) in the blood of male Yusho patients with those of female Yusho patients. As a result, it was found that the mean concentrations of 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF 1,2,3,4, 7,8-HxCDF 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDF, and 3,3',4,4',5,5'-HxCB (#169) in female Yusho patients were 2.9, 3.7, 2.4, and 1.3 times higher, respectively, than those of male Yusho patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) are formed as major metabolites of PCBs by cytochrome P450 enzyme-mediated oxidation. It has been reported that their total concentration in serum samples of Yusho patients ranged from 390 to 1300 pg/g. We developed a measurement method for OH-PCBs in blood samples by LC/MS/MS. This method is effective at determining the concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, Co-PCBs and OH-PCBs from the same sample without special treatment of the sample. The concentration of OH-PCBs in the blood of Yusho patients was examined using this method. The major OH-PCB metabolites were 4-OH-CB187 (54-906 pg/g-wet), 4-OH-CB146 + 3-OH-CB153 (32-527 pg/g-wet), 4-OH-CB109 (ND-229 pg/g-wet) and 4'-OH-CB172 (ND-143 pg/g-wet). The total OH-PCBs ranged from 95 to 1740 pg/g-wet.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We determined dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and PCBs in 6 preserved umbilical cords of fetal Yusho patients and in 11 preserved umbilical cords of Yusho suspected persons who were born to mothers with Yusho from 1970 to 2002, which were Yusho group. As a control, we also analyzed dioxin-like PCBs and PCBs in 15 preserved umbilical cords of babies who were born to healthy mothers, which was healthy group, in the same period of time. As a result, concentrations of three dioxin-like PCBs, that is, #156, #157 and #189 which were 6 to 20 times higher in fetal Yusho patients than in healthy babies were still 4 to 6 times greater in Yusho group than in healthy group about 20 years after the outbreak of Yusho, but could not recognize this characteristic anymore about 30 years after the outbreak. Decreasing rate in concentrations of dioxin-like PCBs and PCBs seemed to higher in Yusho group than in healthy group during this period of time. Therefore, we considered due to heavy exposure to PCDFs some drug metabolizing enzymes such as aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase were induced and excretion of the related agents to fetal Yusho were enhanced from the bodies of Yusho group. In order to clarify this hypothesis, further more detail studies are needed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We performed PCB congener specific analysis using HRGC/HRMS and determined their concentrations and blood chromatogram classifications in 275 individual blood samples collected during annual Yusho examinations between 2007 and 2010. When both blood total PCB concentrations and blood chromatogram classifications were compared among eleven Yusho patients undergoing examinations between 2007 and 2010, the longitudinal concentrations and classifications in the respective individuals hardly changed over these years. In a subset of persons suspected of Yusho, it was found that the mean total blood concentrations of three index congeners, that is, 2, 3', 4, 4', 5-pentaCB (PCB118), 2, 2', 4, 4', 5, 5'-hexaCB (PCB153), 2, 3, 3', 4, 4', 5-hexaCB (PCB156) and mean blood total PCB concentrations gradually decreased between 2007 and 2010. Mean concentration of PCB118 in blood from persons suspected of Yusho was calculated as 0.035 ng/g in the 2010 examination, which was 36% lower than the mean value of 0.054 ng/g in the 2007 examination: the concentration of PCB118 showed the highest degree of decrease among the three index congeners. Among persons suspected of Yusho, occupational rates of persons with blood PCB concentrations below one ppb in the entire population increased from approx. 50% in 2007 to approx. 70% in 2010. The lowest concentration of PCB156 in blood of persons suspected of Yusho in 2010 was 0.43 pg/g, which was almost equivalent to the limit of the determination value on HRGC/HRMS, S/N = 10.