[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insulin-producing cells express limited activities of anti-oxidative enzymes. Therefore, reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in these cells play a crucial role in cytotoxic effects. Furthermore, diabetes mellitus (DM) development is closely linked to higher ROS levels in insulin-producing cells. Hita Tenryosui Water(®) (Hita T. W., Hita, Japan) and Nordenau water (Nord. W., Nordenau, Germany), referred to as natural reduced waters (NRWs), scavenge ROS in cultured cells, and therefore, might be a possibility as an alternative to conventional pharmacological agents against DM. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the role of NRWs in alloxan (ALX)-induced β-cell apoptosis as well as in ALX-induced diabetic mice. NRWs equally suppressed DNA fragmentation levels. Hita T. W. and Nord. W. ameliorated ALX-induced sub-G(1) phase production from approximately 40% of control levels to 8.5 and 11.8%, respectively. NRWs restored serum insulin levels (p < 0.01) and reduced blood glucose levels (p < 0.01) in ALX-induced mice. Hita T. W. restored tissue superoxide dismutase (SOD) (p < 0.05) activity but not tissue catalase activity. Hita T. W. did not elevate SOD or catalase activity in HIT-T15 cells. Nord. W. restored SOD (p < 0.05) and catalase (p < 0.05) activity in both cultured cells and pancreatic tissue to normal levels. Even though variable efficacies were observed between Hita T. W. and Nord. W., both waters suppressed ALX-induced DM development in CD-1 male mice by administering NRWs for 8 weeks. Our results suggest that Hita T. W. and Nord. W. protect against ALX-induced β-cell apoptosis, and prevent the development of ALX-induced DM in experimental animals by regulating ALX-derived ROS generation and elevating anti-oxidative enzymes. Therefore, the two NRWs tested here are promising candidates for the prevention of DM development.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Electrolyzed reduced water, which is capable of scavenging reactive oxygen species, is attracting recent attention because it has shown improved efficacy against several types of diseases including diabetes mellitus. Alloxan produces reactive oxygen species and causes type 1 diabetes mellitus in experimental animals by irreversible oxidative damage to insulin-producing β-cells. Here, we showed that electrolyzed reduced water prevented alloxan-induced DNA fragmentation and the production of cells in sub-G1 phase in HIT-T15 pancreatic β-cells. Blood glucose levels in alloxan-induced type 1 diabetes model mice were also significantly suppressed by feeding the mice with electrolyzed reduced water. These results suggest that electrolyzed reduced water can prevent apoptosis of pancreatic β-cells and the development of symptoms in type 1 diabetes model mice by alleviating the alloxan-derived generation of reactive oxygen species.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are few reports on the physiological effects of metal nanoparticles (nps), especially with respect to their functions as scavengers for superoxide anion radical (O2(.-)) and hydroxyl radical (.OH). We tried to detect the scavenging activity of Pt nps using a hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase system for O2(.-) and using a Fenton and a UV/H2O2 system for .OH. Electron spin resonance analysis revealed that 2 nm particle size Pt nps have the ability to scavenge O2(.-) and .OH. The calculated rate constant for the O2(.-)-scavenging reaction was 5.03 +/- 0.03 x 10(7) M (-1) s (-1). However, the analysis of the Fenton and UV/H 2O 2 system in the presence of Pt nps suggested that the .OH-scavenging reaction cannot be determined in both systems. Among particle sizes tested from 1 to 5 nm, 1 nm Pt nps showed the highest O2(.-)-scavenging ability. Almost no cytotoxicity was observed even after adherent cells (TIG-1, HeLa, HepG2, WI-38, and MRC-5) were exposed to Pt nps at concentrations as high as 50 mg/L. Pt nps scavenged intrinsically generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HeLa cells. Additionally, Pt nps significantly reduced the levels of intracellular O2(.-) generated by UVA irradiation and subsequently protected HeLa cells from ROS damage-induced cell death. These findings suggest that Pt nps may be a new type of antioxidant capable of circumventing the paradoxical effects of conventional antioxidants.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key mediator of tumor angiogenesis. Tumor cells are exposed to higher oxidative stress compared to normal cells. Numerous reports have demonstrated that the intracellular redox (oxidation/reduction) state is closely associated with the pattern of VEGF expression. Electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) produced near the cathode during the electrolysis of water scavenged intracellular H(2)O(2) and decreased the release of H(2)O(2) from a human lung adenocarcinoma cell line, A549, and down-regulated both VEGF transcription and protein secretion in a time-dependent manner. To investigate the signal transduction pathway involved in regulating VEGF expression, mitogen-activated kinase (MAPK) specific inhibitors, SB203580 (p38 MAPK inhibitor), PD98059 (ERK1/2 inhibitor) and JNKi (c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase inhibitor) were applied. The results showed that only PD98059 blocks VEGF expression, suggesting an important role for ERK1/2 in regulating VEGF expression in A549 cells. As well, ERW inhibited the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in a time-dependent manner. Co-culture experiments to analyze in vitro tubule formation assay revealed that A549 cell-derived conditioned medium significantly stimulated the formation of vascular tubules in all analyzed parameters; tubule total area, tubule junction, number of tubules, and total tubule length. ERW counteracted the effect of A549 cell-conditioned medium and decreased total tube length (p<0.01). The present study demonstrated that ERW down-regulated VEGF gene transcription and protein secretion through inactivation of ERK.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the two-stage cell transformation theory, cancer cells first receive initiation, which is mainly caused by DNA damage, and then promotion, which enhances transformation. Murine Balb/c 3T3 cells are widely used for transformation experiments because they lose contact inhibition ability when transformed. Electrolyzed reduced water (ERW), which is produced near a cathode during electrolysis of water, is an alkaline drinking water that is beneficial to health. ERW contains a high concentration of dissolved hydrogen and scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS), along with a small amount of platinum (Pt) nanoparticles (Pt nps) derived from Pt-coated titanium electrodes. Pt nps stably disperse in aqueous solution for a long time, and convert hydrogen molecules to active hydrogen (atomic hydrogen) that can scavenge ROS. Therefore, ERW supplemented with synthesized Pt nps is a model strong reduced water. This is the first report that ERW supplemented with synthesized Pt nps strongly prevents transformation of Balb/c 3T3 cells. ERW was prepared by electrolysis of 0.002 M NaOH solution using a batch-type electrolysis device. Balb/c 3T3 cells were treated with 3-methyl cholanthrene (MCA) as an initiation substance, followed by treatment with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) as a promotion substance. MCA/PMA-induced formation of a transformation focus was strongly suppressed by ERW supplemented with Pt nps but not by ERW or Pt nps individually. ERW supplemented with Pt nps suppressed transformation at the promoter stage, not at initiation, suggesting that ERW supplemented with Pt nps suppressed the PMA-induced augmentation of intracellular ROS. ERW supplemented with Pt nps is a potential new antioxidant against carcinogenesis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have proposed an active hydrogen reduced water theory that active hydrogen produced by electrolysis of water is stabilized
in the form of hydrogenated metal nanocolloids in electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) and scavenges intracellular reactive oxygen
species (ROS). Because various brain diseases are caused by oxygen stress, we examined the effect of ERW on oxidative stress-induced
apoptois of neuronal cells. ERW suppressed the H2O2-induced cell death of mouse neuroblastoma N1E115 cells, rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells and mouse neuronal stem SFME cells.
ERW lowered the intracellular ROS level of N1E115 cells, suppressing the H2O2-induced decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular ATP level, which are markers of apoptosis. These results
suggested the effectiveness of ERW for prevention of various brain diseases caused by oxidative stress.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Electrolysed-reduced water (ERW) contained Platinum nanocolloids (PtNCs) of 1–10 nm, suggesting that PtNCs in ERW functioned as active hydrogen donors and scavenge intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis revealed that synthesized PtNCs of about 2 nm scavenged superoxide anion radicals and DPPH radicals. Synthesized PtNCs scavenged intracellular ROS and suppressed the growth of human leukemia K562 cells.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause irreversible damage to biological macromolecules, resulting in many diseases. Reduced water (RW) such as hydrogen-rich electrolyzed reduced water and natural reduced waters like Hita Tenryosui water in Japan and Nordenau water in Germany that are known to improve various diseases, could protect a hamster pancreatic beta cell line, HIT-T15 from alloxan-induced cell damage. Alloxan, a diabetogenic compound, is used to induce type 1 diabetes mellitus in animals. Its diabetogenic effect is exerted via the production of ROS. Alloxan-treated HIT-T15 cells exhibited lowered viability, increased intracellular ROS levels, elevated cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentration, DNA fragmentation, decreased intracellular ATP levels and lowering of glucose-stimulated release of insulin. RW completely prevented the generation of alloxan-induced ROS, increase of cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration, decrease of intracellular ATP level, and lowering of glucose-stimulated insulin release, and strongly blocked DNA fragmentation, partially suppressing the lowering of viability of alloxan-treated cells. Intracellular ATP levels and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion were increased by RW to 2-3.5 times and 2-4 times, respectively, suggesting that RW enhances the glucose-sensitivity and glucose response of beta-cells. The protective activity of RW was stable at 4 degrees C for over a month, but was lost by autoclaving. These results suggest that RW protects pancreatic beta-cells from alloxan-induced cell damage by preventing alloxan-derived ROS generation. RW may be useful in preventing alloxan-induced type 1-diabetes mellitus.