[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine if alemtuzumab consolidation improves response rate and progression-free survival (PFS) after induction chemoimmunotherapy in previously untreated symptomatic patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Patients (n = 102) received fludarabine 25 mg/m(2) intravenously days 1 to 5 and rituximab 50 mg/m(2) day 1, 325 mg/m(2) day 3, and 375 mg/m(2) day 5 of cycle 1 and then 375 mg/m(2) day 1 of cycles 2 to 6; fludarabine plus rituximab (FR) administration was repeated every 28 days for six cycles. Three months after completion of FR, patients with stable disease or better response received subcutaneous alemtuzumab 3 mg day 1, 10 mg day 3, and 30 mg day 5 and then 30 mg three times per week for 5 weeks.
Overall response (OR), complete response (CR), and partial response (PR) rates were 90%, 29%, and 61% after FR, respectively; 15% of patients were minimal residual disease (MRD) negative. Of 102 patients, 58 received alemtuzumab; 28 (61%) of 46 patients achieving PR after FR attained CR after alemtuzumab. By intent to treat (n = 102), OR and CR rates were 90% and 57% after alemtuzumab, respectively; 42% of patients became MRD negative. With median follow-up of 36 months, median PFS was 36 months, 2-year PFS was 72%, and 2-year OS was 86%. In patients achieving CR after FR, alemtuzumab was associated with five deaths resulting from infection (viral and Listeria meningitis and Legionella, cytomegalovirus, and Pneumocystis pneumonias), which occurred up to 7 months after last therapy. The study was amended to exclude CR patients from receiving alemtuzumab.
Alemtuzumab consolidation improved CR and MRD-negative rates after FR induction but caused serious infections in patients who had already achieved CR after induction and did not improve 2-year PFS or survival.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 10/2010; 28(29):4500-6. · 18.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of nucleoside analog-based chemo-immunotherapeutic regimens over the last decade has significantly improved outcomes in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Nonetheless, virtually all patients with CLL relapse from chemoimmmunotherapy and current available therapies are not curative. Identifying therapies that effectively eliminate CLL cells and lack immunesuppression represent an exciting new therapeutic approach. IMiDs are a class of immunomodulating drugs that increase T-cell and NK-cell directed killing of tumor cells. The first generation molecule is thalidomide followed by a second generation molecule lenalidomide that lacks neurotoxicity and is being explored more extensively in clinical trials. Lenalidomide has been shown to benefit patients with multiple myeloma, myelodysplastic syndromes, and lymphoma. Initial reports in patients with relapsed and refractory CLL have shown promising responses. In a subset of patients with CLL complete responses have been noted. Subsequent studies, however, have suggested that this class of drug can also have serious and potentially life-threatening side effects including myelosuppression, tumor flare reaction and in a small subset of patients tumor lysis syndrome. Tumor flare with both thalidomide and lenalidomide appear to be disease specific to CLL and may reflect clinical manifestation of CLL tumor cell activation. As a consequence of these disease specific effects, the optimal safe dose of lenalidomide in CLL remains to be determined but appears to be lower than that tolerated in other B-cell malignancies. To date, biomarkers for response remain poorly defined and the relationship of clinical benefit to tumor flare is uncertain. This review examines the existing literature on the use of IMiDs in patients with CLL and provides suggestions for future research in this area.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells are susceptible to oxidative stress. The expanded porphyrin, motexafin gadolinium (MGd), reacts with intracellular reducing metabolites and protein thiols to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). A phase II trial administered MGd 5 mg/kg/day IV for 5 days every 3 weeks until disease progression to patients with previously treated CLL and small lymphocytic lymphoma. Thirteen patients (median age 66 years) with a median of four prior therapies (range 2-9) were enrolled. Modest anti-tumor activity was seen in three patients, with improvement in lymphocytosis, lymphadenopathy and/or splenomegaly, but no patient achieved a partial or complete response by NCI 96 criteria. Flow cytometry confirmed tumor uptake of MGd. Serial increase in AKT phosphorylation in patient samples following MGd treatment was not observed, suggesting intracellular generation of ROS was not optimal. Therefore, this schedule of administration achieved MGd uptake into primary tumor cells in vivo, but clinical activity was modest.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apolizumab (Hu1D10), a humanized monoclonal anti- Human leukocyte antigen -DR beta-chain antibody, mediates apoptosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells in vitro. We conducted a phase I/II dose-escalation study of thrice-weekly apolizumab (1.5, 3.0, 5.0 mg/kg/dose) for 4 weeks in relapsed CLL. Two of six patients at 5.0 mg/kg/dose developed treatment-related dose-limiting toxicity (aseptic meningitis, hemolytic uremia). Other toxicities included infusion toxicity, urticaria, and headache. Eleven patients were enrolled in a phase I/II expansion to evaluate the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of 3.0 mg/kg/dose. In total, 23 patients were enrolled (22 CLL, 1 ALL). Nineteen patients with CLL were treated at or above the MTD. One partial response was observed, and three patients had stable disease exceeding 6 months. Pharmacokinetic analysis demonstrated a dose-dependent C(max) increase and serum antibody accumulation after week 1 of therapy. Given the toxicity and lack of efficacy in this and other trials in lymphoma and solid tumors, further development of apolizumab was discontinued.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rituximab has modest activity in relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)/small lymphocytic lymphoma but is associated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) release that can cause CLL proliferation and inhibit apoptosis. We examined whether disruption of TNF-alpha by etanercept improves response to rituximab in CLL. Eligible patients had previously treated CLL with performance status 0-3. Patients received etanercept 25 mg subcutaneously twice weekly (weeks 1-5) and rituximab 375 mg/m(2) intravenously thrice weekly (weeks 2-5) using a phase I/II design. Primary end points were response and toxicity. The 36 enrolled patients had a median of two prior treatments; 50% were fludarabine refractory and 22% had del(17p13.1). Of the 34 response-evaluable patients, 10 (29%) responded, including 9 partial responses and 1 complete remission. Response was not affected by prior rituximab or fludarabine-refractory status, but no patients with del(17p13.1) responded. Median progression-free survival for responders was 9.0 months (range 1-43). Ten patients have had treatment-free intervals exceeding 12 months, including four who have remained untreated for 32, 43, 46 and 56 months. Adverse events were mild, including mild infusion reactions, transient cytopenias and grade 3 infections in 14% of the patients. The combination of etanercept and thrice weekly rituximab produces durable remissions in non-del(17p13.1) CLL patients and is well tolerated.
Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 03/2009; 23(5):912-8. · 10.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: National Cancer Institute-sponsored Working Group (NCI-WG) response criteria for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) rely on physical examination, blood, and bone marrow evaluations. The widespread use of computed tomography (CT) scans has prompted many to advocate for the incorporation of this test into CLL response criteria.
In a retrospective review of 82 CLL patients treated at the Ohio State University (Columbus, OH), we compared CT assessed response using non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) response definitions with NCI-WG response.
Responses by NCI-WG criteria included five complete responses (CRs), 32 partial responses (PRs), 21 patients with stable disease (SD), 17 patients with progressive disease (PD), and seven patients not assessable (NA). Responses by NHL-CT criteria included three CRs, 12 unconfirmed CRs (CRus), 16 PRs, 26 with SD, four with PD, and 21 NA. Using NCI-WG criteria, progression-free survival (PFS) was 27.3 months for CR and 11.4 months for PR. With NHL-CT criteria, PFS was 18.4 months for CR, 11.7 months for CRu, and 14.5 months for PR. In multivariate analysis, both NCI-WG and NHL-CT response correlated with PFS (P = .009 and .001, respectively).
Current NCI-WG CLL response criteria are a significant predictor of PFS in previously treated CLL patients, with no additional benefit from the inclusion of CT scans. Although retrospective, these results highlight the importance of prospective validation of CT scans before routine inclusion in CLL response criteria.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 01/2008; 25(35):5624-9. · 18.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In an attempt to exploit bcl-2 overexpression and aberrant p53 function, two frequently encountered aberrations that predict marked treatment resistance and worse prognosis in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), we combined theophylline, pentostatin, and chlorambucil at two dose levels (cohort I: 30 mg/m(2); cohort II: 20 mg/m(2)) on a 21-day cycle for up to six courses. We employed a phase I/II design to determine feasibility, define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), and explore the impact of biologic modulation on response and time to progression (TTP) in 20 patients with relapsed or refractory CLL and NHL. Eight patients were enrolled in cohort I. They demonstrated a response rate (RR) of 28% and a 16.5-month TTP after receiving a median of two cycles. A 50% RR was observed in this cohort when patients with adverse histologies were excluded. Because of myelotoxicity, this dose level defined the MTD, and de-escalation occurred. All 12 patients in cohort II received 20 mg/m(2) chlorambucil. A 50% RR and an 18-month TTP were observed after a median of 5.5 cycles. An RR of 47% and a complete remission (CR) of 5% were observed for the entire group, although responses and TTP varied greatly by histology. Significant activity was observed in patients with B-cell CLL and follicular lymphoma (FL). RR and TTP for fludarabine-sensitive/naïve and fludarabine-refractory (FR) B-cell CLL patients were 66 vs 25% and 20 vs 8.5 months, respectively. Both FL patients responded (one with partial remission and one with CR), with a 22.5-monthly median TTP. For responding patients, median TTP and overall survival (OS) was 21 and 69 months, respectively, compared to a median TTP of 2 months and an OS of 13.5 months for nonresponders. The combination of pentostatin, chlorambucil, and theophylline is the active regimen in patients with FL and B-cell CLL.
Annals of Hematology 06/2006; 85(5):301-7. · 2.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fludarabine and cyclophosphamide is an effective combination but increases the risk of opportunistic infections due to depressed lymphocyte counts. In an attempt to preserve CD4 counts, we conducted a phase I, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of recombinant interleukin-2 (IL-2) added to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide in patients with treatment-naive indolent lymphomas or chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Subcutaneous IL-2 (days 1-21 of each 28-day cycle) was combined with cyclophosphamide (600 mg/m2, day 8) and fludarabine (20 mg/m2, days 8-12) at four dose levels: 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, and 1.4 x 10(6) IU/m2/d. IL-2 dose was escalated in cohorts of four to six patients, with one patient per cohort receiving placebo.
Twenty-three patients, median age 50, were enrolled, of whom 30% had chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma and 52% had follicular lymphomas. The combination was generally well tolerated, with mainly hematologic toxicities. CD4 counts typically declined substantially during the early weeks of treatment and remained suppressed for months afterward. In the 18 evaluable patients who received IL-2, the mean absolute CD4 count was 999 cells/microL (range, 97-3,776) pretreatment, 379 cells/microL (range, 54-2,599) at day 14, and 98 cells/microL (range, 17-291) at end of treatment. In longitudinal linear models, the changes in CD4 counts were not significantly different across IL-2 dose levels.
The addition of low-dose IL-2 to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide does not seem immunoprotective. New approaches are needed to reduce the cellular immunosuppression and infectious complications associated with purine analogues.
Clinical Cancer Research 01/2006; 11(23):8413-7. · 7.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alemtuzumab (anti-CD52; Campath-1H) is effective in fludarabine-refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), but is associated with infection and early onset neutropenia. To reduce toxicity, filgrastim (G-CSF) was administered concurrently with alemtuzumab. In total, 14 CLL patients (median age 59) with a median of 3.5 prior regimens (range 1--12) received i.v. alemtuzumab, stepped up from 3 to 30 mg the first week, then 30 mg thrice weekly for 12 weeks. Filgrastim 5 microg/kg was administered daily 5 days before and throughout alemtuzumab therapy. Six patients developed cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation 3--6 weeks into treatment; six patients developed fever, three neutropenia, and one pneumonia. The patient with CMV pneumonia died; ganciclovir cleared CMV in the other patients. Five patients developed early neutropenia (weeks 2--5). Four patients developed delayed neutropenia (weeks 10--13) unassociated with CMV reactivation. Nine patients ceased therapy because of infectious and hematologic toxicity. Five partial responses were noted, all in patients with lymph nodes>cm, lasting a median of 6.5 months (range 5--13). Filgrastim and alemtuzumab were given concurrently with manageable infusion toxicity and clinical activity, but the efficacy of this regimen was limited by delayed neutropenia of unclear etiology and CMV reactivation. Filgrastrim should not be administered prophylactically during alemtuzumab therapy outside clinical trials.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The in vivo mechanism of action of alemtuzumab (anti-CD52; Campath-1H) remains unclear. With rituximab, FCGR3A and FCGR2A high-affinity polymorphisms have been associated with clinical response in lymphoma but not in CLL, suggesting potential divergent mechanisms of action between these 2 diseases. Herein, we examined FCGR3A (V/V, n = 4; V/F, n = 10; F/F, n = 19) and FCGR2A (A/A, n = 5; H/A, n = 22; H/H, n = 6) polymorphisms in 36 patients with relapsed CLL who were treated with thrice-weekly alemtuzumab for 12 weeks to assess the potential influence these high-affinity FcgammaR receptor polymorphisms had on response to alemtuzumab. Response to alemtuzumab was similar regardless of FCGR3A polymorphism (V/V, 25%; V/F, 40%; F/F, 32%) or FCGR2A polymorphism (A/A, 40%; H/A, 32%; H/H, 33%). These findings indicate that FCGR3A and FCGR2A polymorphisms may not predict response to alemtuzumab in CLL. Future studies examining larger cohorts of alemtuzumab-treated patients with CLL will be required to definitively determine the predictive value of specific FCGR polymorphisms to treatment response.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Therapeutic options for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have been limited, with low complete response rates (CR) and no treatments demonstrating a survival advantage. The recent introduction of the monoclonal antibodies rituximab and alemtuzumab into clinical trials for patients with CLL has generated promising results. Rituximab targets the CD20 antigen and demonstrates varied single-agent activity that is highly dependent upon the dosing schedule and treatment status of the patient. More importantly, when rituximab is combined with fludarabine or fludarabine and cyclophosphamide, a high frequency of CR and prolonged progression-free survival are observed without an appreciable increase in significant toxicity. Alemtuzumab targets the more ubiquitously expressed CD52 antigen and is therefore associated with a higher frequency of toxicity, particularly immunosuppression, but has appreciable activity in fludarabine refractory CLL. Additionally, alemtuzumab is effective against CLL clones that have p53 mutations or deletions. Future efforts in developing combination strategies with rituximab, alemtuzumab, and potentially other new antibodies offer great promise for the future treatment of CLL.
Hematology/Oncology Clinics of North America 09/2004; 18(4):895-913, ix-x. · 2.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The presence of p53 mutation or deletion predicts for poor response to conventional therapy in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We sought to determine whether the humanized anti-CD52 antibody alemtuzumab was effective in this patient group. Thirty-six patients with fludarabine-refractory CLL were treated with alemtuzumab, 15 (42%) of whom had p53 mutations or deletions. Clinical responses in patients with p53 mutations, deletions, or both were noted in 6 (40%) of 15 versus 4 (19%) of 21 of patients without. The median response duration for this subset of patients was 8 months (range, 3-17 months). These data suggest that alemtuzumab may be an effective therapy for patients with CLL with p53 mutations or deletions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Given the favorable immunologic effects of IL-2 post transplant, we conducted a feasibility study examining rIL-2 1.0x106 IU/m2/day (SQ) beginning on D+14 post-transplant and continuing for 90 days in 12 patients with low-grade lymphoproliferative disorders. Prior to high-dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (HDCT), 11 patients underwent cytoreduction with fludarabine and cyclophosphamide (Flu/Cy); 11 were in complete remission (CR) and one was in partial remission at the time of HDCT. All 12 patients were in CR 90 days post-HDCT. At a median follow-up of 30 (range 3-44) months, seven patients (58%) remain in remission, four are alive with disease, and one has died of disease progression, resulting in an overall survival of 92%. Kaplan-Meier estimates of progression-free survival (PFS) for the group demonstrate a median of 31 (range 3-43) months. Five patients required rIL-2 cessation at 8-58 days after starting the therapy due to hematologic toxicity. These results are comparable to those achieved in other published bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cell transplantion (PBSCT) series without the addition of rIL-2. Furthermore, rIL-2 using this schedule following fludarabine-based cytoreduction was associated with excessive hematologic toxicity.
Annals of Hematology 10/2003; 82(9):552-7. · 2.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody rituximab exerts its antitumor activity through a variety of mechanisms, including acting against the cellular defects in apoptosis that give rise to B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL). Phase II clinical studies demonstrated that rituximab, given weekly as a single agent, exhibits significantly less activity in B-CLL than in indolent B-cell lymphomas. Dose escalation, achieved by a thrice-weekly dosing schedule, is necessary for rituximab to effect significant clinical activity as a single agent. A multicenter, prospective, randomized trial demonstrated that concurrent administration with fludarabine improves the complete response (CR) rate. Ongoing clinical studies are examining the use of rituximab in other combination regimens, including FCR (fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab), which has shown great promise in a single-center phase II trial. B-CLL patients may experience more infusion toxicity, including tumor lysis syndrome, to rituximab than patients with lymphoma. However, such infusion toxicity is minimized with appropriate premedication and a stepped up dosing schedule, allowing safe and effective use of rituximab in this disease.
Seminars in Oncology 09/2003; 30(4):483-92. · 4.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This update of early stage B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) embraces current information on the diagnosis, biology, and intervention required to more fully develop algorithms for management of this disease. Emphasis on early stage is based on the rapid advancement in our understanding of the disease parameters and our increasing ability to predict for a given early stage patient whether there is a need for more aggressive management. In Section I, Dr. Terry Hamblin addresses the nature of the disease, accurate diagnostic procedures, evidence for an early "preclinical" phase, the use of newer prognostic features to distinguish who will be likely to progress or not, and whether it is best to watch or treat early stage disease. In Section II, Dr. Neil Kay and colleagues address the biologic aspects of the disease and how they may relate to disease progression. Review of the newer insights into gene expression, recurring genetic defects, role of cytokines/autocrine pathways, and the interaction of the CLL B cell with the microenvironment are emphasized. The relationship of these events to both trigger disease progression and as opportunities for future therapeutic intervention even in early stage disease is also considered. In Section III, Dr. John Byrd and colleagues review the historical and now current approaches to management of the previously untreated progressive B-CLL patient. They discuss what decision tree could be used in the initial decision to treat a given patient. The use of single agents versus newer combination approaches such as chemoimmunotherapy are discussed here. In addition, the place of marrow transplant and some of the newer antibodies available for treatment of B-CLL are considered. Finally, a challenge to utilize our growing knowledge of the biology of B-CLL in the early stage B-CLL is proffered.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rituximab has been reported to have little activity in small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL)/chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and to be associated with significant infusion-related toxicity. This study sought to decrease the initial toxicity and optimize the pharmacokinetics with an alternative treatment schedule.
Thirty three patients with SLL/CLL received dose 1 of rituximab (100 mg) over 4 hours. In cohort I (n = 3; 250 mg/m(2)) and cohort II (n = 7; 375 mg/m(2)) rituximab was administered on day 3 and thereafter three times weekly for 4 weeks using a standard administration schedule. Cohort III (n = 23; 375 mg/m(2)) administered rituximab similar to cohort II for the first two treatments and then over 1 hour thereafter.
A total of 33 CLL/SLL patients were enrolled; only one patient discontinued therapy because of infusion-related toxicity. Thirteen patients developed transient hypoxemia, hypotension, or dyspnea that were associated with significant changes in baseline interleukin-6, interleukin-8, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interferon gamma compared with those not experiencing such reactions. Infusion-related toxicity occurred more commonly in older (median age 73 v 62 years; P =.02) patients with no other pretreatment clinical or laboratory features predicting occurrence of these events. The overall response rate was 45% (3% CR, 42% PR; 95% CI 28% to 64%). Median response duration for these 15 patients was 10 months (95% CI, 6.8-13.2; range, 3 to 17+).
Rituximab administered thrice weekly for 4 weeks demonstrates clinical efficacy and acceptable toxicity. Initial infusion-related events seem to be cytokine mediated and resolve by the third infusion making rapid administration possible. Future combination studies of rituximab with other therapies in CLL seem warranted.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 05/2001; 19(8):2153-64. · 18.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (WM, lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma) is a B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder in which CD20 is expressed on tumor cells from most patients. Several small studies have suggested a benefit from the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab (Rituxan, MabThera) in patients with WM. In this retrospective study, we examined the outcome of 30 previously unreported patients with WM who received treatment with single-agent rituximab (median age 60; range 32-83 years old). The median number of prior treatments for these patients was 1 (range 0-6), and 14 patients (47%) received a nucleoside analogue before rituximab therapy. Patients received a median of 4.0 (1-11.3) infusions of rituximab (375 mg/m2). Three patients received steroids with their infusions for prophylaxis of rituximab-related infusion syndrome. Overall, treatment was well tolerated. Median immunoglobulin M (IgM) levels for all patients declined from 2,403 mg/dL (range 720-7639 mg/dL) to 1,525 mg/dL (range 177-5,063 mg/dL) after rituximab therapy (p = 0.001), with 8 of 30 (27%) and 18 of 30 (60%) patients demonstrating >50% and >25% decline in IgM, respectively. Median bone marrow lymphoplasmacytic (BM LPC) cell involvement declined from 60% (range 5-90%) to 15% (range 0-80%) for 17 patients for whom pre- and post-BM biopsies were performed (p < 0.001). Moreover, 19 of 30 (63%) and 15 of 30 (50%) patients had an increase in their hematocrit (HCT) and platelet (PLT) counts, respectively. Before rituximab therapy, 7 of 30 (23.3%) patients were either transfusion or erythropoietin dependent, whereas only 1/30 (3.3%) patients required transfusions (no erythropoietin) after rituximab. Overall responses after treatment with rituximab were as follows: 8 (27%) and 10 (33%) of the patients achieved a partial (PR) and a minor (MR) response, respectively, and an additional 9 (30%) of patients demonstrated stable disease (SD). No patients attained a complete response. The median time to treatment failure for responding (PR and MR) patients was 8.0 months (mean 8.4: range 3-20+ months), and 5.0 months (mean 6.1; range 3-12+ months) for patients with SD. These studies therefore demonstrate that rituximab is an active agent in WM. Marked increases in HCT and PLT counts were noted for most patients, including patients with WM who had MR or SD. A prospective clinical trial to more completely define the benefit of single-agent rituximab in patients with WM has been initiated by many of our centers.
Journla of Immunotherapy 04/2001; 24(3):272-9. · 3.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the preliminary efficacy of rituximab therapy in Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (WM), we examined the clinical and laboratory data for all patients with WM treated on IDEC Pharmaceuticals sponsored trials and one patient treated at Walter Reed Army Medical Center. Seven symptomatic patients with WM were treated with four (n = 6) or eight (n = 1) weekly infusions of rituximab (375 mg/m2). Patients had received a median of three prior therapies (range 1-4) which included alkylator therapy in all (five patients refractory) and fludarabine in four (all refractory). Therapy was tolerated well in all patients without decrement in cellular immune function or significant infectious morbidity. Partial responses were noted in three of these patients, including two with fludarabine-refractory disease. The median progression-free survival for these patients was 6.6 months (range 2.2-29+ months). These data suggest that rituximab has clinical activity in heavily pre-treated patients with Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia. Based on these data, clinical studies of Rituximab in previously untreated and treated WM appear indicated.
Annals of Oncology 01/2000; 10(12):1525-7. · 7.38 Impact Factor