[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ultimate goal of tissue engineering is to replace damaged tissues by applying engineering technology and the principles of life sciences. To successfully engineer a desirable tissue, three main elements of cells, scaffolds and growth factors need to be harmonized. Biomaterial-based scaffolds serve as a critical platform both to support cell adhesion and to deliver growth factors. Various methods of fabricating scaffolds have been investigated. One recently developed method that is growing in popularity is called electrospinning. Electrospinning is known for its capacity to make fibrous and porous structures that are similar to natural extracellular matrix (ECM). Other advantages to electrospinning include its ability to create relatively large surface to volume ratios, its ability to control fiber size from micro- to nano-scales and its versatility in material choice. Although early work with electrospun fibers has shown promise in the regeneration of certain types of tissues, further modification of their chemical, biological and mechanical properties would permit future advancements. In this paper, current approaches to the development of modular electrospun fibers as scaffolds for tissue engineering are discussed. Their chemical and physical characteristics can be tuned for the regeneration of specific target tissues by co-spinning of multiple materials and by post-modification of the surface of electrospun fibers. In addition, topology or structure can also be controlled to elicit specific responses from cells and tissues. The selection of proper polymers, suitable surface modification techniques and the control of the dimension and arrangement of the fibrous structure of electrospun fibers can offer versatility and tissue specificity, and therefore provide a blueprint for specific tissue engineering applications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Development of biomaterials to control the fate of stem cells is important for stem cell based regeneration of bone tissue. The objective of this study is to develop functionalized electrospun fibers using a mussel-inspired surface coating to regulate adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). We prepared poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) fibers coated with polydopamine (PD-PLLA). The morphology, chemical composition, and surface properties of fiber were characterized by SEM, AFM, XPS, Raman spectra and water contact angle measurements. Incubation of fibers in dopamine solution for 1h resulted in formation of polydopamine with only negligible effects on the roughness and hydrophobicity of the fibers. However, PD-PLLA fibers modulated hMSC responses in several aspects. Firstly, adhesion and proliferation of hMSCs cultured on PD-PLLA were significantly enhanced relative to those on PLLA. In addition, the ALP activity of hMSCs cultured on PD-PLLA (1.74±0.14 nmole/DNA/30 min) was significantly higher than on PLLA (0.97±0.07 nmole/DNA/30 min). hMSCs cultured on PD-PLLA showed up-regulation of genes associated with osteogenic differentiation as well as angiogenesis. Furthermore, the calcium deposition from hMSCs cultured on PD-PLLA (41.60±1.74 μg) was significantly greater than that on PLLA (30.15±1.21 μg), which was double-confirmed by alizarin red S staining. Our results suggest that the bio-inspired coating synthetic degradable polymer can be used as a simple technique to render the surface of synthetic biodegradable fibers to be active for directing the specific responses of hMSCs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, novel fibrous matrices were developed as a depot to store and liberate growth factors in a controlled manner. Specifically, heparin was covalently conjugated onto the surface of fibrous matrices (composites of poly[caprolactone] and gelatin crosslinked with genipin), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was then reversibly immobilized. The immobilization of bFGF was controlled as a function of the amount of conjugated heparin. The sustained release of bFGF from the fibrous matrices was successfully achieved over 4 weeks whereas physical adsorption of bFGF released quickly. The bFGF released from the fibrous matrices significantly enhanced in vitro proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. From the in vivo study, the group implanted with a higher amount of immobilized bFGF significantly facilitated neo-blood vessel formation as compared with other implantation groups. These results indicate that the sustained release of bFGF is important for the formation of blood vessels and that our fibrous matrices could be useful for regulation of tissue damage requiring angiogenesis. Further, our system can be combined with other growth factors with heparin binding domains, representing a facile depot for spatiotemporal control over the delivery of bioactive molecules in regenerative medicine.
Tissue Engineering Part A 10/2010; 16(10):2999-3010. · 4.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We fabricated composite fibrous scaffolds from blends of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and nano-sized hydroxyapatite (HA) via electrospinning. SEM-EDX and AFM analysis demonstrated that HA was homogeneously dispersed in the nanofibers, and the roughness increased along with the amount of incorporated HA. When hMSCs were cultured on these PLGA/HA composite nanofibers, we found that incorporation of HA on the nanofibers did not affect cell viability whereas increased ALP activity and expression of osteogenic genes as well as the calcium mineralization of hMSCs. Our results indicate that the composite nanofibers can be offered as a potential bone regenerative biomaterial for stem cell based therapies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Developing biomaterial scaffolds to elicit specific cell responses is important in many tissue engineering applications. We hypothesized that the chemical composition of the scaffold may be a key determinant for the effective induction of differentiation in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). In this study, electrospun nanofibers with different chemical compositions were fabricated using poly[(L-lactide)-co-(epsilon-caprolactone)] (PLCL) and gelatin. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed a randomly arranged structure of nanofibers with diameters ranging from 400 nm to 600 nm. The incorporation of gelatin in the nanofibers stimulated the adhesion and osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. For example, the well-stretched and polygonal morphology of hMSCs was observed on the gelatin-containing nanofibers, while the cells cultured on the PLCL nanofibers were contracted. The DNA content and alkaline phosphatase activity were significantly increased on the PLCL/gelatin blended nanofibers. Expression of osteogenic genes including alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OCN), and collagen type I-alpha2 (Col I-alpha2) were also upregulated in cells cultured on nanofibers with gelatin. Mineralization of hMSCs was analyzed by von Kossa staining and the amount of calcium was significantly enhanced on the gelatin-incorporated nanofibers. These results suggest that the chemical composition of the underlying scaffolds play a key role in regulating the osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tissue engineering has become an alternative method to traditional surgical treatments for the repair of bone defects, and an appropriate scaffold supporting bone formation is a key element in this approach. In the present study, nanofibrous organic and inorganic composite scaffolds containing nano-sized demineralized bone powders (DBPs) with biodegradable poly(L-lactide) (PLA) were developed using an electrospinning process for engineering bone. To assess their biocompatibility, in vitro osteogenic differentiation of human mandible-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) cultured on PLA or PLA/DBP composite nanofiber scaffolds were examined. The mineralization of hMSCs cultured with osteogenic supplements on the PLA/DBP nanofiber scaffolds was remarkably greater than on the PLA nanofiber scaffold during the first 14 days of culture but reached the same level after 21 days. The in vivo osteoconductive effect of PLA/DBP nanofibrous scaffolds was further investigated using rats with critical-sized skull defects. Micro-computerized tomography revealed that a greater amount of newly formed bone extended across the defect area in PLA/DBP scaffolds than in the nonimplant and PLA scaffolds 12 weeks after implantation and that the defect size was almost 90% smaller. Therefore, PLA/DBP composite nanofiber scaffolds may serve as a favorable matrix for the regeneration of bone tissue.
Tissue Engineering Part A 10/2008; 14(12):2105-19. · 4.07 Impact Factor