B R Scott

Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States

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Publications (68)97.23 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: [Letter to the Editor]
    Dose-Response 10/2014; (pre-press). · 1.50 Impact Factor
  • B R Scott, C A Potter
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    ABSTRACT: Whole-body exposure to large radiation doses can cause severe loss of hematopoietic tissue cells and threaten life if the lost cells are not replaced in a timely manner through natural repopulation (a homeostatic mechanism). Repopulation to the baseline level N 0 is called reconstitution and a reconstitution deficit (repopulation shortfall) can occur in a dose-related and organ-specific manner. Scott et al. (2013) previously introduced a deterministic version of a threshold exponential (TE) model of tissue-reconstitution deficit at a given follow-up time that was applied to bone marrow and spleen cellularity (number of constituent cells) data obtained 6 weeks after whole-body gamma-ray exposure of female C.B-17 mice. In this paper a more realistic, stochastic version of the TE model is provided that allows radiation response to vary between different individuals. The Stochastic TE model is applied to post gamma-ray-exposure cellularity data previously reported and also to more limited X-ray cellularity data for whole-body irradiated female C.B-17 mice. Results indicate that the population average threshold for a tissue reconstitution deficit appears to be similar for bone marrow and spleen and for 320-kV-spectrum X-rays and Cs-137 gamma rays. This means that 320-kV spectrum X-rays could successfully be used in conducting such studies.
    Dose-Response 07/2014; 12(3):415-28. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The linear no-threshold (LNT) model of ionizing-radiation-induced cancer is based on the assumption that every radiation dose increment constitutes increased cancer risk for humans. The risk is hypothesized to increase linearly as the total dose increases. While this model is the basis for radiation safety regulations, its scientific validity has been questioned and debated for many decades. The recent memorandum of the International Commission on Radiological Protection admits that the LNT-model predictions at low doses are "speculative, unproven, undetectable and 'phantom'." Moreover, numerous experimental, ecological, and epidemiological studies show that low doses of sparsely-ionizing or sparsely-ionizing plus highly-ionizing radiation may be beneficial to human health (hormesis/adaptive response). The present LNT-model-based regulations impose excessive costs on the society. For example, the median-cost medical program is 5000 times more cost-efficient in saving lives than controlling radiation emissions. There are also lives lost: e.g., following Fukushima accident, more than 1000 disaster-related yet non-radiogenic premature deaths were officially registered among the population evacuated due to radiation concerns. Additional negative impacts of LNT-model-inspired radiophobia include: refusal of some patients to undergo potentially life-saving medical imaging; discouragement of the study of low-dose radiation therapies; motivation for radiological terrorism and promotion of nuclear proliferation.
    Dose-response : a publication of International Hormesis Society. 05/2014; 12(2):342-8.
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    ABSTRACT: The comment is about the general context, namely concerns regarding exposure hazards due to ionizing radiation during air travel. Implicitly, the authors assume what is called linear no-threshold (LNT) model of radiation-induced negative health effects. With the LNT model, it is assumed that each ionizing radiation dose increment, no matter how small, constitutes an increase in the cancer risk to humans. However, the scientific validity of this model has never been proven and has been seriously questioned and debated for many decades. Particularly regarding air travel, epidemiological studies of flight crew have failed to show a consistent increase in cancer risk. On the opposite side of the debate, numerous studies (experimental, epidemiological, and ecological) have shown that low doses of ionizing radiation can be beneficial to health. The above considerations are totally ignored by the referenced article, which, unfortunately, implicitly promotes radiophobia - an irrational fear of radiation hazards. We strongly recommend that papers dealing - though implicitly - with low-dose-radiation health risks, would contain critical scientific review of these risks.
    Space Weather 01/2014; 12. · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Research reported here relates to comparing the relative effectiveness of 320-kV X rays compared to Cs-137 gamma rays for two in vivo endpoints in C.B-17 mice after whole-body exposure: (1) cytotoxicity to bone marrow cells and splenocytes evaluated at 24-hours post exposure and (2) bone marrow and spleen reconstitution deficits (repopulation shortfalls) evaluated at 6 weeks post exposure. We show that cytotoxicity dose-response relationships for bone marrow cells and splenocytes are complex, involving negative curvature (decreasing slope as dose increases), presumably implicating a mixed cell population comprised of large numbers of hypersensitive, modestly radiosensitive, and resistant cells. The radiosensitive cells appear to respond with 50% being killed by a dose < 0.5 Gy. The X-ray relative biological effectiveness (RBE), relative to gamma rays, for destroying bone marrow cells in vivo is > 1, while for destroying splenocytes it is < 1. In contrast, dose-response relationships for reconstitution deficits in the bone marrow and spleen of C.B-17 mice at 6 weeks after radiation exposure were of the threshold type with gamma rays being more effective in causing reconstitution deficit.
    Dose-Response 01/2013; 11:444-459. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    Bobby R Scott
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    ABSTRACT: A novel first-generation stochastic gene episilencing (STEP1) model is introduced for quantitatively characterizing the probability of in vitro epigenetically silencing (episilencing) specific tumor-suppressor-microRNA (miRNA) genes by carcinogen exposure. Although the focus is mainly on in-vitro exposure of human cells to ionizing radiation, the mathematical formulations presented are general and can be applied to other carcinogens. With the STEP1 model, a fraction fj of the surviving target cells can have their tumor-suppressor-miRNA gene of type j silenced while the remaining fraction, 1 - fj , of the surviving cells do not undergo gene episilencing. Suppressor gene episilencing is assumed to arise as a Poisson process characterized with and exponential distribution of episilencing doses with mean dj . In addition to providing mathematical functions for evaluating the single-target-gene episilencing probability, functions are also provided for the multi-target-gene episilencing probability for simultaneously silencing of multiple tumor-suppressor-miRNA genes. Functional relationships are first developed for moderate doses where adaptive responses are unlikely and are then modified for low doses where adaptation can occur. Results apply to a specific follow-up time t after carcinogen exposure that exceeds the maximum time for the occurrence of an induced episilencing event.
    Dose-Response 01/2013; 11(1):9-28. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We show evidence for low doses of γ rays preventing spontaneous hyperplastic foci and adenomas in the lungs of mice, presumably via activating natural anticancer defenses. The evidence partly relates to a new study we conducted whereby a small number of female A/J mice received 6 biweekly dose fractions (100 mGy per fraction) of γ rays to the total body which prevented the occurrence of spontaneous hyperplastic foci in the lung. We also analyzed data from a much earlier Oak Ridge National Laboratory study involving more than 10,000 female RFMf/Un mice whereby single γ-ray doses from 100 to 1,000 mGy prevented spontaneous lung adenomas. We point out the possibility that the decrease in lung cancer mortality observed in The National Lung Screening Trial Research Team study involving lung tumor screening using low-dose computed tomography (CT) may relate at least in part to low-dose X-rays activating the body's natural anticancer defenses (i.e., radiation hormesis). This possibility was apparently not recognized by the indicated research team.
    Dose-Response 12/2012; 10(4):527-40. · 1.50 Impact Factor
  • Bobby R Scott, Ludwik Dobrzyński
    Dose-Response 12/2012; 10(4):462-6. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Low-dose ionizing radiation (LDR) may lead to suppression of smoking-related lung cancer. We examined the effects of a known cigarette smoke carcinogen Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) alone or in combination with fractionated low-dose gamma radiation (60 - 600 mGy total dose) on the induction of lung neoplasms in the A/J mouse. Our results show that 600 mGy of gamma radiation delivered in six biweekly fractions of 100 mGy starting 1 month after B[a]P injection significantly inhibits the development of lung adenomas per animal induced by B[a]P. Our data also indicated that the six biweekly doses suppressed the occurrence of spontaneous hyperplastic foci in the lung, although this suppression failed to reach statistical significance when analyzed as average foci per lung possibly related to the small sample sizes used for the control and test groups.
    Dose-Response 12/2012; 10(4):516-26. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Researchers in the field of radiation microdosimetry have attempted to explain the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of different ionising photon radiation sources on the basis of the singly stochastic, microdose metric lineal energy y, which only addresses physical stochasticity related to energy (ε) deposition via single events in the critical targets (cell nuclei assumed here). Biological stochasticity related to variable nuclei geometries and cell orientations (relative to the incoming radiation) is usually not addressed. Here a doubly stochastic microdose metric, the single-event hit size q (=ε/T), is introduced which allows the track length T to be stochastic. The new metric is used in a plausible model of metabolic-activity-based in vitro cytotoxicity of low-dose ionising photon radiation. The cytotoxicity model has parameters E{q} (average single-event hit size with q assumed to be exponentially distributed) and E{α}, which is the average value of the cellular response parameter α. E{α} is referred to as the biological signature and it is independent of q. Only E{q} is needed for determination of RBE. The model is used to obtain biological-microdosimetry-based q spectra for 320-kV X-rays and (137)Cs gamma rays and the related RBE for cytotoxicity. The spectra are similar to published lineal energy y spectra for 200-kV X-rays and (60)Co gamma rays for 1-μm biological targets.
    Radiation Protection Dosimetry 08/2012; · 0.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite decades of research in defining the health effects of low-dose (<100 mGy) ionizing photon radiation (LDR), the relationship between LDR and human cancer risk remains elusive. Because chemical carcinogens modify the tumor microenvironment, which is critical for cancer development, we investigated the role and mechanism of LDR in modulating the response of stromal cells to chemical carcinogen-induced lung cancer development. Secretion of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), CXCL1 and CXCL5 from human lung fibroblasts was induced by cigarette-smoke carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE), which was inhibited by a single dose of LDR. The activation of NF-κB, which is important for BPDE-induced IL-6 secretion, was also effectively suppressed by LDR. In addition, conditioned media from BPDE-treated fibroblasts activated STAT3 in the immortalized normal human bronchial epithelial cell line Beas-2B, which was blocked with an IL-6 neutralizing antibody. Conditioned medium from LDR-primed and BPDE-treated fibroblast showed diminished capacity in activating STAT3. Furthermore, IL-6 enhanced BPDE-induced Beas-2B cell transformation in vitro. These results suggest that LDR inhibits cigarette smoke-induced lung carcinogenesis by suppressing secretion of cytokines such as IL-6 from fibroblasts in lung tumor-prone microenvironment.
    Carcinogenesis 05/2012; 33(7):1368-74. · 5.64 Impact Factor
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    Bobby R Scott
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    ABSTRACT: Engineered metallic nanomaterial particles (MENAP) represent a significant breakthrough in developing new products for use by consumers and industry. Skin application (e.g., via creams and sprays containing nanoparticles) may provide a key route of potential intake of MENAP and can lead to retrograde transport from nerve endings in the skin to the somatosensory neurons in dorsal root ganglia (DRG). This paper uses a novel theoretical model (stochastic threshold microdose [STM] model) to characterize survival of DRG neurons exposed in cell culture replicates to copper nanoparticles, based on published data. Cell death via autophagy is assumed here to occur as a result of the uptake (called hits) of the nanoparticles by mitochondria. Theoretical results are presented for the existence of a hypersensitive fraction (about 20%) of neurons that are killed in significant numbers when on average > 1 hit to the at-risk mitochondria occurs. Further, most hypersensitive neurons appear to be killed by a cumulative exposure of about 2,000 micromolar-hours and the remaining resistant cells may have dysfunctional mitochondria. Based on these theoretical findings, it is predicted that repeated exposure (e.g., over years) of the skin of humans to MENAP could lead to significant nervous system damage and related morbidity.
    Dose-Response 01/2012; 10(1):37-57. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    Bobby R Scott
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    ABSTRACT: Residential radon has been found to be associated with lung cancer in epidemiological/ecological studies and the researchers have inappropriately concluded that residential radon causes lung cancer. Their conclusion relates to the linear-no-threshold (LNT) hypothesis-based, risk-assessment paradigm; however, the LNT hypothesis has been invalidated in numerous studies. It is shown in this paper that our hormetic relative risk (HRR) model is consistent with lung cancer data where detailed measurements of radon in each home were carried out. Based on the HRR model, low-level radon radioactive progeny is credited for activated natural protection (ANP) against lung cancer including smoking-related lung cancer. The proportion B(x) (benefit function) of ANP beneficiaries increases as the average radon level x increases to near the Environmental Protection Agency's action level of 4 picocuries/L (approximately 150 Bq m(-3)). As the average level of radon increases to somewhat above the action level, ANP beneficiaries progressively decrease to zero (B(x) decreases to 0), facilitating the occurrence of smoking-related lung cancers as well as those related to other less important risk factors. Thus, residential radon does not appear to cause lung cancer but rather to protect, in an exposure-level-dependent manner, from its induction by other agents (e.g., cigarette-smoke-related carcinogens).
    Dose-Response 01/2011; 9(4):444-64. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    Bobby R Scott
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    ABSTRACT: The multicellular signaling model (MULTISIG1) was recently introduced to simulate the kinetics of repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) that were induced in confluent (non-dividing) cultured cells by a very low radiation dose where at most a single induced DSB would be expected in a given cell nucleus. The repair kinetics was modeled as representing what is now called an epigenetically-regulated (epiregulated) cell-community-wide (epicellcom) response to radiation stress. DSB repair initiation is assumed to require a threshold number of cells with DSBs participating in intercellular stress-response signaling. The MULTISIG1 model is extended in this study to apply to moderate doses where several DSBs can occur on the same DNA molecule. The repair of multiple breaks on the same molecule is treated as sequential stochastic events. For cells of differing genetic characteristics and epigenetic statuses, relationships are provided for evaluating the relative susceptibility (RS) for DSB induction, relative repair capacity (RRC) for DSB repair, and relative epiapoptosis capacity (REC), for epigenetically regulated apoptosis. The modified MULTISIG1 model is used to characterize the expected repair kinetics for confluent, human lung fibroblasts (MRC-5 line) briefly exposed in vitro to 90-kV x-rays. Possible application of the model to biological dosimetry is also discussed.
    Dose-Response 01/2011; 9(4):579-601. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Numerous studies have reported on cancers among Mayak Production Association (PA) nuclear workers. Other studies have reported on serious deterministic effects of large radiation doses for the same population. This study relates to deterministic effects (respiratory system dysfunction) in Mayak workers after relatively small chronic radiation doses (alpha plus gamma). Because cigarette smoke is a confounding factor, we also account for smoking effects. Here we present a new empirical mathematical model that was introduced for simultaneous assessment of radiation and cigarette-smoking-related damage to the respiratory system. The model incorporates absolute thresholds for smoking- and radiation-induced respiratory system dysfunction. As the alpha radiation dose to the lung increased from 0 to 4.36 Gy, respiratory function indices studied decreased, although remaining in the normal range. The data were consistent with the view that alpha radiation doses to the lung above a relatively small threshold (0.15 to 0.39 Gy) cause some respiratory system dysfunction. Respiratory function indices were not found to be influenced by total-body gamma radiation doses in the range 0-3.8 Gy when delivered at low rates over years. However, significant decreases in airway conductance were found to be associated with cigarette smoking. Whether the indicated cigarette smoking and alpha radiation associated dysfunction is debilitating is unclear.
    Dose-Response 02/2008; 6(4):319-32. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    Kanokporn Noy Rithidech, Bobby R Scott
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    ABSTRACT: Previous research has demonstrated that adding a very small gamma-ray dose to a small alpha radiation dose can completely suppress lung cancer induction by alpha radiation (a gamma-ray hormetic effect). Here we investigated the possibility of gamma-ray hormesis during low-dose neutron irradiation, since a small contribution to the total radiation dose from neutrons involves gamma rays. Using binucleated cells with micronuclei (micronucleated cells) among in vitro monoenergetic-neutron-irradiated human lymphocytes as a measure of residual damage, we investigated the influence of the small gamma-ray contribution to the dose on suppressing residual damage. We used residual damage data from previous experiments that involved neutrons with five different energies (0.22-, 0.44-, 1.5-, 5.9-, and 13.7-million electron volts [MeV]). Corresponding gamma-ray contributions to the dose were approximately 1%, 1%, 2%, 6%, and 6%, respectively. Total absorbed radiation doses were 0, 10, 50, and 100 mGy for each neutron source. We demonstrate for the first time a protective effect (reduced residual damage) of the small gamma-ray contribution to the neutron dose. Using similar data for exposure to gamma rays only, we also demonstrate a protective effect of 10 mGy (but not 50 or 100 mGy) related to reducing the frequency of micronucleated cells to below the spontaneous level.
    Dose-Response 02/2008; 6(3):252-71. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    B R Scott
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    ABSTRACT: Research is being conducted world-wide related to chemoprevention of future lung cancer among smokers. The fact that low doses and dose rates of some sparsely ionizing forms of radiation (e.g., x rays, gamma rays, and beta radiation) stimulate transient natural chemical and biological protection against cancer in high-risk individuals is little known. The cancer preventative properties relate to radiation adaptive response (radiation hormesis) and involve stimulated protective biological signaling (a mild stress response). The biological processes associated with the protective signaling are now better understood and include: increased availability of efficient DNA double-strand break repair (p53-related and in competition with normal apoptosis), stimulated auxiliary apoptosis of aberrant cells (presumed p53-independent), and stimulated protective immune functions. This system of low-dose radiation activated natural protection (ANP) requires an individual-specific threshold level of mild stress and when invoked can efficiently prevent the occurrence of cancers as well as other genomic-instability-associated diseases. In this paper, low, essentially harmless doses of gamma rays spread over an extended period are shown via use of a biological-based, hormetic relative risk (HRR) model to be highly efficient in preventing lung cancer induction by alpha radiation from inhaled plutonium.
    Dose-Response 02/2008; 6(3):299-318. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons. 01/2008;
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    Charles L Sanders, Bobby R Scott
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    ABSTRACT: Confounding factors in radiation pulmonary carcinogenesis are passive and active cigarette smoke exposures and radiation hormesis. Significantly increased lung cancer risk from ionizing radiation at lung doses < 1 Gy is not observed in never smokers exposed to ionizing radiations. Residential radon is not a cause of lung cancer in never smokers and may protect against lung cancer in smokers. The risk of lung cancer found in many epidemiological studies was less than the expected risk (hormetic effect) for nuclear weapons and power plant workers, shipyard workers, fluoroscopy patients, and inhabitants of high-dose background radiation. The protective effect was noted for low- and mixed high- and low-linear energy transfer (LET) radiations in both genders. Many studies showed a protection factor (PROFAC) > 0.40 (40% avoided) against the occurrence of lung cancer. The ubiquitous nature of the radiation hormesis response in cellular, animal, and epidemio-logical studies negates the healthy worker effect as an explanation for radiation hormesis. Low-dose radiation may stimulate DNA repair/apoptosis and immunity to suppress and eliminate cigarette-smoke-induced transformed cells in the lung, reducing lung cancer occurrence in smokers.
    Dose-Response 01/2008; 6(1):53-79. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adaptive responses are induced by stress such as X radiation and result in a lower than expected biological response. Two-dose adaptive response experiments typically involve a low priming dose followed by a subsequent high radiation dose. Here, we used a sensitive in vivo chromosomal inversion assay to demonstrate for the first time an adaptive response when a low dose (0.01-1 mGy) was given several hours after a high 1000-mGy radiation dose. The adaptive responses in this study were of similar magnitude to the two-dose adaptive responses previously observed in this test system when the low dose was given first. A chromosomal inversion adaptive response was also induced by two 1000-mGy doses and when a 1-mGy dose was preceded or followed by a dose of 0.01 mGy, but not by two 4000-mGy doses. This is also the first example of an adaptive response when both doses are low. Our data agree with previous reports of an on-off mechanism of adaptive response. The induction of an adaptive response by a low dose after a high damaging dose provides evidence that the mechanisms underlying radiation adaptive responses are not due to prevention of damage induced by the high dose but to modulation of the cellular response to this damage.
    Radiation Research 07/2007; 167(6):682-92. · 2.70 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

453 Citations
97.23 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1980–2014
    • Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute
      • Respiratory Immunology and Asthma Program
      Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States
  • 2008
    • Stony Brook University
      • Department of Pathology
      Stony Brook, NY, United States
    • Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
      • Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2002
    • University of Salzburg
      Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria
  • 2001
    • Karolinska Institutet
      • Institutet för miljömedicin - IMM
      Solna, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 1995
    • University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences
      Little Rock, Arkansas, United States