[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CS-758 was selected as a candidate for clinical trials, but since its water-solubility was insufficient for an injectable formulation, phosphoryl ester prodrugs were designed. In this study, the synthesis and evaluation of these injectable prodrugs are described. Phosphoryl ester 17 h was soluble in water, and was stable in both water and in a solid state. 17 h was converted to CS-758 in human liver microsome and was also converted to CS-758 in rats after intravenous (i.v.) administration with good conversion speed and efficiency. 17 h (i.v.) reduced the viable cell counts in kidneys in a murine hematogenous Candida albicans infection model and in lungs in a murine pulmonary Aspergillus fumigatus infection model, wherein the effects were comparable to or slightly superior to that of CS-758 (per os).
Chemical & pharmaceutical bulletin 06/2010; 58(6):794-804. · 1.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, the synthesis and evaluation of a number of esters of CS-758 as injectable prodrugs are described. Phosphoryl ester 1a was soluble in water (>30mg/mL) and was converted to CS-758 in human liver microsome. It was also converted to CS-758 in rats after iv administration, wherein the bioavailability of CS-758 was 53%. Compound 1a (iv) reduced the viable cell counts in kidneys in a murine systemic Candida albicans infection model, wherein the effect was comparable to or slightly superior to that of CS-758 (po). The prodrug 1a proved to be a promising injectable antifungal agent whose further evaluation is warranted.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyphal invasion of blood vessels is a prominent feature of invasive aspergillosis. During invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, Aspergillus fumigatus hyphae invade the abluminal endothelial cell surface, whereas they invade the luminal endothelial cell surface during haematogenous dissemination. We investigated the endothelial cell response to abluminal and luminal infection with A. fumigatus hyphae in vitro. We found that these hyphae invaded the abluminal endothelial cell surface without inducing the formation of endothelial cell pseudopods. Also, the internalized hyphae were surrounded by a loose network of microfilaments. In contrast, A. fumigatus hyphae invaded the luminal endothelial cell surface by inducing by the formation of endothelial cell pseudopods. These endocytosed hyphae were surrounded by a tight network of microfilaments. Abluminal infection induced greater E-selectin, IL-8, tissue factor and TNF-alpha gene expression, but less endothelial cell damage than did luminal infection. Endothelial cell stimulation by infection of either surface was mediated by endothelial cell-derived TNF-alpha, and was not influenced by gliotoxin secreted by A. fumigatus. These differences in the endothelial cell response to abluminal versus luminal infection may contribute to differences in the pathogenesis of invasive versus haematogenously disseminated aspergillosis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Invasive aspergillosis is characterized by two different types of angioinvasion. During pulmonary aspergillosis, hyphae are initially outside of the pulmonary vasculature and they invade the endothelial cell lining of the blood vessels by passing from the abluminal to the luminal surface. Some of these hyphal fragments can break off and circulate in the bloodstream. In severely immunocompromised hosts, these blood-borne hyphal fragments adhere to the luminal surface of the endothelial cells and they penetrate the endothelial cell lining of the vasculature by passing from the luminal to the abluminal surface. We have set up in vitro models of luminal and abluminal endothelial cell invasion by Aspergillus fumigatus. Luminal invasion by hyphae results in both endothelial cell damage and stimulation of tissue factor expression. Abluminal invasion causes less endothelial cell damage than luminal invasion, but greater induction of endothelial cells genes encoding cytokines, leukocyte adhesion molecules and tissue factor. These differences in the endothelial cell response to luminal versus abluminal infection may indicate significant differences in the pathogenesis of hematogenously disseminated versus locally invasive versus aspergillosis.
Medical Mycology 10/2006; 44 Suppl 1:S115-7. · 1.98 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The activities of R-135853, a novel sordarin derivative that possesses a 1,4-oxazepane ring moiety, were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. R-135853 exhibited potent in vitro activities against Candida albicans (fluconazole-susceptible strains), Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, and Cryptococcus neoformans, with MICs at which 90% of isolates were inhibited of 0.03, 1, 0.5, and 0.5 microg/ml, respectively. R-135853 also exhibited potent activities against fluconazole-susceptible dose-dependent and fluconazole-resistant strains of C. albicans, with MICs ranging from 0.03 to 0.06 mug/ml. However, R-135853 exhibited weak or no activity against Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei, and Aspergillus spp. R-135853 exhibited dose-dependent efficacy against experimental murine hematogenous candidiasis induced by C. albicans when it was administered by both the subcutaneous and the oral routes and reduced viable cell counts in the kidneys significantly when it was administered at 50 mg/kg of body weight/dose (administration three times a day). In this model, R-135853 also exhibited dose-dependent efficacy by single oral administration. Subcutaneous administration of R-135853 exhibited dose-dependent efficacy against experimental murine esophageal candidiasis induced by fluconazole-resistant C. albicans, against which fluconazole at 50 mg/kg/dose was ineffective, and reduced viable cell counts in the esophagus significantly when it was administered at 10 and 50 mg/kg/dose. R-135853 eradicated C. albicans from the esophagi of one and four of five mice when it was administered at 10 and 50 mg/kg/dose, respectively. These results suggest that R-135853 is promising for the treatment of disseminated or mucosal candidiasis, including fluconazole-refractory infections.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 02/2005; 49(1):52-6. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined the mechanisms of fluconazole resistance in a fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans isolate from a Japanese patient with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. It was demonstrated that the highly resistant phenotype of this strain was associated with combined mechanisms of the energy-dependent reduced intracellular accumulation of fluconazole, presumably due to the increased expression of the ATP-binding cassette efflux pump CDR gene(s), and the reduced affinity of the target enzyme, Erg11p, to fluconazole. In particular, the reduced affinity of Erg11p was considered to contribute largely to the fluconazole resistance in the TIMM3209 strain. Biochemical studies indicated that the Erg11p from the TIMM3209 strain showed reduced susceptibility both to fluconazole and itraconazole of cell-free ergosterol biosynthesis, and cytochrome P-450 also showed reduced affinity to fluconazole in the carbon monoxidecytochrome P-450 complex formation assay. We identified two amino acid substitutions, Y132H and G448V, in Erg11p from the TIMM3209 strain. We found that the cytochrome P-450 from the TIMM3209 strain decayed during incubation at 37 C without fluconazole although it is unknown whether or not the phenomenon is linked to the resistant phenotype. These mutations are thought to confer the above-mentioned characteristics to Erg11p.
Microbiology and Immunology 02/2004; 48(12):937-43. · 1.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The therapeutic efficacy of CS-758, a novel triazole, was evaluated against experimental murine oropharyngeal candidiasis induced by Candida albicans with various susceptibilities to fluconazole. Against infections induced by strains with various susceptibilities to fluconazole, the efficacy of fluconazole was strongly correlated with the MIC of fluconazole, as measured by the NCCLS method, and agreed with the NCCLS interpretive breakpoints, suggesting that the efficacies of new drugs could be predicted by using this model. The results of the fungal burden study corresponded with the results of the histopathological study. CS-758 exhibited potent in vitro activity (MICs, 0.004 to 0.06 micro g/ml) against the strains used in this murine model including fluconazole-susceptible dose-dependent and fluconazole-resistant strains (fluconazole MICs, 16 to 64 micro g/ml). CS-758 exhibited excellent efficacy against the infections induced by all the strains including a fluconazole-resistant strain, and the reductions in viable cell counts were significant at 10 and 50 mg/kg of body weight/dose. Fluconazole was not effective even at 50 mg/kg/dose against infections induced by a fluconazole-resistant strain (fluconazole MIC, 64 micro g/ml). These results suggest that CS-758 is a promising compound for the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis including fluconazole-refractory infections.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 03/2003; 47(2):601-6. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three Candida albicans isolates, TIMM 3164, 3165 and 3166 with reduced fluconazole susceptibility, were isolated from two Japanese AIDS patients. We earlier reported that a reduced intracellular accumulation of fluconazole in these isolates played an important role in the resistance mechanism of fluconazole, but we did not exclude the involvement of other factors. We here examined characteristics related to cytochrome P-450 (CYP), especially sterol 14alpha-demethylase encoded by the ERG11 gene which is the target molecule for fluconazole. In TIMM 3164 and 3165, the ergosterol synthesis by cell-free extracts was somewhat less susceptible to fluconazole, due to a decrease in fluconazole affinity for CYP. The nucleotide substitutions in the ERG11 gene were identified to result in three amino acid changes of K143R, E266D and V488I in TIMM 3164, and of E266D, V404L and V488I in TIMM 3165. These amino acid substitutions might contribute to the decreased affinity for CYP in both isolates. However, a single amino acid change, E266D, observed in TIMM 3166 was unrelated to the decreased affinity for CYP. The most prominent finding on the ultrastructure of TIMM 3164 and 3165 was the development of mesh membrane structures of the endoplasmic reticula, which is a location related to sterol synthesis. This phenomenon was not observed in the cells of TIMM 3166 or the susceptible control strains of ATCC 90028 and 10231. In addition to the reduced intracellular accumulation, the decreased affinity of fluconazole for CYP in TIMM 3164 and 3165 is assumed to be associated with the fluconazole-resistance phenotype.
Microbiology and Immunology 02/2003; 47(2):117-24. · 1.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the contribution of Candida albicans ALS1, which encodes a candidal adhesin, to the pathogenesis of experimental murine oropharyngeal candidiasis. Our results indicate that the ALS1 gene product is important for the adherence of the organism to the oral mucosa during the early stage of the infection.
Infection and Immunity 10/2002; 70(9):5256-8. · 4.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The activity of CS-758 (R-120758), a new triazole antifungal agent, was evaluated and compared with those of fluconazole, itraconazole, and amphotericin B in vitro and with those of fluconazole and itraconazole in vivo. CS-758 exhibited potent in vitro activity against clinically important fungi. The activity of CS-758 against Candida spp. was superior to that of fluconazole and comparable or superior to those of itraconazole and amphotericin B. CS-758 retained potent activity against Candida albicans strains with low levels of susceptibility to fluconazole (fluconazole MIC, 4 to 32 microg/ml). Against Aspergillus spp. and Cryptococcus neoformans, the activity of CS-758 was at least fourfold superior to those of the other drugs tested. CS-758 also exhibited potent in vivo activity against murine systemic infections caused by C. albicans, C. neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Aspergillus flavus. The 50% effective doses against these infections were 0.41 to 5.0 mg/kg of body weight. These results suggest that CS-758 may be useful in the treatment of candidiasis, cryptococcosis, and aspergillosis.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 03/2002; 46(2):367-70. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Synthesis and in vitro antifungal activities of a novel triazole antifungal agent CS-758 (former name, R-120758) are described. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of a series of dioxane-triazole compounds related to R-102557 were examined. Variation of the length of the chain between the dioxane ring and the phenyl ring revealed that the linkage with two double bonds is the most preferable. When a cyano group was introduced to the C4 position on the benzene ring, MICs improved further. A fluorine atom was introduced to obtain CS-758. The MICs of CS-758 surpassed those of fluconazole and itraconazole against Candida, Aspergillus and Cryptococcus species. The precursor (E,E)-aldehyde was synthesized stereoselectively from 3-fluoro-4-methylbenzonitrile using the Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons reaction.
CHEMICAL & PHARMACEUTICAL BULLETIN 01/2002; 49(12):1647-50. · 1.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We established a straightforward murine model of oropharyngeal candidiasis. Mice were immunosuppressed with cortisone acetate, anesthetized, and then inoculated by placing cotton wool balls saturated with Candida albicans sublingually for 2 h. A prolonged, reproducible infection was induced. This model may be useful for antifungal screening or pathogenesis studies.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 12/2001; 45(11):3195-7. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mini rats are a transgenic rat strain carrying antisense gene for rat growth hormone (GH), resulting in retarded growth and a lower blood GH level (136 +/- 42.0 ng/mL) compared with that of age-matched parental strain Wistar rats (329 +/- 337 ng/mL). Mini rats have been used by several investigators as a GH deficiency model. In this work, we gave a single oral administration of thioacetamide (TAA), a hepatotoxicant, to both Mini rats and Wistar rats to ascertain the influence of GH deficiency on liver response to chemically induced injury and subsequent regeneration. TAA administration caused liver injury in both strains, with a greater extent of injury in Mini rats. Proliferation of bile epithelial cells and so-called oval cells was prominent at Day 3 in Mini rats only, and this change correlated well with serum total bilirubin concentrations. Antibody against Ki-67 antigen revealed that cellular proliferation after TAA-induced liver injury was suppressed but prolonged in the Mini rat liver. Although hepatic stellate cells and Kupffer cells/macrophages were more abundant in the livers of TAA-treated Mini rats, the hepatic expression patterns of hepatocyte growth factor and transforming growth factor beta 1 were comparable to those of Wistar rats. Insulin-like growth factor-I gene expression was significantly reduced in the Mini rat liver. Our results imply that a lower GH level may exacerbate chemically induced liver injury, enhance infiltration/proliferation of non-parenchymal cells, suppress regeneration of hepatocytes, and induce proliferation of bile epithelial cells and oval cells when the liver is injured by TAA.
The Journal of Toxicological Sciences 03/2001; 26(1):25-37. · 1.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Novel triazole compounds with a dioxane ring were synthesized. Condensation of the diol precursor 10 with various aromatic aldehydes 11-13 under acidic conditions afforded a series of dioxane-triazole compounds 14-16. The antifungal activities of the compounds 14-16 were evaluated in vivo in mice infection models against Candida and Aspergillus species. High activities were seen for the derivatives with one or two double bond(s) and an aromatic ring substituted with an electron-withdrawing group in the side chain. Among the derivatives, R-102557 (16R: Ar=4-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)phenyl) showed excellent in vivo activities against Candida, Aspergillus and Cryptococcus species. It also showed high tolerance in a preliminary toxicity study in rats.
CHEMICAL & PHARMACEUTICAL BULLETIN 06/2000; 48(5):694-707. · 1.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The efficacy of CS-834, a novel oral carbapenem, was assessed by using a murine model of pneumonia caused by penicillin-susceptible and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and was compared with those of oral cephems, i.e., cefteram pivoxil, cefpodoxime proxetil, cefdinir, and cefditoren pivoxil. Intranasal inoculation of 10(6) CFU of penicillin-susceptible or penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae in the exponential growth phase induced pneumonia and bacteremia in ddY mice within 48 h. For the treatment of infections caused by the penicillin-susceptible strain the antibiotics were administered orally at 0.4, 2, and 10 mg/kg of body weight twice daily for 2 days beginning at 24 h after bacterial inoculation, and for the treatment of infections caused by a penicillin-resistant strain the antibiotics were administered at 2, 10, and 50 mg/kg twice daily for 2 days beginning at 24 h after bacterial inoculation. Among the antibiotics tested, CS-834 exhibited the most potent efficacy against both types of strains. Against infections caused by penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae, CS-834 at all doses significantly reduced the numbers of viable cells in both the lungs and blood. Cefpodoxime proxetil at all doses and cefteram pivoxil and cefditoren pivoxil at doses of 2 and 10 mg/kg showed comparable efficacies. Against infections caused by penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae, CS-834 at doses of 10 and 50 mg/kg showed the most potent efficacy among the antibiotics tested, resulting in the maximum decrease in the numbers of viable cells in the lungs. Comparable efficacies were observed with cefteram pivoxil and cefpodoxime proxetil at doses of 50 mg/kg each. The concentration of CS-834 in the lungs and blood was higher than that of cefdinir and was lower than those of the other antibiotics tested, suggesting that the potent therapeutic efficacy of CS-834 reflects its strong activity against S. pneumoniae.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 02/1998; 42(1):23-7. · 4.57 Impact Factor