[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two known recurrent constitutional translocations, t(11;22) and t(17;22), as well as a non-recurrent t(4;22), display derivative chromosomes that have joined to a common site within the low copy repeat B (LCR-B) region of 22q11.2. This breakpoint is located between two AT-rich inverted repeats that form a nearly perfect palindrome. Breakpoints within the 11q23, 17q11 and 4q35 partner chromosomes also fall near the center of palindromic sequences. In the present work the breakpoints of a fourth translocation involving LCR-B, a balanced ependymoma-associated t(1;22), were characterized not only to localize this junction relative to known genes, but also to further understand the mechanism underlying these rearrangements. FISH mapping was used to localize the 22q11.2 breakpoint to LCR-B and the 1p21 breakpoint to single BAC clones. STS mapping narrowed the 1p21.2 breakpoint to a 1990 bp AT-rich region, and junction fragments were amplified by nested PCR. Junction fragment-derived sequence indicates that the 1p21.2 breakpoint splits a 278 nt palindrome capable of forming stem-loop secondary structure. In contrast, the 1p21.2 reference genomic sequence from clones in the database does not exhibit this configuration, suggesting a predisposition for regional genomic instability perhaps etiologic for this rearrangement. Given its similarity to known chromosomal fragile site (FRA) sequences, this polymorphic 1p21.2 sequence may represent one of the FRA1 loci. Comparative analysis of the secondary structure of sequences surrounding translocation breakpoints that involve LCR-B with those not involving this region indicate a unique ability of the former to form stem-loop structures. The relative likelihood of forming these configurations appears to be related to the rate of translocation occurrence. Further analysis suggests that constitutional translocations in general occur between sequences of similar melting temperature and propensity for secondary structure.
Human Molecular Genetics 02/2004; 13(1):103-15. · 7.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Palindromic AT-rich repeats (PATRRs) on chromosomes 11q23 and 22q11 at the constitutional t(11;22) breakpoint are predicted to induce genomic instability, which mediates the translocation. A PCR-based translocation-detection system for the t(11;22) has been developed with PCR primers flanking the PATRRs of both chromosomes, to examine the involvement of the PATRRs in the recurrent rearrangement. Forty unrelated carriers of the t(11;22) balanced translocation, plus two additional, independent cases with the supernumerary-der(22) syndrome, were analyzed to compare their translocation breakpoints. Similar translocation-specific junction fragments were obtained from both derivative chromosomes in all 40 carriers of the t(11;22) balanced translocation and from the der(22) in both of the offspring with unbalanced supernumerary-der(22) syndrome, suggesting that the breakpoints in all cases localize within these PATRRs and that the translocation is generated by a similar mechanism. This PCR strategy provides a convenient technique for rapid diagnosis of the translocation, indicating its utility for prenatal and preimplantation diagnosis in families including carriers of the balanced translocation.
The American Journal of Human Genetics 10/2000; · 11.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human Bik gene codes for a strong pro-apoptotic protein BIK. We have used fluorescent in-situ hybridization to establish the chromosomal localization of the Bik gene to 22q13.3. Genomic clones of the Bik gene were identified from a cosmid library of chromosome 22. Detailed analysis of the Bik gene revealed that it spans a region of about 19kb and comprises of five exons. Sequence analysis indicated that the 5' flanking region of Bik lacks canonical TATA and CAAT boxes but directs transcriptional initiation from a single site. A 1.9kb region containing the promoter elements of the Bik gene was identified and was found to direct expression of the reporter cat gene in transient transfection studies. By mutational analysis, the minimal Bik promoter was localized to a region between -211 to +153. Northern blot analysis showed a ubiquitous expression profile of the Bik mRNA with elevated levels of expression in heart and skeletal muscle.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The constitutional t(11;22)(q23;q11) is the only known recurrent, non-Robertsonian translocation. To analyze the genomic structure of the breakpoint, we have cloned the junction fragments from the der(11) and der(22) of a t(11;22) balanced carrier. On chromosome 11 the translocation occurs within a short, palindromic AT-rich region (ATRR). Likewise, the breakpoint on chromosome 22 has been localized within an ATRR that is part of a larger palindrome. Interestingly, the 22q11 breakpoint falls within one of the 'unclonable' gaps in the genomic sequence. Further, a sequenced chromosome 11 BAC clone, spanning the t(11;22) breakpoint in 11q23, is deleted within the palindromic ATRR, suggesting instability of this region in bacterial clones. Several unrelated t(11;22) families demonstrate similar breakpoints on both chromosomes, indicating that their translocations are within the same palindrome. It is likely that the palindromic ATRRs produce unstable DNA structures in 22q11 and 11q23 that are responsible for the recurrent t(11;22) translocation.
Human Molecular Genetics 08/2000; 9(11):1665-70. · 7.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, which includes DiGeorge and velocardiofacial syndromes (DGS/VCFS), is the most common microdeletion syndrome. The majority of deleted patients share a common 3 Mb hemizygous deletion of 22q11.2. The remaining patients include those who have smaller deletions that are nested within the 3 Mb typically deleted region (TDR) and a few with rare deletions that have no overlap with the TDR. The identification of chromosome 22-specific duplicated sequences or low copy repeats (LCRs) near the end-points of the 3 Mb TDR has led to the hypothesis that they mediate deletions of 22q11.2. The entire 3 Mb TDR has been sequenced, permitting detailed investigation of the LCRs and their involvement in the 22q11.2 deletions. Sequence analysis has identified four LCRs within the 3 Mb TDR. Although the LCRs differ in content and organization of shared modules, those modules that are common between them share 97-98% sequence identity with one another. By fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis, the end-points of four variant 22q11.2 deletions appear to localize to the LCRs. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and Southern hybridization have been used to identify rearranged junction fragments from three variant deletions. Analysis of junction fragments by PCR and sequencing of the PCR products implicate the LCRs directly in the formation of 22q11.2 deletions. The evolutionary origin of the duplications on chromosome 22 has been assessed by FISH analysis of non-human primates. Multiple signals in Old World monkeys suggest that the duplication events may have occurred at least 20-25 million years ago.
Human Molecular Genetics 04/2000; 9(4):489-501. · 7.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mouse genomic DNA sequence extending 634 kb on proximal mouse chromosome 16 was compared to the corresponding human sequence from chromosome 22q11.2. Haploinsufficiency for this region results in velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) in humans. The mouse region is rearranged into three conserved blocks relative to human, but gene content and position are highly conserved within these blocks. Examination of the boundaries of one of these blocks suggested that the evolutionary chromosomal rearrangement occurred in the mouse lineage, resulting in inactivation of the mouse orthologue of ZNF74. Sequence analysis identified 21 genes and 15 ESTs. These include 2 novel genes, Srec2 and Cals2, and previously undescribed splice variants of several other genes. Exon discovery was carried out using GRAIL2, MZEF, or comparative analysis across 491 kb of conserved mouse and human sequence. Sequence comparison was highly effective, identifying every gene and nearly every exon without the high frequency of false-positive predictions seen when algorithmic methods were used alone. In combination, these procedures identified every gene with no false-positive predictions. Comparative sequence analysis also revealed regions of extensive conservation among noncoding sequences, accounting for 6% of the sequence. A library of such sequences has been established to form a resource for generalized studies of regulatory and structural elements.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Knowledge of the complete genomic DNA sequence of an organism allows a systematic approach to defining its genetic components. The genomic sequence provides access to the complete structures of all genes, including those without known function, their control elements, and, by inference, the proteins they encode, as well as all other biologically important sequences. Furthermore, the sequence is a rich and permanent source of information for the design of further biological studies of the organism and for the study of evolution through cross-species sequence comparison. The power of this approach has been amply demonstrated by the determination of the sequences of a number of microbial and model organisms. The next step is to obtain the complete sequence of the entire human genome. Here we report the sequence of the euchromatic part of human chromosome 22. The sequence obtained consists of 12 contiguous segments spanning 33.4 megabases, contains at least 545 genes and 134 pseudogenes, and provides the first view of the complex chromosomal landscapes that will be found in the rest of the genome.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The t(11;22) is the only known recurrent, non-Robertsonian constitutional translocation. We have analyzed t(11;22) balanced-translocation carriers from multiple unrelated families by FISH, to localize the t(11;22) breakpoints on both chromosome 11 and chromosome 22. In 23 unrelated balanced-translocation carriers, the breakpoint was localized within a 400-kb interval between D22S788 (N41) and ZNF74, on 22q11. Also, 13 of these 23 carriers were tested with probes from chromosome 11, and, in each, the breakpoint was localized between D11S1340 and APOA1, on 11q23, to a region ⩽185 kb. Thus, the breakpoints on both chromosome 11 and chromosome 22 are clustered in multiple unrelated families. Supernumerary-der(22)t(11;22) syndrome can occur in the progeny of balanced-t(11;22) carriers, because of malsegregation of the der(22). There has been speculation regarding the mechanism by which the malsegregation occurs. To elucidate this mechanism, we have analyzed 16 of the t(11;22) families, using short tandem-repeat–polymorphism markers on both chromosome 11 and chromosome 22. In all informative cases the proband received two of three alleles, for markers above the breakpoint on chromosome 22 and below the breakpoint on chromosome 11, from the t(11;22)-carrier parent. These data strongly suggest that 3:1 meiosis I malsegregation in the t(11;22) balanced-translocation–carrier parent is the mechanism in all 16 families. Taken together, these results establish that the majority of t(11;22) translocations occur within the same genomic intervals and that the majority of supernumerary-der(22) offspring result from a 3:1 meiosis I malsegregation in the balanced-translocation carrier.
The American Journal of Human Genetics 12/1999; · 11.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The apparent lack of genotype/phenotype correlation in patients with the DiGeorge anomaly and velocardiofacial syndrome (DGA/VCFS; the "22q11 deletion syndrome") indicates a complex genetic condition. Most cases, whatever the phenotype, have a 1.5-3 Mb chromosomal deletion that includes the minimal DiGeorge critical region (MDGCR). Another potential critical region on 22q11 has been suggested based on two patients with distal deletions outside the MDGCR. We report on a patient with a VCFS phenotype who has a deletion, mapped by short tandem repeat polymorphic loci and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis, distal to and not overlapping the MDGCR. This patient is deleted for several genes, including the T-box 1 gene (TBX1; a transcription regulator expressed early in embryogenesis) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT; involved in neurotransmitter metabolism). We discuss the role these two genes may play in the clinical phenotype of the patient.
American Journal of Medical Genetics 10/1999; 86(1):27-33.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Proximal mouse Chromosome (Chr) 16 shows conserved synteny with human Chrs 16, 8, 22, and 3. The mouse Chr 16/human Chr 22 conserved synteny region includes the DiGeorge/Velocardiofacial syndrome region of human Chr 22q11.2. A physical map of the entire mouse Chr 16/human Chr 22 region of conserved synteny has been constructed to provide a substrate for gene discovery, genomic sequencing, and animal model development. A YAC contig was constructed that extends ca. 5.4 Mb from a region of conserved synteny with human Chr 8 at Prkdc through the region conserved with human Chr 3 at DVL3. Sixty-one markers including 37 genes are mapped with average marker spacing of 90 kb. Physical distance was determined across the 2.6-Mb region from D16Mit74 to Hira with YAC fragmentation. The central region from D16Jhu28 to Igl-C1 was converted into BAC and PAC clones, further refining the physical map and providing sequence-ready template. The gene content and borders of three blocks of conserved linkage between human Chr 22q11.2 mouse Chr 16 are refined.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The vast majority of patients with DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) and velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) have deletions of chromosomal region 22q11.2. These patients exhibit broad and variable phenotypes that include conotruncal cardiac defects, hypocalcemia, palatal and facial anomalies and developmental delay. Most of these abnormalities are thought to be due to defects in neural crest cell migration or differentiation. We have identified a homeobox-containing gene, Goosecoid-like (GSCL), that is in the region within 22q11 that is deleted most consistently in patients with DGS/VCFS. The GSCL gene is expressed in a limited number of adult tissues as well as in early human development, and is a member of a family of homeobox genes in vertebrates that includes Goosecoid and GSX. In this report, we present functional studies of the GSCL protein and determine the expression pattern of the GSCL gene in mouse embryos. We demonstrate that GSCL exhibits DNA sequence-specific recognition of sites bound by the Drosophila anterior morphogen, Bicoid. Several of these sites (TAATCCC) were found in the 5' upstream region of the GSCL gene itself, and we present evidence suggesting that GSCL might regulate its own transcription. In situ hybridization revealed that the mouse ortholog of GSCL, Gscl, is expressed in the brain starting as early as embryonic day 9.5, and expression continues in adults. This expression pattern is consistent with GSCL having either an indirect role in the development of neural crest-derived structures or a direct role in a subset of the phenotype observed in DGS/VCFS, such as learning disorders or psychiatric disease.
Human Molecular Genetics 10/1998; 7(9):1497-505. · 7.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and D-dopachrome tautomerase (DDT) are small proteins, which are related both by sequence and by in vitro enzyme activity. Here we show that the gene for DDT in human and mouse is identical in exon structure to MIF. Both genes have two introns that are located at equivalent positions, relative to a twofold repeat in protein structure. Although in similar positions, the introns are in different phases relative to the open reading frame. Other members of this superfamily exist in nematodes and a plant, and a related gene in C. elegans shares an intron position with MIF and DDT. In addition to similarities in structure, the genes for DDT and MIF are closely linked on human Chromosome (Chr) 22 and mouse Chr 10.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined the MLL genomic translocation breakpoint in acute myeloid leukemia of infant twins. Southern blot analysis in both cases showed two identical MLL gene rearrangements indicating chromosomal translocation. The rearrangements were detectable in the second twin before signs of clinical disease and the intensity relative to the normal fragment indicated that the translocation was not constitutional. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with an MLL-specific probe and karyotype analyses suggested t(11;22)(q23;q11. 2) disrupting MLL. Known 5' sequence from MLL but unknown 3' sequence from chromosome band 22q11.2 formed the breakpoint junction on the der(11) chromosome. We used panhandle variant PCR to clone the translocation breakpoint. By ligating a single-stranded oligonucleotide that was homologous to known 5' MLL genomic sequence to the 5' ends of BamHI-digested DNA through a bridging oligonucleotide, we formed the stem-loop template for panhandle variant PCR which yielded products of 3.9 kb. The MLL genomic breakpoint was in intron 7. The sequence of the partner DNA from band 22q11.2 was identical to the hCDCrel (human cell division cycle related) gene that maps to the region commonly deleted in DiGeorge and velocardiofacial syndromes. Both MLL and hCDCrel contained homologous CT, TTTGTG, and GAA sequences within a few base pairs of their respective breakpoints, which may have been important in uniting these two genes by translocation. Reverse transcriptase-PCR amplified an in-frame fusion of MLL exon 7 to hCDCrel exon 3, indicating that an MLL-hCDCrel chimeric mRNA had been transcribed. Panhandle variant PCR is a powerful strategy for cloning translocation breakpoints where the partner gene is undetermined. This application of the method identified a region of chromosome band 22q11.2 involved in both leukemia and a constitutional disorder.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/1998; 95(11):6413-8. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The bovine tuftelin gene was cloned and its structure determined by DNA sequence analysis and comparison to bovine tuftelin cDNA. The analyses demonstrated that the cDNA contains a 1014 bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 338 residues with a calculated molecular weight of 38,630 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.85. Although similar, these results differ from those previously published [Deutsch et al. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 16021-16028] which contained a different conceptual amino acid sequence for the carboxy terminal region and identification of a different termination codon because of the absence of a single guanine residue in the published sequence. The protein does not appear to share homology or domain motifs with any other known protein. The bovine gene consists of 13 exons ranging in size from 66 to 1531 bp, the latter containing the encoded carboxy terminal and 3' untranslated regions. These exons are embedded in greater than 28 kbp of genomic DNA and codons are generally not divided at exon/intron borders. Sequence analysis of the cDNA and products produced by reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that exons 2, 5 and 6 are alternatively spliced. The 3' portion of the human gene was also isolated and characterized by DNA sequencing, which demonstrated agreement between the bovine and human sequences in the segment in question. The difference between the presently reported sequence and that of the previously published one suggests the possibility of an unusual type of polymorphism which would result in markedly different amino acid sequences at the carboxy terminal region of the protein. The human tuftelin gene was localized to chromosome 1q21 by in situ hybridization.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The supernumerary cat eye syndrome (CES) chromosome is dicentric, containing two copies of 22pter-->q11.2. We have found that the duplication breakpoints are clustered in two intervals. The more proximal, most common interval is the 450-650 kb region between D22S427 and D22S36, which corresponds to the proximal deletion breakpoint interval found in the 22q11 deletion syndrome (DiGeorge/velocardiofacial syndrome). The more distal duplication breakpoint interval falls between CRKL and D22S112, which overlaps with the common distal deletion interval of the 22q11 deletion syndrome. We have therefore classified CES chromosomes into two types based on the location of the two breakpoints required to generate them. The smaller type I CES chromosomes are symmetrical, with both breakpoints located within the proximal interval. The larger type II CES chromosomes are either asymmetrical, with one breakpoint located in each of the two intervals, or symmetrical, with both breakpoints located in the distal interval. The co-localization of the breakpoints of these different syndromes, plus the presence of low-copy repeats adjacent to each interval, suggests the existence of several specific regions of chromosomal instability in 22q11.2 which are involved in the production of both deletions and duplications. Since the phenotype associated with the larger duplication does not appear to be more severe than that of the smaller duplication, determination of the type of CES chromosome does not currently have prognostic value.
Cytogenetics and cell genetics 01/1998; 81(3-4):222-8.