Emile Tan

Imperial College London, London, ENG, United Kingdom

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Publications (33)195.58 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: AimLaparoscopic ventral rectopexy (VR) with the use of prosthesis has been advocated for both overt rectal prolapse (ORP) and obstructed defaecation syndrome (ODS). The present study reviews the short-term and functional results of laparoscopic VR.MethodA MEDLINE, Embase, Ovid, and Cochrane database search was performed on all studies reporting on VR for ORP, ODS and other pelvic floor anatomical abnormalities from 2004 until February 2013. No language restrictions were made. All studies on VR were reviewed systematically. The main outcomes were intraoperative complications, conversion, procedure duration, short-term mortality and morbidity, length of stay, ORP recurrence, anatomical disorder recurrence, faecal incontinence and constipation, quality of life (QoL) score and patient satisfaction. Quality assessment and data extraction were performed independently by three observers.ResultsTwenty three studies including 1,460 patients were eligible for analysis. The conversion rate ranged from 0 to 14.3%. No mortality was reported. The immediate postoperative morbidity rate was 8.6%. Length of stay ranged from 1 to 7 days. A significant improvement in constipation and incontinence symptoms was observed in the postoperative period for both ORP and ODS (chi-square test, p<0.0001).Conclusion Laparoscopic VR is a safe and effective procedure for ORP and ODS. Longer follow-up is required and studies comparing VR to standard rectopexy and STARR are not yet available.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Colorectal Disease 09/2014; · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 55 -year-old Asian man was seen in the emergency department with bleeding per rectum. He was a teetotaller and had no previous abdominal surgery. He did, however, report a change in bowel habit towards constipation. He underwent colonoscopy which revealed a lesion, highly suspicious of malignancy, in the caecum. On review by two consultants, a decision to completely resect this lesion was made. Histological analysis of the polypoidal growth showed it to be a consequence of chronic infection with the helminth Enterobius vermicularis. Importantly, there was no evidence of dysplastic or malignant cells. The patient was subsequently discharged with a 3-day course of antihelminthic mebendazole and reassured that his per rectal bleeding was most likely due to haemorrhoids discovered at rectal examination.
    Case Reports 01/2014; 2014.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract BACKGROUND: The management of primary rectal cancer beyond total mesorectal excision planes (PRC-bTME) and recurrent rectal cancer (RRC) is challenging. There is global variation in standards and no guidelines exist. To achieve cure most patients require extended, multivisceral, exenterative surgery, beyond conventional total mesorectal excision planes. The aim of the Beyond TME Group was to achieve consensus on the definitions and principles of management, and to identify areas of research priority. METHODS: Delphi methodology was used to achieve consensus. The Group consisted of invited experts from surgery, radiology, oncology and pathology. The process included two international dedicated discussion conferences, formal feedback, three rounds of editing and two rounds of anonymized web-based voting. Consensus was achieved with more than 80 per cent agreement; less than 80 per cent agreement indicated low consensus. During conferences held in September 2011 and March 2012, open discussion took place on areas in which there is a low level of consensus. RESULTS: The final consensus document included 51 voted statements, making recommendations on ten key areas of PRC-bTME and RRC. Consensus agreement was achieved on the recommendations of 49 statements, with 34 achieving consensus in over 95 per cent. The lowest level of consensus obtained was 76 per cent. There was clear identification of the need for referral to a specialist multidisciplinary team for diagnosis, assessment and further management. CONCLUSION: The consensus process has provided guidance for the management of patients with PRC-bTME or RRC, taking into account global variations in surgical techniques and technology. It has further identified areas of research priority.
    British Journal of Surgery 07/2013; 100:1009-1014. · 4.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 42-year-old male presented with generalised colicky abdominal pain exacerbated by food. Relevant past medical history included musculoskeletal pain for which he had been taking ibuprofen intermittently over 18-months. Initial investigations included oesophagogastroduodenoscopy, magnetic resonance enteroclysis and computed tomography (CT). No abnormalities were reported. Contrast radiology with gastrografin identified a stricture at the junction of the second and third parts of the duodenum. However this was not reproducible on a repeated investigation and his symptoms settled after a period of conservative management. © 2012 The Authors Colorectal Disease © 2012 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.
    Colorectal Disease 05/2012; · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim was to investigate quality of life, sexual, fecal, and urinary function in females undergoing restorative proctocolectomy (RPC). A prospective case-control study was performed in two tertiary centers. Controls were females with ulcerative colitis, without a stoma or RPC. Validated questionnaires (SF-36, Female sexual function index, King's questionnaire, and the Wexner scale) were administered in the outpatient setting. Pearson chi(2), t-test, and Mann-Whitney U-tests were used to assess significance. A total of 255 females were identified and 49% (n = 124) recruited. In all, 109 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria: 55 (50.5%) inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); 54 (49.5%) RPC. The mean age of RPC patients was 41.8 years (± 12.7 SD) vs. 43.8 years (± 15.8) for IBD (P = 0.491). RPC females with urinary symptoms (urgency, frequency, or incontinence) were 10 years younger than IBD (RPC mean age 37.6 ± 7.3 years vs. IBD 47.4 ± 13.5; P = 0.044). Urgency in fecal function was experienced by more IBD patients (IBD 75.0% vs. RPC 47.9%; P = 0.006), although RPC patients had increased day (P < 0.001) and night bowel frequency (P < 0.001) and were more likely to experience night seepage (P = 0.001). RPC females who had a vaginal delivery (VD) were more likely to have day seepage (P = 0.046) and require pads (P = 0.026) than RPC females who had not undergone VD. There was no significant difference in sexual function. RPC may adversely impact urinary function in female patients over time. Bowel frequency, seepage, and pad usage are increased following RPC and function may be worse following VD. RPC does not adversely affect overall sexual function.
    Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 01/2012; 18(9):1601-7. · 5.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Females of child-bearing age have been reported to have a two to three-fold increase in infertility after restorative proctocolectomy (RPC). This study aimed to assess aspects of infertility and pregnancy. A postal questionnaire was sent to 790 females who had undergone primary RPC in two tertiary centres. Infertility, the number and outcome of pregnancies, delivery method and the use of fertility treatments were determined. Three hundred and six (38.5%) females responded (median age 47.9 years at follow up; 35.3 years at the time of RPC). Eighty-two per cent (n=250) had ulcerative colitis. Forty-five per cent (n=138) had conceived prior to RPC, 5.2% (n=16) conceived both before and after RPC, 5.5% (n=17) conceived after RPC only and 44.1% (n=135) had never conceived. Females delivering before RPC had significantly more vaginal deliveries than those conceiving after (pre-RPC 69.6%, n=96 vs post-RPC 35.3%, n=6; P=0.001). Fifty-seven patients stated they had attempted to conceive after RPC, with 25 (45.5%) being successful. Eighteen females had been referred to a fertility specialist, of whom 16 received in vitro fertilization (IVF). Four (30.7%) females conceived using IVF. While RPC is known to be associated with infertility, only a small proportion of patients are referred for fertility management. IVF outcomes and success rates after RPC are similar to the general population. Patients are more likely to have a Caesarean section following RPC.
    Colorectal Disease 06/2011; 13(10):e339-44. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) has recently been used in the management of faecal incontinence (FI). This study compared SNS to conservative management with regards to functional and quality of life outcomes. Meta-analysis of studies published between 1995 and 2008 on SNS for FI was performed. Outcomes evaluated were functional, physiological and quality of life. A random-effects model was used and sensitivity analyses performed. Subgroup analyses were performed on age and sphincter status. Thirty-four studies were included, reporting on 944 patients undergoing peripheral nerve evaluation; 665 underwent permanent SNS. Weekly incontinence episodes (weighted mean difference [WMD] -6.83; 95% confidence intervals [CI] -8.05, -5.60; p < 0.001) and incontinence scores (WMD -10.57; 95% CI -11.89, -9.24; p < 0.001) were significantly reduced with SNS; ability to defer defecation (WMD 7.99 min; 95% CI 5.93, 10.05; p < 0.001) was increased. Most SF-36 and FIQL domains improved following SNS, and mean anal pressures increased significantly (p < 0.001). Results remained consistent on sensitivity analysis. The under-56 years age group showed smaller functional but greater physiological and quality of life improvements. Results were similar between sphincter intact and impaired subgroups. The complication rate was 15% for permanent SNS, with 3% resulting in permanent explantation. SNS results in significant improvements in objective and subjective measures for faecally incontinent patients.
    International Journal of Colorectal Disease 03/2011; 26(3):275-94. · 2.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The National Bowel Cancer Audit Project (NBOCAP) collects data from hospitals in the UK and aims to improve surgical outcomes and quality of care for patients. The aims of this study were to understand why trusts were/were not participating in the NBOCAP and how to improve the quality of data collected and feedback. This was a prospective e-survey on colorectal surgeons' attitudes towards and opinions of the NBOCAP, within trusts in the UK. A questionnaire was emailed to members of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland (ACPGBI). Of the 171 trusts contacted by email, 66% of trusts (n = 117) had at least 1 consultant respond. Of the 117 trusts that responded, 60 (51.2%) had submitted data to the NBOCAP. A total of 549 consultants received the questionnaire, and 159 (29.0%) consultants responded. Fifty-one per cent (n = 60) of the trusts had submitted data to the NBOCAP. Reasons for data submission included the following: comparison of a units' data with national data (56.8%), a national audit improves outcomes (45.9%) and generation of information for use at a local level (42.6%). The main reasons for non-submission were as follows: lack of technical support (23.6%), lack of funding (19.6%) and lack of dedicated audit time (18.9%). Ninety-six (60.4%) consultants felt that the audit report should identify individual trust results. Fifty-three per cent of consultants (n = 87) rated their trusts' resources for audit as being very poor or poor. Consultant members of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland (ACPGBI) within hospital trusts in the UK feel participation in the National Bowel Cancer Audit improves patients' quality of care and surgical outcomes. Increased awareness of the benefits of the NBOCAP and improved allocation of resources from hospital trusts could improve participation.
    Techniques in Coloproctology 02/2011; 15(1):53-9. · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the relationship between organisational structure, process and surgical outcomes for bowel cancer surgery. An e-survey was sent to the members of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland to determine the organisational structure of their Trusts. Responses were combined with the National Bowel Cancer Audit (NBOCAP) data. Items investigated included; number of consultants, nurse specialists, volume of cases and intensive care facilities. Main outcome measures included: 30-day risk-adjusted mortality, length of stay (LOS), lymph node yield and circumferential margin involvement (CRM). One hundred and seventeen Trusts responded (65.8%), matched to 7666 patient episodes (NBOCAP data) from 54 (62.8%)Trusts who submitted data to the audit. Trusts treating <190 cases/annum (p > 0.001), <4 colorectal consultants (p > 0.001), <4 HDU beds (p > 0001) and <8 ITU beds (p > 0001) were more likely to have a 30-day-risk-adjusted mortality twice that of the national mean. Sixty five percent (n = 1603) of Trusts treating ≥ 190 cases/annum harvested ≥ 12 lymph nodes vs. 58.3% (n = 1435) in Trusts <190 cases/annum (p < 0.001). Trusts with ≥ 2 pathologists with an interest in bowel cancer harvested ≥ 12 lymph nodes more frequently (p=<0.001) and were more likely to identify extramural vascular invasion in the specimen (p = 0.015). Negative CRM was achieved in 81.4% (n = 81.4) of patients in Trusts treating ≥ 190 cases vs. 66.5% (n = 569) in Trusts<190 cases/annum (p < 0.001). Trusts offering fast track discharge were more likely to have a LOS < 15 days (p = 0.006). Surgeons treating ≤ 35 cases/annum had increased major post-operative complications (<35 cases = 70.2% vs. ≥ 35 cases = 21.9%; p < 0.001), however 30 day risk adjusted mortality was not increased in surgeons treating <35 cases/annum. This study shows that the organisational infrastructure of hospitals appears to have as great an impact on patient outcomes as the volume of cases performed by hospital Trusts.
    Surgical Oncology 11/2010; 20(2):e72-7. · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Known collectively as serrated polyps, hyperplastic polyps (HP), sessile serrated adenomas (SSA/SSP) and traditional serrated adenoma (TSA) may represent a spectrum of increasing malignant potential with characteristic immunological markers. There is increasing evidence that HP, SSA/SSP and TSA are biologically different and are likely to represent a spectrum along the serrated polyp pathway. Although there is general consensus about the diagnostic features of serrated polyps, the morphological differences between the categories are often subtle. This study compares the expression of p53 and P504S among serrated polyps. Sixty seven randomly selected biopsies (n = 59) and resection specimens (n = 8) histologically diagnosed for SSA/SSP, TSA and HP (19, 30 and 18 specimens, respectively) were obtained. There was a significant difference in p53 (P < 0.001) and P504S (P < 0.001) immunopositivity and distribution among the serrated polyps. In particular, there is diffuse expression p53 and P504S in TSA compared to HP and SSA/SSP where p53 and P504S expression was more frequently confined to the lower 1/3 of the crypts. In addition, percentage of cells expressing p53 and p504S expression was higher in TSA than those of HP and SSA/SSP. Immunostains, p53 and P504S, may be useful adjuncts to morphological diagnosis of serrated polyps.
    International Journal of Colorectal Disease 10/2010; 25(10):1193-200. · 2.24 Impact Factor
  • The Lancet Oncology 02/2010; 11(2):114-5. · 25.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lateral pelvic lymph-node metastases occur in 10-25% of patients with rectal cancer, and are associated with higher local recurrence and reduced survival rates. A meta-analysis was undertaken to assess the value of extended lateral pelvic lymphadenectomy in the operative management of rectal cancer. We searched Medline, Embase, Ovid, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar for studies published between 1965 and 2009 that compared extended lymphadenectomy (EL) with standard rectal resection. 20 studies, which included 5502 patients from one randomised, three prospective non-randomised, and 14 retrospective case-control studies published between 1984 and 2009, met our search criteria and were assessed. 2577 patients underwent EL and 2925 underwent non-EL for rectal cancer. Random and fixed-effects meta-analytical models were used where indicated, and between-study heterogeneity was assessed. End-points evaluated included peri-operative outcomes, 5-year survival and recurrence rates. Operating time was significantly longer in the EL group by 76.7 min (95% CI 18.77-134.68; p=0.0096). Intra-operative blood loss was greater in the EL group by 536.5 mL (95% CI 353.7-719.2; p<0.0001). Peri-operative mortality (OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.34-1.93; p=0.63) and morbidity (OR 1.45, 95% CI 0.89-2.35; p=0.13) were similar between the two groups. Data from individual studies showed that male sexual dysfunction and urinary dysfunction (three studies: OR 3.70, 95% CI 1.66-8.23; p=0.0012) were more prevalent in the EL group. There were no significant differences in 5-year survival (hazard ratio [HR] 1.09, 95% CI 0.78-1.50; p=0.62), 5-year disease-free survival (HR 1.23, 95% CI 0.75-2.03, p=0.41), and local (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.61-1.13; p=0.23) or distant recurrence (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.72-1.21; p=0.60). Extended lymphadenectomy does not seem to confer a significant overall cancer-specific advantage, but does seem to be associated with increased urinary and sexual dysfunction.
    The Lancet Oncology 09/2009; 10(11):1053-62. · 25.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical outcomes, quality-adjusted life-years, and the cost-effectiveness gained from percutaneous drainage followed by elective surgery vs. initial surgery for abdominopelvic abscesses related to Crohn's disease. All consecutive patients with spontaneous Crohn's disease-related abdominopelvic abscess from 1997 to 2007 were reviewed. The authors excluded postoperative and perirectal abscesses. Decision analysis during one year of patient life was used to calculate quality-adjusted life-years and the cost-effectiveness of each strategy. Of 94 patients, 48 (51 percent) were initially approached with percutaneous drainage. Thirty-one (65 percent) had successful percutaneous drainage and delayed elective surgery. The factors significantly associated with percutaneous drainage failure were steroid use, colonic phenotype, and multiple or multilocular abscesses. The initial treatment was surgery in the remaining 46 (49 percent) patients. The initial approach with percutaneous drainage gave higher quality-adjusted life-years and was more cost-effective than initial surgery. Percutaneous drainage was the optimal strategy in spite of the risk of failure and septic complications within the plausible range. Percutaneous drainage failure is associated with steroid use, colonic phenotype, and multiple or multilocular abscesses. When feasible, percutaneous drainage is the most effective strategy from the perspective of patients and third-party payers.
    Diseases of the Colon & Rectum 06/2009; 52(5):906-12. · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fast-track (FT) protocols accelerate patient's recovery and shorten hospital stay as a result of the optimization of the perioperative care they offer. The aim of this review is to examine the latest evidence for fast-track protocols when compared with standard care in elective colorectal surgery involving segmental colonic and/or rectal resection. All randomized controlled trials and controlled clinical trials on FT colorectal surgery were reviewed systematically. The main end points were short-term morbidity, length of primary postoperative hospital stay, length of total postoperative stay, readmission rate, and mortality. Quality assessment and data extraction were performed independently by two observers. Eleven studies were eligible for analysis (four randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and seven controlled clinical trials (CCT)), including 1,021 patients. Primary hospital stay (weighted mean difference -2.35 days, 95% confidence interval (CI) -3.24 to -1.46 days, P < 0.00001) and total hospital stay (weighted mean difference -2.46 days, 95% CI -3.43 to -1.48 days, P < 0.00001) were significantly lower for FT programs. Morbidity was also lower in the FT group. Readmission rates were not significantly different. No increase in mortality was found. FT protocols show high-level evidence on reducing primary and total hospital stay without compromising patients' safety offering lower morbidity and the same readmission rates. Enhanced recovery programs should become a mainstay of elective colorectal surgery.
    International Journal of Colorectal Disease 05/2009; 24(10):1119-31. · 2.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The levator ani is the main muscular support of the pelvic floor organs and damage caused by childbirth can affect its function. The full functionality of this muscle group is still unknown but it is essential for effective surgical planning. To elucidate its functional significance, a physical-based statistical shape model was built from the levator ani surfaces of 15 subjects scanned in an open access scanner. Simulation of dynamic exercises was performed on the resulting surfaces with finite element analysis. Statistical shape modeling was performed on the training set consisting of the original and simulated shapes along with thickness and strain distributions. Simulation results are presented on 15 subjects. The statistical shape model shows good correspondence to inter- and intra-subject shape variability, with the modes of variation highlighting movement in the posterior of the levator ani as well as in the levator arms. Strain distribution plots and the modes of variation show results that correspond to clinical findings. Further validation of the technique and a repeatability test were performed on four subjects with internal global pressure readings taken from a perineometer and five patients suffering from minor pelvic floor disorders due to obstructed defaecation. A Mann-Whitney nonparametric test was used to compare the normal model fitting to the two subject groups.
    IEEE transactions on medical imaging. 02/2009; 28(6):926-36.
  • Ejso. 01/2009; 35(11):1211-1211.
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    ABSTRACT: Narrow band imaging is a new endoscopic technology that highlights mucosal surface structures and microcapillaries, which may be indicative of neoplastic change. To assess the diagnostic precision of narrow band imaging for the diagnosis of epithelial neoplasia compared to conventional histology both overall and in specific organs. We performed a meta-analysis of studies which compared narow band imaging-based diagnosis of neoplasia with histopathology as the gold standard. Search terms: 'endoscopy' and 'narrow band imaging'. Five hundred and eighty-two patients and 1108 lesions in 11 studies were included. Overall, sensitivity was 0.94 (95% confidence interval 0.92-0.95), specificity 0.83 (0.80-0.86); weighted area under the curve was 0.96 (standard error 0.02), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) 72.74 (34.11-155.15). DORs were 66.65 (25.84-171.90), 61.19 (7.09-527.97), 69.74 (8.04-605.24) for colon, oesophagus and lung respectively. Studies with more than 50 patients had higher diagnostic precision, relative DOR 4.96 (1.28-19.27), P = 0.022. There was no difference in accuracy between microvessel and mucosal (pit) pattern based measures, relative DOR 1.29 (0.05-35.16), P = 0.87. There was significant heterogeneity overall between studies, Q = 31.2, P = 0.003. Narrow band imaging is accurate with high diagnostic precision for in vivo diagnosis of neoplasia across a range of organs, using simple microvessel-based measures.
    Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 10/2008; 28(7):854-67. · 4.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several environmental and genetic factors have been implicated to date in the development of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). The aim of this study was to provide a quantification of the risk of oral contraceptive pill (OCP) use in the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease. A literature search was performed to identify comparative studies reporting on the association of oral contraceptive use in the etiology of UC and CD between 1983 and 2007. A random-effect meta-analysis was used to compare the incidence of UC or CD between the patients exposed to the OCP and nonexposed patients. The results were adjusted for smoking. A total of 75,815 patients were reported on by 14 studies, with 36,797 exposed to OCP and 39,018 nonexposed women. The pooled relative risk (RR) for CD for women currently taking the OCP was 1.51 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17-1.96, P= 0.002), and 1.46 (95% CI 1.26-1.70, P < 0.001), adjusted for smoking. The RR for UC in women currently taking the OCP was 1.53 (95% CI 1.21-1.94, P= 0.001), and 1.28 (95% CI 1.06-1.54, P= 0.011), adjusted for smoking. The RR for CD increased with the length of exposure to OCP. Moreover, although the RR did not reduce once the OCP was stopped, it was no longer significant once the OCP was stopped (CI contains 1), both for CD and for UC. This study provides evidence of an association between the use of oral contraceptive agents and development of IBD, in particular CD. The study also suggests that the risk for patients who stop using the OCP reverts to that of the nonexposed population.
    The American Journal of Gastroenterology 09/2008; 103(9):2394-400. · 7.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Artificial bowel sphincter (ABS) and dynamic graciloplasty (DG) are surgical treatments for faecal incontinence (FI). FI may affect quality of life (QOL) so severely that patients are often willing to consider a permanent end stoma (ES). It is unclear which is the more cost-effective strategy. Probability estimates for patients with FI were obtained from published data (ABS, n = 319; DG, n = 301), supplemented by expert opinion. The primary outcome was quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained from each strategy. Factors considered were the risk of failure of the primary and redo operation and the consequent risk of permanent stoma. Results were assessed as incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Over the 5-year time horizon, ES gave a QALY gain of 3.45 for 16,280 pounds sterling, giving an ICER of 4719 pounds sterling/QALY. ABS produced a gain of 4.38 QALYs for 23,569 pounds sterling, giving an ICER of 5387 pounds sterling/QALY. DG produced a gain of 4.00 QALYs for 25,035 pounds sterling, giving an ICER of 6257 pounds sterling/QALY. With the willingness-to-pay threshold set at 30,000 pounds sterling/QALY, ES was the most cost-effective intervention. The ABS was most cost-effective after 10 years. All three procedures were found to be cost-effective. The ES was most cost-effective over 5 years, while the ABS was most cost-effective in excess of 10. DG maybe considered as an alternative in specialist centres.
    Colorectal Disease 08/2008; 10(6):577-86. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic precision of serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in the detection of local or distant recurrence following resectional surgery for colon and rectal cancer. Quantitative meta-analysis was performed on 20 studies, comparing serum CEA with radiological imaging and/or pathology in detecting colorectal cancer (CRC) recurrence in 4285 patients. The cut-off for a 'positive' CEA ranged from 3 to 15 ng/ml between the various studies. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) were calculated for each study. Summary receiver operating characteristic curves (SROC) and sub-group analysis were undertaken. The overall sensitivity and specificity of CEA for detecting CRC recurrence was 0.64 (95% CI: 0.61-0.67) and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.89-0.91), respectively. The area under the SROC curve was 0.75 (SE=0.04) and the diagnostic odds ratio was 18.44 (95% CI: 11.94-28.49). A CEA cut-off of 5 ng/ml yielded a higher diagnostic odds ratio than a cut-off of 3 ng/ml (15.5 vs. 11.1). Using meta-regression analysis the optimum CEA cut-off point for the best combination of sensitivity and specificity was 2.2 ng/ml. On sub-group analysis high quality studies, and those involving > or =100 patients yielded a marginal improvement in the sensitivity and specificity with minimal change to the SROC. Serum CEA is a test with high specificity but insufficient sensitivity for detecting CRC recurrence in isolation. A cut-off of 2.2 ng/ml may provide an ideal balance of sensitivity and specificity. It may be useful as a first-line surveillance investigation in patients during surgical follow-up based on serial CEA measurements using temporal trends in conjunction with clinical, radiological and/or histological confirmation.
    Surgical Oncology 07/2008; 18(1):15-24. · 2.14 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

579 Citations
195.58 Total Impact Points


  • 2007–2012
    • Imperial College London
      • Section of Biosurgery and Surgical Technology
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2009
    • Imperial Valley College
      Westminster, Colorado, United States
  • 2008
    • St. Mark's Hospital
      Harrow, England, United Kingdom