Iris Baumgartner

University Hospital of Lausanne, Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland

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Publications (268)1332.14 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: For patients with acute iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis, it remains unclear whether the addition of intravascular high-frequency, low-power ultrasound energy facilitates the resolution of thrombosis during catheter-directed thrombolysis. In a controlled clinical trial, 48 patients (mean age 50±21 years, 52% women) with acute iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis were randomized to receive ultrasound-assisted catheter-directed thrombolysis (N=24) or conventional catheter-directed thrombolysis (N=24). Thrombolysis regimen (20 mg r-tPA over 15 hours) was identical in all patients. The primary efficacy end point was the percentage of thrombus load reduction from baseline to 15 hours according to the length-adjusted thrombus score, obtained from standardized venograms and evaluated by a core laboratory blinded to group assignment. The percentage of thrombus load reduction was 55%±27% in the ultrasound-assisted catheter-directed thrombolysis group and 54%±27% in the conventional catheter-directed thrombolysis group (P=0.91). Adjunctive angioplasty and stenting was performed in 19 (80%) patients and in 20 (83%) patients, respectively (P>0.99). Treatment-related complications occurred in 3 (12%) and 2 (8%) patients, respectively (P>0.99). At 3-month follow-up, primary venous patency was 100% in the ultrasound-assisted catheter-directed thrombolysis group and 96% in the conventional catheter-directed thrombolysis group (P=0.33), and there was no difference in the severity of the post-thrombotic syndrome (mean Villalta score: 3.0±3.9 [range 0-15] versus 1.9±1.9 [range 0-7]; P=0.21), respectively. In this randomized controlled clinical trial of patients with acute iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis treated with a fixed-dose catheter thrombolysis regimen, the addition of intravascular ultrasound did not facilitate thrombus resolution. Unique identifier: NCT01482273. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
    Circulation Cardiovascular Interventions 12/2015; 8(1). DOI:10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.114.002027 · 6.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The development of peripheral artery disease is affected by the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. It is unclear, whether particular risk factors are leading to different clinical stages of peripheral artery disease. The aim of this retrospective cross-sectional study was to assess the association of cardiovascular risk factors with the presence of critical limb ischaemia. The study cohort was derived from a consecutive registry of patients undergoing endovascular therapy in a tertiary referral centre between January 2000 and April 2014. Patients undergoing first-time endovascular intervention for chronic peripheral artery disease of the lower extremities were included. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess the association of age, sex, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, smoking, and renal insufficiency with critical limb ischaemia vs. intermittent claudication. A total of 3406 patients were included in the study (mean age 71.7 ± 11.8 years, 2075 [61%] male). There was a significant association of age (OR 1.67, 95%-CI 1.53-1.82, p < 0.001), male gender (OR 1.23, 95%-CI 1.04-1.47, p = 0.016), diabetes (OR 1.99, 95%-CI 1.68-2.36, p < 0.001) and renal insufficiency (OR 1.62, 95%-CI 1.35-1.96, p < 0.001) with the likelihood of critical limb ischaemia. Smoking was associated with intermittent claudication rather than critical limb ischaemia (OR 0.78, 95%-CI 0.65-0.94, p = 0.010), while hypertension and dyslipidaemia did not show an association with critical limb ischaemia. In peripheral artery disease patients undergoing first-time endovascular treatment, age, male gender, diabetes, and renal insufficiency were the strongest predictors for the presence of critical limb ischaemia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Atherosclerosis 07/2015; 242(1):97-101. DOI:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2015.07.002 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hemodialysis patients are high absorbers of intestinal cholesterol; they benefit less than other patient groups from statin therapy, which inhibits cholesterol synthesis. This study sought to investigate whether the individual cholesterol absorption rate affects atorvastatin's effectiveness to reduce cardiovascular risk in hemodialysis patients. This post-hoc analysis included 1,030 participants in the German Diabetes and Dialysis Study (4D) who were randomized to either 20 mg of atorvastatin (n = 519) or placebo (n = 511). The primary endpoint was a composite of major cardiovascular events. Secondary endpoints included all-cause mortality and all cardiac events. Tertiles of the cholestanol-to-cholesterol ratio, which is an established biomarker of cholesterol absorption, were used to identify high and low cholesterol absorbers. A total of 454 primary endpoints occurred. On multivariate time-to-event analyses, the interaction term between tertiles and treatment with atorvastatin was significantly associated with the risk of reaching the primary endpoint. Stratified analysis by cholestanol-to-cholesterol ratio tertiles confirmed this effect modification: atorvastatin reduced the risk of reaching the primary endpoint in the first tertile (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.72; p = 0.049), but not the second (HR: 0.79; p = 0.225) or third tertiles (HR: 1.21; p = 0.287). Atorvastatin consistently significantly reduced all-cause mortality and the risk of all cardiac events in only the first tertile. Intestinal cholesterol absorption, as reflected by cholestanol-to-cholesterol ratios, predicts the effectiveness of atorvastatin to reduce cardiovascular risk in hemodialysis patients. Those with low cholesterol absorption appear to benefit from treatment with atorvastatin, whereas those with high absorption do not benefit. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 06/2015; 65(21):2291-8. DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2015.03.551 · 16.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Biomarkers are a promising tool for the management of patients with atherosclerosis, but their variation is largely unknown. We assessed within-subject and between-subject biological variation of biomarkers in peripheral artery disease (PAD) patients and healthy controls, and defined which biomarkers have a favorable variation profile for future studies. Prospective, parallel-group cohort study, including 62 patients with stable PAD (79% men, 65±7years) and 18 healthy control subjects (44% men, 57±7years). Blood samples were taken at baseline, and after 3-, 6-, and 12-months. We calculated within-subject (CVI) and between-subject (CVG) coefficients of variation and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Age and gender-adjusted mean levels of D-dimer, hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-8, MMP-9, S100A8/A9, PAI-1, sICAM-1, and sP-selectin levels were higher in PAD patients than in healthy controls (P<.03 for all). CVI and CVG of the different biomarkers varied considerably in both groups. An ICC >0.5 (indicating moderate-to-good reliability) was found for hs-CRP, D-Dimer, E-selectin, IL-10, MCP-1, MMP-3, oxLDL, sICAM-1 and sP-selectin in both groups, for sVCAM in healthy controls and for MMP-9, PAI-1 and sCD40L in PAD patients. Single biomarker measurements are of limited utility due to large within-subject variation, both in PAD patients and healthy subjects. D-dimer, hs-CRP, MMP-9, PAI-1, sP-selectin and sICAM-1 are biomarkers with both higher mean levels in PAD patients and a favorable variation profile making them most suitable for future studies. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry 05/2015; 447. DOI:10.1016/j.cca.2015.05.003 · 2.82 Impact Factor
  • Guenther Silbernagel · Iris Baumgartner · Winfried März
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    ABSTRACT: Plant sterols and stanols as components of functional foods are widely used for cholesterol lowering. The regular intake of these functional foods is associated with a decrease in low density lipoprotein cholesterol of about 10 % and an increase in plasma plant sterol or stanol concentrations by about a factor of 2. There is no doubt that a decrease in low density lipoprotein cholesterol is beneficial to cardiovascular health. However, due to the concomitant increase in circulating plant sterols safety issues associated with the intake of plant sterol containing functional foods have been raised. Herein, we will review and evaluate those arguments raised against the use of plant sterols and stanols.
    Journal of AOAC International 05/2015; 98(3). DOI:10.5740/jaoacint.SGESilbernagel · 1.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The knowledge on the level of systemic inflammation in peripheral artery disease (PAD) is less well established than that in coronary artery disease (CAD). Systemic inflammation frequently coincides with atherosclerosis, but also with various traits of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). The individual contribution of CAD, PAD, and the MetS to inflammation is not known. Methods: We enrolled a total of 1396 patients, 460 patients with PAD Fontaine stages IIa-IV verified by duplex ultrasound (PAD group) and 936 patients free of limb claudication undergoing coronary angiography, of whom 507 had significant CAD with coronary stenoses ≥50% (CAD group), and 429 did not have significant CAD at angiography (control group). Results: C-reactive protein (CRP) was significantly higher in the PAD than in the CAD or in the control group (0.86 ± 1.85 mg/dl versus 0.44 ± 0.87 mg/dl and 0.39 ± 0.52 mg/dl, respectively, p < 0.001 for both comparisons). These significant differences were confirmed when patients with and subjects without the MetS were analyzed separately. In particular, within the PAD group, CRP was significantly higher in patients with the MetS than in subjects without the MetS (1.04 ± 2.01 vs. 0.67 ± 1.64 mg/dl; p = 0.001) and both, the presence of PAD and the MetS proved to be independently associated with CRP in analysis of covariance (F = 31.84; p < 0.001 and F = 10.52; p = 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: Inflammatory activity in PAD patients is higher than in CAD patients and is particularly high in PAD patients affected by the MetS. Low grade systemic inflammation is independently associated with both the MetS and PAD.
    Atherosclerosis 04/2015; 239(2). DOI:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2015.01.021 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Compared with the coronary setting, knowledge about antithrombotic therapies after endovascular treatment (EVT) is inadequate in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). Based on a review of trials and guidelines, which is summarized in this article, there is scant evidence that antithrombotic drugs improve outcome after peripheral EVT. To address this knowledge gap, the randomized, open-label, multinational edoxaban in patients with Peripheral Artery Disease (ePAD) study ( identifier NCT01802775) was designed to explore the safety and efficacy of a combined regimen of antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel and anticoagulation with edoxaban, a selective and direct factor Xa inhibitor, both combined with aspirin. As of July 2014, 203 patients (144 men; mean age 67 years) from 7 countries have been enrolled. These patients have been allocated to once-daily edoxaban [60 mg for 3 months (or 30 mg in the presence of factors associated with increased exposure)] or clopidogrel (75 mg/d for 3 months). All patients received aspirin (100 mg/d) for the 6-month duration of the study. The primary safety endpoint is major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding; the primary efficacy endpoint is restenosis or reocclusion at the treated segment(s) measured at 1, 3, and 6 months using duplex ultrasound scanning. All outcomes will be assessed and adjudicated centrally in a masked fashion. The ePAD study is the first of its kind to investigate a combined regimen of antiplatelet therapy and anticoagulation through factor Xa inhibition with edoxaban. © The Author(s) 2015.
    Journal of Endovascular Therapy 04/2015; 22(2):261-8. DOI:10.1177/1526602815574687 · 3.35 Impact Factor
  • Günther Silbernagel · Iris Baumgartner · Winfried März
    New England Journal of Medicine 02/2015; 372(9):882. DOI:10.1056/NEJMc1500124#SA3 · 55.87 Impact Factor
  • Iris Baumgartner
    European Heart Journal 02/2015; 36(15). DOI:10.1093/eurheartj/ehu438 · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the 2-year technical and clinical results of primary nitinol stent placement in comparison with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in the treatment of de novo lesions of the popliteal artery. The ETAP study (Endovascular Treatment of Atherosclerotic Popliteal Artery Lesions: balloon angioplasty vs. primary stenting; identifier NCT00712309) is a prospective, randomized trial that enrolled 246 patients (158 men; mean age 72 years) who were randomly assigned to receive a nitinol stent (n=119) or PTA (n=127) for lesions averaging 42.3 mm in length. The results of the primary study endpoint were published. Secondary outcome measures and endpoints included primary patency (freedom from duplex-detected target lesion restenosis), target lesion revascularization (TLR), secondary patency, changes in ankle-brachial index and Rutherford class, and event-free survival (freedom from target limb amputation, TLR, myocardial infarction, and death). In total, 183 patients (89 stent and 94 PTA) were available for the 2-year analysis. The primary patency rate was significantly higher in the stent group (64.2%) than in the PTA group (31.3%, p=0.0001). TLR rates were 22.4% and 59.5%, respectively (p=0.0001). When provisional stent placement in the PTA arm was not considered as TLR and loss in patency, the differences prevailed between the study groups but were not significant (64.2% vs. 56.1% for primary patency, respectively; p=0.44). A significant improvement in ABI and Rutherford category was observed at 2 years in both groups. In treatment of obstructive popliteal artery lesions, provisional stenting reveals equivalent patency in comparison to primary stenting. However, the 2-year results of this trial suggest the possibility of a shift toward higher patency rates in favor of primary stenting. © The Author(s) 2015.
    Journal of Endovascular Therapy 02/2015; 22(1):22-27. DOI:10.1177/1526602814564386 · 3.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes mellitus and pre-diabetes are risk factors for atherosclerosis and are highly prevalent in patients with coronary artery disease. However, the prevalence of impaired glucose metabolism in patients with peripheral artery disease is not as well elucidated. We aimed at comparing prevalence rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus and pre-diabetes, which were diagnosed according to the current American Diabetes Association criteria, among 364 patients with peripheral artery disease, 529 patients with coronary artery disease and 383 controls. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in peripheral artery disease patients was 49.7%. It was significantly higher in these patients than in coronary artery disease patients (34.4%; p < 0.001) and controls (21.4%; p < 0.001). Adjusted for sex, age and body mass index, odds ratios for type 2 diabetes mellitus were 2.0 (95% confidence interval 1.5-2.6) comparing the peripheral artery disease group with the coronary artery disease group (p < 0.001) and 4.0 (2.8-5.8) comparing the peripheral artery disease group with controls (p < 0.001). The prevalence of pre-diabetes among non-diabetic subjects was high in all three study groups (64.5% in peripheral artery disease patients, 63.4% in coronary artery disease patients and 61.8% in controls), without significant between-group differences. In conclusion, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is even higher in peripheral artery disease patients than in coronary artery disease patients. This observation underlines the need to consider impaired glucose regulation in the management of peripheral artery disease. © The Author(s) 2015.
    Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research 01/2015; 12(2). DOI:10.1177/1479164114560342 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND Drug-eluting balloons (DEB) may reduce infrapopliteal restenosis and reintervention rates versus percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and improve wound healing/limb preservation. OBJECTIVES The goal of this clinical trial was to assess the efficacy and safety of IN.PACT Amphirion drug-eluting balloons (IA-DEB) compared to PTA for infrapopliteal arterial revascularization in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI). METHODS Within a prospective, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial with independent clinical event adjudication and angiographic and wound core laboratories 358 CLI patients were randomized 2:1 to IA-DEB or PTA. The 2 coprimary efficacy endpoints through 12 months were clinically driven target lesion revascularization (CD-TLR) and late lumen loss (LLL). The primary safety endpoint through 6 months was a composite of all-cause mortality, major amputation, and CD-TLR. RESULTS Clinical characteristics were similar between the 2 groups. Significant baseline differences between the IA-DEB and PTA arms included mean lesion length (10.2 cm vs. 12.9 cm; p = 0.002), impaired inflow (40.7% vs. 28.8%; p = 0.035), and previous target limb revascularization (32.2% vs. 21.8%; p = 0.047). Primary efficacy results of IA-DEB versus PTA were CD-TLR of 9.2% versus 13.1% (p = 0.291) and LLL of 0.61 +/- 0.78 mm versus 0.62 +/- 0.78 mm (p = 0.950). Primary safety endpoints were 17.7% versus 15.8% (p = 0.021) and met the noninferiority hypothesis. A safety signal driven by major amputations through 12 months was observed in the IA-DEB arm versus the PTA arm (8.8% vs. 3.6%; p = 0.080). CONCLUSIONS In patients with CLI, IA-DEB had comparable efficacy to PTA. While primary safety was met, there was a trend towards an increased major amputation rate through 12 months compared to PTA. (C) 2014 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 10/2014; 64(15):1568-76. DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2014.06.1198 · 16.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The diagnostic approach to vascular anomalies should include the distinction between vascular tumors (i.e. hemangiomas) and congential vascular malformations (CVMs). This step is based more on history and clinical examination rather than on instrumental evaluation. In children Duplex ultrasound and histology can be helpful to separate hypervasularized tumors from CVMs. Appropriate record of objective measures as size or flow volume is required in order to evaluate the progress of the pathology and/or to assess the results of adopted therapeutic interventions. The anatomic, pathological and hemodynamic characteristics, the secondary effects on the surrounding tissues and the systemic manifestations should be defined. Basic diagnostic tools are Duplex sonography followed by MRI or CT scanning. The definition of the vascular anomaly should be according to the Hamburg classification and should separate vascular tumors from vacular malformations followed by separation of high flow from low flow CVMs. Diagnostic investigations are best undertaken at centers where subsequent therapeutic interventions will be performed.
    International angiology: a journal of the International Union of Angiology 10/2014; 34(4). · 0.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a major cause of cardiovascular ischemic events and amputation. Knowledge gaps exist in defining and measuring key factors that predict these events. The objective of this study was to assess whether duration of limb ischemia would serve as a major predictor of limb and patient survival. Methods: The FReedom from Ischemic Events: New Dimensions for Survival (FRIENDS) registry enrolled consecutive patients with limb-threatening peripheral artery disease at a single tertiary care hospital. Demographic information, key clinical care time segments, functional status and use of revascularization, and pharmacotherapy data were collected at baseline, and vascular ischemic events, cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality were recorded at 30 days and 1 year. Results: A total of 200 patients with median (interquartile range) age of 76 years (65-84 years) were enrolled in the registry. Median duration of limb ischemia was 0.75 days for acute limb ischemia (ALI) and 61 days for chronic critical limb ischemia (CLI). Duration of limb ischemia of <12, 12 to 24, and >24 hours in patients with ALI was associated with much higher rates of first amputation (P = .0002) and worse amputation-free survival (P = .037). No such associations were observed in patients with CLI. Conclusions: For individuals with ischemic symptoms <14 days, prolonged limb ischemia is associated with higher 30-day and 1-year amputation, systemic ischemic event rates, and worse amputation-free survival. No such associations are evident for individuals with chronic CLI. These data imply that prompt diagnosis and revascularization might improve outcomes for patients with ALI.
    American Heart Journal 10/2014; 168(4). DOI:10.1016/j.ahj.2014.06.013 · 4.46 Impact Factor
  • W. Yakes · I. Baumgartner
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    ABSTRACT: Background Due to their hemodynamic effects and tendency to progress, the majority of congenital arterio-venous malformations (AVM) require treatment. AVM are classified according to clinical severity (Schobinger classification, stages I–V) and angiographic appearance (types I–IV). Treatment Endovascular embolization is the treatment of choice. However, because complications such as necrosis and neuropathy occur in up to 15% of cases, treatment is challenging and is dependent on the angiographic appearance. Critical for treatment success is elimination of the so-called nidus, which is the location of the short circuit connection between the artery and the often extended aneurysm-like drainage vein. Embolization of only the feeding artery without the actual nidus or the incomplete elimination of drainage veins should be avoided. Absolute 96 % alcohol in addition to coiling of the nidus has been established as the most effective technique. Conclusion Unlike other embolic agents, alcohol leads to a definitive destruction of the vessel wall. Recanalization and recurrence are excluded due to adequate elimination of the nidus.
    Gefässchirurgie 07/2014; 19(4):325-330. DOI:10.1007/s00772-013-1303-9 · 0.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transcatheter (or percutaneous) renal denervation is a novel technique developed for the treatment of resistant hypertension. So far, only one randomised controlled trial has been published, which has shown a reduction of office blood pressure. The Swiss Society of Hypertension, the Swiss Society of Cardiology, The Swiss Society of Angiology and the Swiss Society of Interventional Radiology decided to establish recommendations to practicing physicians and specialists for good clinical practice. The eligibility of patients for trancatheter renal denervation needs (1.) confirmation of truly resistant hypertension, (2.) exclusion of secondary forms of hypertension, (3.) a multidisciplinary decision confirming the eligibility, (4.) facilities that guarantee procedural safety and (5.) a long-term follow-up of the patients, if possible in cooperation with a hypertension specialist. These steps are essential until long-term data on safety and efficacy are available.
    Schweizerische medizinische Wochenschrift 03/2014; 144:w13913. DOI:10.4414/smw.2014.13913 · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During the last decades, the clinical and research interest in atherosclerosis has been mostly focused on coronary arteries. After the publications of the European Society Guidelines and AHA/ACC Guidelines on Peripheral artery diseases, and of the Registry REduction in Atherothrombosis for Continued Health Registry, there has been an increased interest in atherosclerosis of the lower extremity arteries and its presence in multifocal disease. However, awareness in the general population and the medical community of non-coronary artery diseases, and of its major prognostic implications remain relatively low. The aim of this general review stemming out of an ESC Working Group on Peripheral Circulation meeting in 2011 is to enhance awareness of this complex disease highlighting the importance of the involvement of atherosclerosis at different levels with respect to clinical presentation, diagnosis, and co-existence of the disease in the distinct arterial territories. We also emphasize the need of an interdisciplinary approach to face the broad and complex spectrum of multifocal disease, and try to propose a series of tentative recommendations and measures to be implemented in non-coronary atherosclerosis.
    European Heart Journal 03/2014; 35(17). DOI:10.1093/eurheartj/ehu071 · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Due to a high burden of systemic cardiovascular events, current guidelines recommend the use of statins in all patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). We sought to study the impact of statin use on limb prognosis in patients with symptomatic PAD enrolled in the international REACH registry. Statin use was assessed at study enrolment, as well as a time-varying covariate. Rates of the primary adverse limb outcome (worsening claudication/new episode of critical limb ischaemia, new percutaneous/surgical revascularization, or amputation) at 4 years and the composite of cardiovascular death/myocardial infarction/stroke were compared among statin users vs. non-users. A total of 5861 patients with symptomatic PAD were included. Statin use at baseline was 62.2%. Patients who were on statins had a significantly lower risk of the primary adverse limb outcome at 4 years when compared with those who were not taking statins [22.0 vs. 26.2%; hazard ratio (HR), 0.82; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.72-0.92; P = 0.0013]. Results were similar when statin use was considered as a time-dependent variable (P = 0.018) and on propensity analysis (P < 0.0001). The composite of cardiovascular death/myocardial infarction/stroke was similarly reduced (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.73-0.96; P = 0.01). Among patients with PAD in the REACH registry, statin use was associated with an ∼18% lower rate of adverse limb outcomes, including worsening symptoms, peripheral revascularization, and ischaemic amputations. These findings suggest that statin therapy not only reduces the risk of adverse cardiovascular events, but also favourably affects limb prognosis in patients with PAD.
    European Heart Journal 02/2014; 35(41). DOI:10.1093/eurheartj/ehu080 · 15.20 Impact Factor
  • 02/2014; 3(01):50-54. DOI:10.1055/s-0033-1346925
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    ABSTRACT: Venous malformations (VMs) are the most common vascular developmental anomalies (birth defects) . These defects are caused by developmental arrest of the venous system during various stages of embryogenesis. VMs remain a difficult diagnostic and therapeutic challenge due to the wide range of clinical presentations, unpredictable clinical course, erratic response to the treatment with high recurrence/persistence rates, high morbidity following non-specific conventional treatment, and confusing terminology. The Consensus Panel reviewed the recent scientific literature up to the year 2013 to update a previous IUP Consensus (2009) on the same subject. ISSVA Classification with special merits for the differentiation between the congenital vascular malformation (CVM) and vascular tumors was reinforced with an additional review on syndrome-based classification. A "modified" Hamburg classification was adopted to emphasize the importance of extratruncular vs. truncular sub-types of VMs. This incorporated the embryological origin, morphological differences, unique characteristics, prognosis and recurrence rates of VMs based on this embryological classification. The definition and classification of VMs were strengthened with the addition of angiographic data that determines the hemodynamic characteristics, the anatomical pattern of draining veins and hence the risk of complication following sclerotherapy. The hemolymphatic malformations, a combined condition incorporating LMs and other CVMs, were illustrated as a separate topic to differentiate from isolated VMs and to rectify the existing confusion with name-based eponyms such as Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome. Contemporary concepts on VMs were updated with new data including genetic findings linked to the etiology of CVMs and chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency. Besides, newly established information on coagulopathy including the role of D-Dimer was thoroughly reviewed to provide guidelines on investigations and anticoagulation therapy in the management of VMs. Congenital vascular bone syndrome resulting in angio-osteo-hyper/hypotrophy and (lateral) marginal vein was separately reviewed. Background data on arterio-venous malformations was included to differentiate this anomaly from syndrome-based VMs. For the treatment, a new section on laser therapy and also a practical guideline for follow up assessment were added to strengthen the management principle of the multidisciplinary approach. All other therapeutic modalities were thoroughly updated to accommodate a changing concept through the years.
    International angiology: a journal of the International Union of Angiology 02/2014; 34(2). · 0.83 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

5k Citations
1,332.14 Total Impact Points


  • 2015
    • University Hospital of Lausanne
      Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland
  • 2007–2015
    • Universität Bern
      Berna, Bern, Switzerland
  • 1996–2014
    • Inselspital, Universitätsspital Bern
      • • Department of Angiology
      • • Department of Rheumatology, Clinical Immunology and Allergology
      • • University Institute of Diagnostic, Interventional and Pediatric Radiology
      • • Department of Neurology
      Berna, Bern, Switzerland
  • 1996–2013
    • University of Zurich
      Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
  • 2011
    • Medical University of Silesia in Katowice
      Catowice, Silesian Voivodeship, Poland
  • 2010
    • Heart & Vascular Center
      Göttingen, Lower Saxony, Germany
  • 1998–1999
    • St. Elizabeth's Medical Center
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States