Elise Arrivé

Institut de Recherches Mathematiques , Cote d'Ivoire, Abidjan, Abijan, Lagunes, Ivory Coast

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Publications (23)84.84 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The aims were to describe emtricitabine (FTC) pharmacokinetics in a large population of pregnant women during the different trimesters of pregnancy, and to explain FTC pharmacokinetic variability during pregnancy.
    British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 07/2014; · 3.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To estimate the prevalence of oral mucosal diseases and dental caries among HIV-infected children receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) in West Africa and to identify the factors associated with the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions. Multicentre cross-sectional survey in five paediatric HIV clinics in Côte d'Ivoire, Mali and Sénégal. A standardised examination was performed by trained dentists on a random sample of HIV-infected children aged 5-15 years receiving ART. The prevalence of oral and dental lesions and mean number of decayed, missing/extracted and filled teeth (DMFdefT) in temporary and permanent dentition were estimated with their 95% confidence interval (95% CI). We used logistic regression to explore the association between children's characteristics and the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions, expressed as prevalence odds ratio (POR). The median age of the 420 children (47% females) enrolled was 10.4 years [interquartile range (IQR) = 8.3-12.6]. The median duration on ART was 4.6 years (IQR = 2.6-6.2); 84 (20.0%) had CD4 count<350 cells/mm(3) . A total of 35 children (8.3%; 95% CI: 6.1-11.1) exhibited 42 oral mucosal lesions (24 were candidiasis); 86.0% (95% CI = 82.6-89.3) of children had DMFdefT ≥ 1. The presence of oral mucosal lesions was independently associated with CD4 count < 350 cells/mm(3) (POR = 2.96, 95% CI = 1.06-4.36) and poor oral hygiene (POR = 2.69, 95% CI = 1.07-6.76). Oral mucosal lesions still occur in HIV-infected African children despite ART, but rarely. However, dental caries were common and severe in this population, reflecting the need to include oral health in the comprehensive care of HIV.
    Tropical Medicine & International Health 01/2014; · 2.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: We studied the frequency of documentation of disclosure of HIV status in medical charts and its correlates among HIV-infected adolescents in 2009, in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. Methods: The PRADO-CI is a cross-sectional study aimed at studying HIV-infected adolescents' social, psychological, and behavioural difficulties and their determinants in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. In this study, we present specific analyses on disclosure. All HIV-infected adolescents aged 13-21 years and followed at least once in 2009 in two urban HIV-care centres in Abidjan (Cepref and Yopougon Teaching Hospital) were enrolled in the study. Standardized data were extracted from medical records to document if there was notification of disclosure of HIV status in the medical record. Frequency of notification of HIV disclosure was estimated with its 95% confidence interval (CI) and correlates were analyzed using logistic regression. Results: In 2009, 229 adolescents were included: 126 (55%) males; 93% on antiretroviral therapy (ART), 61% on cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. Their median age was 15 years at the time of the study. Among the 193 patients for whom information on HIV status disclosure was documented (84%), only 63 (32.6%; 95% CI=26.0-39.3%) were informed of their status. The proportion of adolescents informed increased significantly with age: 19% for 13-15 years, 33% for 16-18 years and 86% for 19-21 years (p <0.0001). Adolescents on ART tended to be more likely to be informed of their HIV status (34.5%) than those not treated (13.3%) (p=0.11). Those on cotrimoxazole were significantly more likely to be informed (39.6%) than those not (21.9%) (p=0.01). Disclosure was significantly higher in adolescents with a history of ART regimen change (p=0.003) and in those followed in the Cepref (48.4%) compared to the Yopougon Teaching Hospital (24.8%), (p=0.001). In multivariate analyses, disclosed HIV status was significantly higher in those followed-up in the Cepref compared to the other centre: adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=3.5 (95% CI: 1.1-10.9), and among older adolescents compared to those aged 13-15 years: [16-18 years] aOR=4.2 (95% CI: 1.5-11.5) and [>18 years]: aOR=22.1 (95% CI: 5.2-93.5). Conclusions: HIV disclosure rate was low among Ivoirian HIV adolescents and was site- and age-dependent. There is a need for practical interventions to support HIV disclosure to adolescents which provides age-appropriate information about the disease.
    Journal of the International AIDS Society 06/2013; 16:18569. · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We assessed the effect of HIV status disclosure on retention in care from initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) among HIV-infected children aged 10 years or more in Cote d'Ivoire, Mali and Sénégal. Multi-centre cohort study within five paediatric clinics participating in the IeDEA West Africa collaboration. HIV-infected patients were included in this study if they met the following inclusion criteria: aged 10-21 years while on ART; having initiated ART ≥ 200 days before the closure date of the clinic database; followed ≥ 15 days from ART initiation in clinics with ≥ 10 adolescents enrolled. Routine follow-up data were merged with those collected through a standardized ad hoc questionnaire on awareness of HIV status. Probability of retention (no death or loss-to-follow-up) was estimated with Kaplan-Meier method. Cox proportional hazard model with date of ART initiation as origin and a delayed entry at date of 10th birthday was used to identify factors associated with death or loss-to-follow-up. 650 adolescents were available for this analysis. Characteristics at ART initiation were: median age of 10.4 years; median CD4 count of 224 cells/mm³ (47% with severe immunosuppression), 48% CDC stage C/WHO stage 3/4. The median follow-up on ART after the age of 10 was 23.3 months; 187 adolescents (28.8%) knew their HIV status. The overall probability of retention at 36 months after ART initiation was 74.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 70.5-79.0) and was higher for those disclosed compared to those not: adjusted hazard ratio for the risk of being death or loss-to-follow-up = 0.23 (95% CI: 0.13-0.39). About 2/3 of HIV-infected adolescents on ART were not aware of their HIV status in these ART clinics in West Africa but disclosed HIV status improved retention in care. The disclosure process should be thus systematically encouraged and organized in adolescent populations.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(3):e33690. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to investigate for the first time tenofovir (TFV) pharmacokinetics in plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of the neonate. HIV-1-infected pregnant women received two tablets of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF; 300 mg) and emtricitabine (FTC; 200 mg) at onset of labor and then one tablet daily for 7 days postpartum. A single dose of 13 mg/kg of body weight of TDF was administered to 36 neonates within 12 h of life after the HIV-1-infected mothers had been administered two tablets of TDF-emtricitabine at delivery. A total of 626 samples collected within the 2 days after the drug administration were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and analyzed by a population approach. In the neonate, the median TFV plasma area under the curve and minimal and maximal concentrations, respectively, were 3.73 mg/liter · h and 0.076 and 0.29 mg/liter. In PBMCs, TFV concentrations were detectable in all fetuses, whereas tenofovir diphosphate (TFV-DP) was quantifiable in only two fetuses, suggesting a lag in appearance of TFV-DP. The median TFV-DP neonatal concentration was 146 fmol/10⁶ cells (interquartile range [IQR], 53 to 430 fmol/10⁶ cells); two neonates had very high TFV-DP concentrations (1,530 and 2963 fmol/10⁶ cells). The 13-mg/kg TDF dose given to neonates produced plasma TFV and intracellular active TFV-DP concentrations similar to those in adults. This dose should be given immediately after birth to reduce the delay before the active compound TFV-DP appears in cells.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 04/2011; 55(6):2961-7. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our objective was to investigate neonatal emtricitabine (FTC) plasma and intracellular pharmacokinetics. The study was designed as a phase I/II prospective trial in two sequential steps evaluating the combination of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and FTC for the prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) of HIV. HIV-1-infected pregnant women received two tablets of TDF (300 mg) and FTC (200 mg) at onset of labor and then one tablet daily for 7 days postpartum. Based on the data obtained in the first part of the Tenofovir/Emtricitabine in Africa and Asia (TEmAA) Study, single doses of 2 mg/kg of FTC and 13 mg/kg of TDF were given to the neonates within 12 h after birth. A total of 540 FTC plasma concentrations and 44 active intracellular phosphorylated metabolite FTC-TP concentrations were taken from the 36 enrolled women and their neonates. Concentrations were measured by the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method and analyzed by a population approach. The proposed dose obtained by simulations based on plasma drug concentrations was confirmed. However, median FTC-TP exposures were, respectively, 5.9 and 6.8 times higher in the fetus and the neonate than in the adult. High FTC-TP concentrations were observed in the four children who had serious adverse events (SAEs), but the link between FTC-TP concentrations and SAEs in children was not formally identified. The exposure to the active form of FTC was high in neonates despite plasma drug concentrations equivalent to those in adults. Our results are similar to those obtained with zidovudine or lamivudine.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 04/2011; 55(6):2953-60. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: With 2.1 million HIV-infected children in 2008 in the world, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, the paediatric HIV/AIDS care remains an important public health challenge and is principally based on cotrimoxazole prophylaxis and antiretroviral treatments. This paper aims to review the effectiveness of cotrimoxole prophylaxis and antiretroviral treatment in HIV-infected children in Africa, specifically mortality and treatment outcomes. In two times, we searched the online databases PubMed™ and Scopus™ for articles and abstracts published in English and French between January 2004 and November 2009, with the following terms : « HIV » and « Africa » and ["paediatric" or "children" or "child"] and ["mortality" or "survival"] and ["cotrimoxazole" or "prophylaxis"] at the first time, « HIV » and « Africa » and ["paediatric" or "children" or "child"] and ["mortality" or "survival"] and ["antiretroviral"] and ["treatment" or "therapy"] at the second time. Longitudinal studies on HIV-infected children under cotrimoxazole prophylaxis or antiretroviral treatment were selected when survival outcomes were reported. The probability of death was significantly reduced by 43% where children received cotrimoxazole prophylaxis compared to placebo. Compared to the survival without treatment, the benefit of antiretroviral therapy on HIV-infected children survival was evident in all publications but early mortality was observed within the six first months of antiretroviral treatment. Over fifty percent of deaths occurred in this period. Severe malnutrition, anaemia and lower CD4% were identified as mortality predicting factors in both children received cotrimoxazole prophylaxis or treated by antiretroviral therapy. Better knowledge of determinants of early mortality for these children are important to optimized their survival and improve their quality of care and life. Finally, the beneficial effect of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis when associated with antiretroviral treatment has not been reported and need to be exploring in detail for more information.
    La Presse Médicale 02/2011; 40(7-8):e338-57. · 0.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background With 2.1 million HIV-infected children in 2008 in the world, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, the paediatric HIV/AIDS care remains an important public health challenge and is principally based on cotrimoxazole prophylaxis and antiretroviral treatments. This paper aims to review the effectiveness of cotrimoxole prophylaxis and antiretroviral treatment in HIV-infected children in Africa, specifically mortality and treatment outcomes. Methods In two times, we searched the online databases PubMed™ and Scopus™ for articles and abstracts published in English and French between January 2004 and November 2009, with the following terms : « HIV » and « Africa » and [“paediatric” or “children” or “child”] and [“mortality” or “survival”] and [“cotrimoxazole” or “prophylaxis”] at the first time, « HIV » and « Africa » and [“paediatric” or “children” or “child”] and [“mortality” or “survival”] and [“antiretroviral”] and [“treatment” or “therapy”] at the second time. Longitudinal studies on HIV-infected children under cotrimoxazole prophylaxis or antiretroviral treatment were selected when survival outcomes were reported. Results The probability of death was significantly reduced by 43% where children received cotrimoxazole prophylaxis compared to placebo. Compared to the survival without treatment, the benefit of antiretroviral therapy on HIV-infected children survival was evident in all publications but early mortality was observed within the six first months of antiretroviral treatment. Over fifty percent of deaths occurred in this period. Severe malnutrition, anaemia and lower CD4% were identified as mortality predicting factors in both children received cotrimoxazole prophylaxis or treated by antiretroviral therapy. Discussion Better knowledge of determinants of early mortality for these children are important to optimized their survival and improve their quality of care and life. Finally, the beneficial effect of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis when associated with antiretroviral treatment has not been reported and need to be exploring in detail for more information.
    Presse Medicale. 01/2011; 40(7).
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    ABSTRACT: The aim was to evaluate emtricitabine (FTC) and tenofovir (TFV) neonatal ingestion through breast milk. Median TFV and FTC breast milk doses represented 0.03% and 2%, respectively, of the proposed oral infant doses. Neonatal simulated plasma concentrations were extremely low for TFV but between the half-maximal inhibitory concentration and the adult minimal expected concentration for FTC. The rare children who will acquire HIV despite TDF-FTC therapy will need to be monitored for viral resistance acquisition.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 12/2010; 55(3):1315-7. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to describe the nevirapine (NVP) pharmacokinetics (PK) in pregnant women and their neonates and to evaluate the transplacental drug transfer and administration scheme for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Thirty-eight HIV-1-infected pregnant women were administered one tablet of NVP (200 mg) and two tablets of tenofovir-emtricitabine (Truvada) at the initiation of labor. Children were given NVP syrup (2 mg/kg of body weight) as a single dose (sdNVP) on the first day of life. By pair, NVP concentrations were measured in 11 maternal, 1 cord blood, and 2 neonatal plasma samples and analyzed by a population approach. A one-compartment model was used for mothers and neonates; the absorption rate constants for mothers and neonates were 0.95 h(-1) (intersubject variability, 111%) and 0.39 h(-1), respectively; the apparent elimination clearances were 1.42 liter·h(-1) (intersubject variability, 22%) and 0.035 liter·h(-1), respectively; and apparent volumes of distribution were 87.3 liters (intersubject variability, 25%) and 5.65 liters, respectively. An effect compartment was linked to maternal circulation by mother-to-cord and cord-to-mother rate constants of 1.10 h(-1) and 1.43 h(-1), respectively. Placental transfer, expressed as the fetal-to-maternal area under the curve ratio, was 75%. Neonates had a very long half-lives (110 h) compared to adults. In the 38 mothers, the simulated median individual predicted time during which the NVP concentration remained above the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) was 13.2 days (range, 12 to 19.2 days). Thus, the administration of tenofovir-emtricitabine for at least 3 weeks after delivery should be considered to prevent the emergence of resistant viruses. The neonate must receive sdNVP immediately after birth when the infant is born less than 30 min after maternal drug intake to keep NVP concentrations above the IC(50).
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 10/2010; 55(1):331-7. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Viral resistance occurs with a high frequency after single-dose nevirapine. We aimed to evaluate the tolerance and resistance profiles of a combination of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and emtricitabine (FTC) given to HIV-1-infected delivering women and their newborns. DESIGN: An open-label phase I/II trial in Cambodia, Cote d'Ivoire and South Africa. METHODS: HIV-1-infected pregnant women received zidovudine from the enrollment until the beginning of labor, when single-dose nevirapine and two tablets of TDF/FTC were given. One daily tablet of TDF/FTC was then administered for 7 days postpartum. All infants received single-dose nevirapine with single-dose TDF (13 mg/kg) and single-dose FTC (2 mg/kg) and 1 week of zidovudine. Mothers and infants were followed for 2 months. Serious adverse events, kinetic of maternal plasma HIV-1 RNA, pediatric HIV infection and genotypic resistance and viral subtype were assessed. RESULTS: Thirty-six HIV-1-infected pregnant women were enrolled: median age 28 years (interquartile range: 26-31 years), median CD4 cell count 462 cells/mul (interquartile range: 376-632) and median HIV-1 RNA 3.7 log10 copies/ml (interquartile range: 2.95-4.11). Two infants had clinical serious adverse events, including one who died (neonatal sepsis). One transient grade 3 neutropenia and two grade 3/4 hyperbilirubinemia were also reported in neonates. One HIV pediatric in-utero infection was diagnosed (2.8%; 95% confidence interval 0-15.4%). Genotypic viral resistance to nevirapine was detected in one mother out of 34 (2.9%) at one month postpartum, but was also detectable at enrollment. CONCLUSION: The combination of TDF/FTC to delivering women and their neonates appears well tolerated and to minimize the occurrence of nevirapine viral resistance.
    AIDS (London, England) 01/2010; 24(16):2481-8. · 4.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) remains a challenge in most resource-limited settings, particularly in Africa. Single-dose and short-course antiretroviral (ARV) regimens are only partially effective and have failed to achieve wide coverage despite their apparent simplicity. More potent ARV combinations are restricted to pregnant women who need treatment for themselves and are also infrequently used. Furthermore, postnatal transmission via breast-feeding is a serious additional threat. Modifications of infant feeding practices aim to reduce HIV-1 transmission through breast milk; replacement feeding is neither affordable nor safe for the majority of African women, and early breast-feeding cessation (eg, prior to 6 months of life) requires substantial care and nutritional counseling to be practiced safely. The recent roll out of ARV treatment has changed the paradigm of prevention of MTCT. To date, postnatal ARV interventions that have been evaluated target either maternal ARV treatment to selected breast-feeding women, with good efficacy, or single-drug postexposure prophylaxis for short periods of time to their neonates, with a partial efficacy and at the expense of acquisition of drug-related viral resistance. We hypothesize that a viable solution to eliminate pediatric AIDS lies in the universal provision of fully suppressive ARV regimens to all HIV-1-infected women through pregnancy, delivery, and the entire breast-feeding period. On the basis of available evidence, we suggest translating into practice the recently available evidence on this matter without any further delay.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 11/2009; 49(12):1936-45. · 9.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We assessed pediatric adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and examined associated factors among children in Togo, West Africa. Structured interviews of caregivers of consecutively enrolled HIV-infected children receiving ART in three HIV/AIDS care centers in Lome, Togo were conducted. Child perfect adherence reflected caregivers' report of no antiretroviral drug doses missed neither in the past 4 days nor in the month before the interview. A total of 74 ART-treated children were included (median age 6 years). Of these, 42% of caregivers declared perfect adherence. In univariate analyses, the major factors relating to child non-adherence were: being female, living in an individual setting (vs. compound with enlarged family), receiving other ART than an NNRT-based regimen, drug regimens with six pills/spoons or more per day, caregiver other than biological parent, caregiver not declaring HIV-status, not participating to support groups and having perceived difficulty of antiretroviral (ARV) administration. In multivariate analysis, female gender, living in an individual setting, receiving other than NNRTI-based regimen and caregivers' perceived difficulty of ARV administration remained independently associated with the reported child's non-adherence. These data show low rates of perfect adherence to ART in children in West Africa, influenced by child and caregiver characteristics and suggest a need for counseling and education interventions as well as continuous psychological and social support.
    AIDS and Behavior 02/2009; 13(1):23-32. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Viral resistance occurs with high frequency after single-dose nevirapine. We aimed to evaluate the safety and resistance profiles of a combination of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and emtricitabine (FTC) in HIV-1-infected pregnant women and their newborns. DESIGN: An open-label phase I/II trial in Cote d'Ivoire, Cambodia and South Africa. METHODS: Women received antenatal zidovudine, intrapartum single-dose nevirapine and two tablets of TDF/FTC and one daily tablet of TDF/FTC during the 7 days postpartum. Their infants received single-dose nevirapine and zidovudine for 1 week. Serious adverse events (SAEs), kinetic of maternal plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load, genotypic resistance at 28 days postpartum and paediatric HIV-1 infection at 3, 28 and 45 days of life were assessed. RESULTS: Thirty-eight HIV-1-infected pregnant women were enrolled (19 in Abidjan, 12 in Phnom Penh and seven in Soweto) with a median CD4 cell count of 450 cells/microl and median viral load of 4.08 log10 copies/ml. Women received TDF/FTC 4.9 h in median before delivery. Biological SAEs occurred in nine women. Among 39 live births, nine infants had clinical SAEs, including four deaths, and two developed severe anaemia. These SAEs were not likely to be related to TDF/FTC. Maternal viral load decreased by a median of 0.90 log10 copies/ml at 2 days postpartum and returned to baseline value at 28 days. No intrapartum HIV transmission was reported. No genotypic resistance mutation to zidovudine, nevirapine, FTC or TDF was detected. CONCLUSION: The TDF/FTC combination was well tolerated in delivering women and exposed newborns. Nevirapine viral resistance appears to have been avoided by the intrapartum and 7-day postpartum TDF/FTC regimen.
    AIDS (London, England) 01/2009; 23(7):825-33. · 4.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were to evaluate emtricitabine (FTC) pharmacokinetics in pregnant women and their neonates and to determine the optimal prophylactic dose for neonates after birth to prevent mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A total of 38 HIV-infected pregnant women were administered tenofovir disoproxyl fumarate (300 mg)-FTC (200 mg) tablets-two tablets at the initiation of labor and one daily for 7 days postpartum. By pair, 11 maternal, one cord blood, and two neonatal FTC concentrations were measured using a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry validated method and analyzed by a population approach. Model and mean estimates (interpatient variability) were a two-compartment model for mothers, with an absorption rate constant of 0.54 h(-1) (61%), apparent elimination and intercompartmental clearances of 23.2 (17%) and 6.04 liters x h(-1), and apparent central and peripheral volumes of 127 and 237 liters, respectively; an effect compartment linked to maternal circulation for cord blood and a neonatal compartment disconnected, after delivery, with a 10.6-h half-life (30%). After the 400-mg FTC administration, the median population area under the concentration-time curve and the minimal and maximal plasma FTC concentrations in pregnant women were 14.3 mg x liter(-1) x h and 1.68 and 0.076 mg/liter, respectively. At delivery, median (range) predicted maternal and cord blood FTC concentrations were, respectively, 1.16 (0.14 to 1.99) and 0.72 (0.05 to 1.19) mg x liter(-1). We concluded that the 400-mg FTC administration in pregnant women produces higher exposition than does the 200-mg administration in other adults, at steady state. FTC was shown to have good placental transfer (80%). Administering 1 mg FTC/kg as soon as possible after birth or 2 mg/kg 12 h after birth should produce neonatal concentrations comparable to the concentrations observed in adults.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 01/2009; 53(3):1067-73. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    International Journal of Epidemiology 07/2008; 37(3):474-80. · 6.98 Impact Factor
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    Elise Arrivé, François Dabis
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    ABSTRACT: With the large international mobilization against HIV/AIDS, more HIV-infected people in resource-limited settings have access to antiretroviral therapy, including pregnant women. The relevance of simplified prophylactic antiretroviral regimens for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV may become questionable due to their lower efficacy and their higher risk of inducing viral resistance than fully suppressive antiretroviral therapy. Field implementation of current recommendations, impact of prophylactic regimens on subsequent antiretroviral therapy response and possible new indications of antiretroviral therapy in pregnant women will be reviewed in this paper. Prophylactic antiretroviral prevention of mother-to-child transmission regimens reached only 10% of the HIV-infected pregnant women in 2006, who were usually offered single-dose nevirapine only. The operational links between antenatal care and antiretroviral therapy programmes can now be documented and demonstrate good results in terms of safety and efficacy. The negative impact of single-dose nevirapine exposure on subsequent first-line antiretroviral therapy appears worse for mothers with advanced HIV disease at the time of delivery and short interval before antiretroviral therapy initiation. Strengthening the links between antenatal care and antiretroviral therapy programmes is critical for antiretroviral therapy-eligible HIV-infected pregnant women in terms of prevention of mother-to-child transmission and subsequent antiretroviral therapy response. The breastfeeding period could be a new indication for antiretroviral therapy in this population.
    Current opinion in HIV and AIDS 04/2008; 3(2):161-5. · 4.75 Impact Factor
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    Retrovirology 01/2008; · 5.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Single-dose nevirapine (NVP) is the main option for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV-1 in countries with limited resources. However, the use of single-dose NVP results in HIV-1 viral resistance which could compromise the success of subsequent treatment of mother and child with antiretroviral combinations that include non-nucleosidic-reverse-transcriptase inhibitors. This systematic review and meta-analysis of summarized data aimed to estimate the proportion of mothers and children with NVP resistance mutations detected in plasma samples 4-8 weeks postpartum after single-dose NVP use for PMTCT. Systematic search of electronic databases (MEDLINE, PASCAL) and conference proceedings (1997 to February 2006). Inclusion of all studies, without design, place or language restrictions, meeting the following criteria: use of single-dose NVP; viral genotyping performed with standard sequence analyses, between 4 and 8 weeks postpartum, in plasma samples; available public report; report of mothers' median baseline plasma HIV-1 RNA levels. Data extraction by two independent reviewers using a standardized form created for this purpose. Logistic random effect models to obtain pooled estimates. Univariable and multivariable meta-regression to explore sources of heterogeneity. The pooled estimate of NVP resistance prevalence was 35.7% [95% confidence interval (CI) 23.0-50.6] in women in 10 study arms using single-dose NVP +/- other antepartum antiretrovirals and 4.5% (CI 2.1-9.4) in three study arms providing also postpartum antiretrovirals (adjusted odds ratio 0.08; CI 0.04-0.16). The corresponding estimates in children were 52.6% (CI 37.7-67.0) in seven study arms using single-dose NVP only and 16.5% (CI 8.9-28.3) in eight study arms combining single-dose NVP with other antiretrovirals. Single-dose NVP is widely used for PMTCT in resource-poor settings, but the burden of viral resistance is high in both women and children. It is substantially lower in studies providing additional postpartum antiretrovirals. The clinical implications of these findings should be further investigated.
    International Journal of Epidemiology 11/2007; 36(5):1009-21. · 6.98 Impact Factor
  • Elise Arrivé, François Dabis
    Future HIV Therapy 01/2007; 1(1):91-101.

Publication Stats

312 Citations
84.84 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • Institut de Recherches Mathematiques , Cote d'Ivoire, Abidjan
      Abijan, Lagunes, Ivory Coast
  • 2007–2012
    • Unité Inserm U1077
      Caen, Lower Normandy, France
  • 2010–2011
    • Unité de Recherche Clinique de Nanoro
      Wagadugu, Centre, Burkina Faso
  • 2008–2011
    • Université Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2
      • Institut de Santé Publique d'Epidémiologie et de Développement (ISPED)
      Bordeaux, Aquitaine, France
  • 2009–2010
    • Université René Descartes - Paris 5
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France