Yisong Guo

University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, United States

Are you Yisong Guo?

Claim your profile

Publications (16)54.91 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Azotobacter vinelandii nitrogenase Fe protein (Av2) provides a rare opportunity to investigate a [4Fe-4S] cluster at three oxidation levels in the same environment. Here, we report the structural and vibrational changes of this cluster upon reduction using a combination of NRVS and EXAFS spectroscopies with DFT calculations. Key to this work is the synergy between these three techniques as each generates highly complementary information and their analytical methodologies are interdependent. Importantly, the spectroscopic samples contained no glassing agents. NRVS and DFT reveal a systematic 10-30 cm-1 decrease in Fe-S stretching frequencies with each added electron. The "oxidized" [4Fe-4S]2+ state spectrum is consistent with and extends previous resonance Raman spectra. For the "reduced" [4Fe-4S]1+ state in Fe protein, and for any "all-ferrous" [4Fe-4S]0 cluster, these NRVS spectra are the first available vibrational data. NRVS simulations also allow estimation of the vibrational disorder for Fe-S and Fe-Fe distances, constraining the EXAFS analysis and allowing structural disorder to be estimated. For oxidized Av2, EXAFS and DFT indicate nearly equal Fe-Fe distances, while addition of one electron decreases the cluster symmetry. However, addition of the second electron to form the all-ferrous state induces significant structural change. EXAFS data recorded to k = 21 Å-1 indicates a 1:1 ratio of Fe-Fe interactions at 2.56 Å and 2.75 Å, a result consistent with DFT. Broken symmetry (BS) DFT rationalizes the interplay between redox state and the Fe-S and Fe-Fe distances as predominantly spin-dependent behavior inherent to the [4Fe-4S] cluster and perturbed by the Av2 protein environment.
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 01/2013; · 10.68 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The [FeFe] hydrogenase from Clostridium pasteurianum (CpI) harbors four [FeS] clusters that facilitate electron transfer to the H-cluster, a ligand-coordinated six-iron prosthetic group that catalyzes the redox interconversion of protons and H(2). Here, we have used (57)Fe nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) to study the iron centers in CpI, and we compare our data to that for a [4Fe-4S] ferredoxin as well as a model complex resembling the [2Fe](H) catalytic domain of the H-cluster. In order to enrich the hydrogenase with (57)Fe nuclei, we used cell-free methods to post-translationally mature the enzyme. Specifically, inactive CpI apoprotein with (56)Fe-labeled [FeS] clusters was activated in vitro using (57)Fe-enriched maturation proteins. This approach enabled us to selectively label the [2Fe](H) subcluster with (57)Fe, which NRVS confirms by detecting (57)Fe-CO and (57)Fe-CN normal modes from the H-cluster nonprotein ligands. The NRVS and iron quantification results also suggest that the hydrogenase contains a second [(57)FeS] cluster. EPR spectroscopy indicates that this (57)Fe-enriched metal center is not the [4Fe-4S](H) subcluster of the H-cluster. This finding demonstrates that the CpI hydrogenase retained an (56)Fe-enriched [4Fe-4S](H) cluster during in vitro maturation, providing unambiguous evidence for stepwise assembly of the H-cluster. In addition, this work represents the first NRVS characterization of [FeFe] hydrogenases.
    Biochemistry 12/2012; · 3.38 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We have applied 57Fe nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) for the first time to study the dynamics of Fe centers in Iron-sulfur protein crystals, including oxidized wild type rubredoxin crystals from Pyrococcus furiosus, and the MoFe protein of nitrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii. Thanks to the NRVS selection rule, selectively probed vibrational modes have been observed in both oriented rubredoxin and MoFe protein crystals. The NRVS work was complemented by extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) measurements on oxidized wild type rubredoxin crystals from Pyrococcus furiosus. The EXAFS spectra revealed the Fe-S bond length difference in oxidized Pf Rd protein, which is qualitatively consistent with the crystal structure.
    Hyperfine Interactions 10/2012; · 0.21 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We have used EXAFS and NRVS spectroscopies to examine the structural changes in the FeMo-cofactor active site of the α-70(Ala) variant of Azotobacter vinelandii nitrogenase on binding and reduction of propargyl alcohol (PA). The Mo K-edge near-edge and EXAFS spectra are very similar in the presence and absence of PA, suggesting PA does not bind at Mo. By contrast, Fe EXAFS spectra show a clear and reproducible change in the long Fe-Fe interaction at ~3.7 Å on PA binding with the apparent appearance of a new Fe-Fe interaction at 3.99 Å. An analogous change in the long Mo-Fe 5.1 Å interaction is not seen. The NRVS spectra exclude the possibility of large-scale structural change of the FeMo-cofactor involving breaking the μ(2) Fe-S-Fe bonds of the Fe(6)S(9)X core. The simplest chemically consistent structural change is that the bound form of PA is coordinated at Fe atoms (Fe6 or Fe7) adjacent to the Mo terminus, with a concomitant movement of the Fe away from the central atom X and along the Fe-X bond by about 0.35 Å. This study comprises the first experimental evidence of the conformational changes of the FeMo-cofactor active site on binding a substrate or product.
    Journal of inorganic biochemistry 02/2012; 112:85-92. · 3.25 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We have used (57)Fe nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) to study oxidized and reduced forms of the [4Fe-4S] cluster in the D14C variant ferredoxin from Pyrococcus furiosus (Pf D14C Fd). To assist the normal-mode assignments, we conducted NRVS with D14C ferredoxin samples with (36)S substituted into the [4Fe-4S] cluster bridging sulfide positions, and a model compound without ligand side chains, (Ph(4)P)(2)[Fe(4)S(4)Cl(4)]. Several distinct regions of NRVS intensity are identified, ranging from "protein" and torsional modes below 100 cm(-1), through bending and breathing modes near 150 cm(-1), to strong bands from Fe-S stretching modes between 250 and ∼400 cm(-1). The oxidized ferredoxin samples were also investigated by resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopy. We found good agreement between NRVS and RR frequencies, but because of different selection rules, the intensities vary dramatically between the two types of spectra. The (57)Fe partial vibrational densities of states for the oxidized samples were interpreted by normal-mode analysis with optimization of Urey-Bradley force fields for local models of the [4Fe-4S] clusters. Full protein model calculations were also conducted using a supplemented CHARMM force field, and these calculations revealed low-frequency modes that may be relevant to electron transfer with Pf Fd partners. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations complemented these empirical analyses, and DFT was used to estimate the reorganization energy associated with the [Fe(4)S(4)](2+/+) redox cycle. Overall, the NRVS technique demonstrates great promise for the observation and quantitative interpretation of the dynamical properties of Fe-S proteins.
    Biochemistry 06/2011; 50(23):5220-35. · 3.38 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Infrared, Raman, and nuclear resonant vibrational (NRVS) spectroscopies have been used to address the Fe-H bonding in trans-HFe(CO) iron hydride compound, HFe(CO)(dppe)2, dppe = 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane. H and D isotopomers of the compound, with selective substitution at the metal-coordinated hydrogen, have been considered in order to address the Fe-H/D stretching and bending modes. Experimental results are compared to the normal mode analysis by density functional theory (DFT). The results are that (i) the IR spectrum does not clearly show Fe-H stretching or bending modes; (ii) Fe-H stretching modes are clear but weak in the Raman spectrum, and Fe-H bending modes are weak; (iii) NRVS 57Fe spectroscopy resolves Fe-H bending clearly, but Fe-H or Fe-D stretching is above its experimentally resolved frequency range. DFT calculations (with no scaling of frequencies) show intensities and peak locations that allow unambiguous correlations between observed and calculated features, with frequency errors generally less than 15 cm(-1). Prospects for using these techniques to unravel vibrational modes of protein active sites are discussed.
    Faraday Discussions 01/2011; 148:409-20; discussion 421-41. · 3.82 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: X-ray detection on hydrogen related events is difficult due to its extremely small scattering factor. In this report, we have used nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) to examine the nature of the Fe–H vibrational modes in several FeH model complexes, which shines light on the possible measurements on the Fe-H vibrations inside real biological systems in the future. INTRODUCTION Hydrogenase catalyzes the reversible dihydrogen (H 2) production and oxidation [1,2], and is one of the most important enzymes in nature. The enzyme and/or its functional models are possible candidates for bio-hydrogen production as clean fuel in the future [3].
    MRS Series, San Francisco; 10/2010
  • Source
    Angewandte Chemie International Edition 05/2010; 49(23):3912-5. · 11.34 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We have used (57)Fe nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) to study the iron site in the iron-sulfur cluster-free hydrogenase Hmd from the methanogenic archaeon Methanothermobacter marburgensis. The spectra have been interpreted by comparison with a cis-(CO)2-ligated Fe model compound, Fe(S2C2H4)(CO)2(PMe3)2, as well as by normal mode simulations of plausible active site structures. For this model complex, normal mode analyses both from an optimized Urey-Bradley force field and from complementary density functional theory (DFT) calculations produced consistent results. For Hmd, previous IR spectroscopic studies found strong CO stretching modes at 1944 and 2011 cm(-1), interpreted as evidence for cis-Fe(CO)2 ligation. The NRVS data provide further insight into the dynamics of the Fe site, revealing Fe-CO stretch and Fe-CO bend modes at 494, 562, 590, and 648 cm(-1), consistent with the proposed cis-Fe(CO)2 ligation. The NRVS also reveals a band assigned to Fe-S stretching motion at approximately 311 cm(-1) and another reproducible feature at approximately 380 cm(-1). The (57)Fe partial vibrational densities of states (PVDOS) for Hmd can be reasonably well simulated by a normal mode analysis based on a Urey-Bradley force field for a five-coordinate cis-(CO)2-ligated Fe site with additional cysteine, water, and pyridone cofactor ligands. A "truncated" model without a water ligand can also be used to match the NRVS data. A final interpretation of the Hmd NRVS data, including DFT analysis, awaits a three-dimensional structure for the active site.
    Inorganic Chemistry 06/2008; 47(10):3969-77. · 4.59 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We have used (57)Fe nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) to study the Fe(2)S(2)(Cys)(4) sites in oxidized and reduced [2Fe-2S] ferredoxins from Rhodobacter capsulatus (Rc FdVI) and Aquifex aeolicus (Aa Fd5). In the oxidized forms, nearly identical NRVS patterns are observed, with strong bands from Fe-S stretching modes peaking around 335 cm(-1), and additional features observed as high as the B(2u) mode at approximately 421 cm(-1). Both forms of Rc FdVI have also been investigated by resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopy. There is good correspondence between NRVS and Raman frequencies, but because of different selection rules, intensities vary dramatically between the two kinds of spectra. For example, the B(3u) mode at approximately 288 cm(-1), attributed to an asymmetric combination of the two FeS(4) breathing modes, is often the strongest resonance Raman feature. In contrast, it is nearly invisible in the NRVS, as there is almost no Fe motion in such FeS(4) breathing. NRVS and RR analysis of isotope shifts with (36)S-substituted into bridging S(2-) ions in Rc FdVI allowed quantitation of S(2-) motion in different normal modes. We observed the symmetric Fe-Fe stretching mode at approximately 190 cm(-1) in both NRVS and RR spectra. At still lower energies, the NRVS presents a complex envelope of bending, torsion, and protein modes, with a maximum at 78 cm(-1). The (57)Fe partial vibrational densities of states (PVDOS) were interpreted by normal-mode analysis with optimization of Urey-Bradley force fields. Progressively more complex D(2h) Fe(2)S(2)S'(4), C(2h) Fe(2)S(2)(SCC)(4), and C(1) Fe(2)S(2)(Cys)(4) models were optimized by comparison with the experimental spectra. After modification of the CHARMM22 all-atom force field by the addition of refined Fe-S force constants, a simulation employing the complete protein structure was used to reproduce the PVDOS, with better results in the low frequency protein mode region. This process was then repeated for analysis of data on the reduced FdVI. Finally, the degree of collectivity was used to quantitate the delocalization of the dynamic properties of the redox-active Fe site. The NRVS technique demonstrates great promise for the observation and quantitative interpretation of the dynamical properties of Fe-S proteins.
    Biochemistry 06/2008; 47(25):6612-27. · 3.38 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This report is the description of a reaction that produces iron(0) from the room temperature reaction in THF solution between [MgX(THF)2]4[FeH6] (X=Cl and Br) and FeCl2. The production of α-iron is demonstrated by powder XRD and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The lattice spacings (d), isomer shift (δ), nuclear quadrupole (ΔEQ), and magnetic hyperfine (Hhf) parameters determine that the material consists of the bcc phase of iron.
    Inorganica Chimica Acta - INORG CHIM ACTA. 01/2008; 361(5):1552-1554.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Under intense soft X-ray irradiation, we have observed time-dependent changes in the soft X-ray spectra of virtually all the Fe coordination complexes that we have examined, indicating chemical transformation of the compound under study. Each compound, with oxidation states ranging from Fe(IV) to Fe(0), has been studied with either Fe L-edge spectroscopy or N K-edge spectroscopy. We find that very often a well-defined spectroscopic change occurs, at least initially, which is apparently capable of straightforward interpretation in terms of X-ray induced photoreduction, photooxidation or ligand photolysis. We briefly discuss the probable chemical nature of the changes and then estimate the rate of chemical change, thereby establishing the necessary radiation dose. We also demonstrate that the photochemistry not only depends on the Fe oxidation state but also the coordination chemistry of the complex. It seems that a proper understanding of such X-ray photochemical effects could well greatly assist the assignment of soft X-ray spectra of uncharacterized metal sites.
    Inorganica Chimica Acta. 01/2008; 361(4):1157-1165.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The characterization of high-valent iron species is of interest due to their relevance to biological reaction mechanisms. Recently, we have synthesized and characterized an [Fe(V)-nitrido-cyclam-acetato]+ complex, which has been characterized by Mössbauer, magnetic susceptibility data, and XAS spectroscopies combined with DFT calculations (Aliaga-Alcade, N.; DeBeer George, S.; Bill, E.; Wieghardt, K.; Neese, F. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2005, 44, 2908-2912). The results of this study indicated that the [Fe(V)-nitrido-cyclam-acetato]+ complex is an unusual d3 system with a nearly orbitally degenerate S=1/2 ground state. Although the calculations predicted fairly different Fe-N stretching frequencies for the S=1/2 and the competing S=3/2 ground states, a direct experimental determination of this important fingerprint quantity was missing. Here we apply synchrotron-based nuclear resonance vibrational scattering (NRVS) to characterize the Fe-N stretching frequency of an Fe(V)-nitrido complex and its Fe(III)-azide precursor. The NRVS data show a new isolated band at 864 cm(-1) in the Fe(V)-nitrido complex that is absent in the precursor. The NRVS spectra are fit and simulated using a DFT approach, and the new feature is unambiguously assigned to a Fe(V)-N stretch. The calculated Fe-N stretching frequency is too high by approximately 75 cm(-1). Anharmonic contributions to the Fe-N stretching frequency have been evaluated and have been found to be small (-5.5 cm(-1)). The NRVS data provided a unique opportunity to obtain this vibrational information, which had eluded characterization by more traditional vibrational spectroscopies.
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 10/2007; 129(36):11053-60. · 10.68 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We have used nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) to examine the nature of the Fe-S unit. Specifically, vibrational characteristics have been determined, and through incremental steps in model system complexity, applied to analysis of the enzyme nitrogenase. This stepwise strategy demonstrates NRVS as a viable bioinorganic tool, and will undoubtedly increase the application of synchrotron spectroscopy to biological problems. Key wordsferredoxin-rubredoxin-vibrational spectroscopy-synchrotron-Mössbauer
    04/2006: pages 47-54;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We have used nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) to examine the nature of the Fe-S unit. Specifically, vibrational characteristics have been determined, and through incremental steps in model system complexity, applied to analysis of the enzyme nitrogenase. This stepwise strategy demonstrates NRVS as a viable bioinorganic tool, and will undoubtedly increase the application of synchrotron spectroscopy to biological problems.
    Hyperfine Interactions 01/2006; 170(1-3):47-54. · 0.21 Impact Factor
  • Chemistry Faculty Publications.