[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine whether oral administration of omeprazole, a proton-pump inhibitor, increased abomasal luminal pH in calves fed milk replacer. Four male dairy calves with cannulae in the abomasal body suckled milk replacer (60 ml/kg body weight every 12 h) and were administered a non-enteric-coated omeprazole (4 mg/kg body weight every 24 h) in a paste formulation for five successive days. Abomasal luminal pH was continuously measured using miniature glass pH electrodes. On the first day of omeprazole administration, there was a significant (P<0.05) increase in mean 24-h pH from 2.89 to 4.17. The mean 24-h pH on days 2, 3, 4 and 5 of omeprazole administration were 3.85, 4.02, 3.97 and 3.39 respectively. We conclude that oral administration of non-enteric-coated omeprazole increased abomasal luminal pH in calves fed milk replacer, but that the effect may decrease over time.
Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A 07/2005; 52(5):238-43. · 0.93 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The main objective of this study was to develop a simple and effective surgical technique for abomasal cannulation in neonatal calves. General anaesthesia was induced in 12, 3-day-old male dairy calves and a polyurethane cannula surgically implanted in the abomasal body (n = 12) and pyloric antrum (n = 6) through a right paracostal incision. Fifteen cannulae remained in situ from day 3 to 34 of life (mean: 29 days), and three cannulae were extruded 13-14 days after placement. Calves were clinically healthy and gained weight during the study. Cannulae were well tolerated by the calves and abomasal contents did not leak from the cannula sites. Necropsy examination revealed firm adhesions between the abomasum and parietal peritoneum at the cannula sites with no evidence of leakage or peritonitis. We conclude that surgical placement of polyurethane tubes designed for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy provided a useful method for cannulation of the abomasum of neonatal calves. The cannulation technique can be used for experimental studies, as well as for nutritional and fluid support of sick calves that cannot be managed by oral treatment.
Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A 03/2005; 52(1):39-42. · 0.93 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abomasal ulceration occurs commonly in suckling calves, and the cause for the high prevalence of abomasal ulceration is unknown. We hypothesized that diet may play a role in the etiopathogenesis of abomasal ulceration. Six male dairy calves with an abomasal body cannula suckled fresh Holstein cow's milk, all milk-protein milk replacer, or combined milk- and soy-protein milk replacer twice daily at 12% of body weight/d. Abomasal luminal pH was measured every second for 24 hours by using a miniature glass pH electrode. Mean 24-hour abomasal luminal pH for all milk-protein milk replacer (3.22) and combined milk- and soy-protein milk replacer (3.27) were similar but significantly (P < .05) higher than that for cow's milk (2.77; standard error = 0.08). Both milk-replacer formulations failed to clot after the addition of chymosin, whereas cow's milk clotted within 2 minutes. The in vitro titration curve of cow's milk and all milk-protein milk replacer were similar, but different to that of combined milk- and soy-protein milk replacer. The osmolalities of all milk-protein milk replacer (375 mOsm/kg) and combined milk- and soy-protein milk replacer (410 mOsm/kg) were greater than that of cow's milk (278 mOsm/kg). The slightly lower mean abomasal luminal pH in calves suckling cow's milk, compared to milk replacer, was probably due to clotting of cow's milk, with extrusion of low pH whey, and a slower rate of abomasal emptying caused by the hyperosmolality of milk replacer. Examination of our results suggests that suckling cow's milk may increase the prevalence of abomasal ulceration by decreasing mean luminal pH, although this remains to be determined.
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 01/2005; 19(1):97-102. · 2.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of feeding frequency and route of administration on abomasal luminal pH in suckling calves. Six male dairy calves with cannulae in the abomasal body were administered the following six treatments in a randomized crossover design: 24 h fasting, suckling of a high-quality milk replacer (all-milk protein; 12% of body weight [BW]/d) at 12-h (2x), 8-h (3x), 6-h (4x), and 3-h (8x) intervals, and ruminal intubation of milk replacer (12% of body weight/day) at a 12-h (2x) interval. Abomasal luminal pH was measured every second for 24 h with miniature glass pH electrodes. Least squares mean 24-h fasting abomasal luminal pH was 1.73, whereas mean 24-h pH after suckling and intubation of milk replacer every 12 h were higher at 3.44 and 3.17, respectively. Increasing the frequency of milk replacer suckling to 3x, 4x, and 8x increased mean 24-h abomasal luminal pH; however, there was no difference in mean 24-h pH between 3x (3.69), 4x (3.64), and 8x (3.67) suckling. The percentage of the 24-h recording period that abomasal luminal pH was > 3.0 was 0, 49, 53, 61, 61, and 71% for fasting, 2x intubation of milk replacer, and 2x, 3x, 4x, and 8x suckling of milk replacer, respectively. Increasing the frequency of milk replacer suckling may be efficacious in the prophylaxis of abomasal ulceration in milk-fed calves.
Journal of Dairy Science 06/2002; 85(6):1502-8. · 2.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the effects of a commercially available orally administered antacid agent containing aluminum hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide on abomasal luminal pH in clinically normal milk-fed calves.
5 male dairy calves.
Throughout the study, calves were fed milk replacer at 7:30 AM and 7:30 PM. Cannulae for pH electrodes were placed in the abomasal body and pyloric antrum. Treatments consisted of oral administration of a high (50 ml) or low (25 ml) dose of the antacid agent and oral administration of milk replacer alone (control). Antacid was given at 7:30 AM, 3:30 PM, and 11:30 PM, and luminal pH was monitored continuously for 24 hours, beginning 15 minutes before administration of the first dose of antacid.
Administration of the first dose of antacid at the time of the morning feeding resulted in an increase in mean abomasal body luminal pH of < 1 pH unit, whereas administration of the second and third doses of the antacid caused transient (< 3 hours) increases in mean luminal pH of approximately 1.5 (low dose) and 2.5 (high dose) pH units.
Results suggest that clinically normal milk-fed calves given a commercially available antacid agent, PO, will have a transient increase in abomasal luminal pH. Such agents may, therefore, have a role in the treatment of abomasal ulceration in calves; however, the long-term effects of orally administered antacid agents in milk-fed calves and the clinical efficacy of such agents in treating abomasal ulceration remain to be determined.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 01/2002; 220(1):74-9. · 1.72 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To characterize the change of pH in the abomasal lumen throughout a 24-hour period, to determine whether pH of the abomasal body differs from pH of the pyloric antrum, and to determine whether oral administration of cimetidine and ranitidine alters pH of the abomasal lumen in milk-fed calves.
5 male dairy calves (4 Holsteins-Friesian, 1 Ayrshire), 5 to 15 days old.
Cannulas were surgically positioned in the abomasal body and pyloric antrum of each calf. Calves received the following treatments in a randomized crossover design: milk replacer (60 ml/kg of body weight, q 12 h [untreated control calves]), milk replacer and cimetidine (50 or 100 mg/kg, q 8 h), or milk replacer and ranitidine (10 or 50 mg/kg, q 8 h). The pH of the abomasal body and pyloric antrum was measured for 24 hours, using miniature glass pH electrodes.
Suckling of milk replacer immediately increased abomasal luminal pH from 1.4 to 6.0, followed by a gradual decrease to preprandial values by 6 hours. Preprandial and postprandial pH values were not significantly different between the abomasal body and pyloric antrum, indicating lack of pH compartmentalization in the abomasum of milk-fed calves. Administration of cimetidine and ranitidine caused a significant dose-dependent increase in mean 24-hour abomasal luminal pH.
Abomasal acid secretion in milk-fed calves is mediated in part by histamine type-2 receptors. Cimetidine and ranitidine may be efficacious in the treatment of abomasal ulcers in milk-fed calves.
American Journal of Veterinary Research 11/2001; 62(10):1531-8. · 1.35 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Survey radiography is used in diagnosis of different affections in buffaloes and cattle. The aim of the present study was to assess the role of radiography in diagnosis of reticular diaphragmatic hernias and traumatic pericarditis in buffaloes and cattle. The present study was carried out on 69 animals (51 buffaloes and 18 cattle). Reticular diaphragmatic hernias (40 buffaloes, 4 cattle) and traumatic pericarditis (11 buffaloes, 14 cattle) were evaluated. Lateral right-left survey radiography of the thorax was performed. In diaphragmatic hernia, radiography revealed presence of a rounded or vertical oval mass of soft tissue opacity superimposed over the heart. Radiopaque foreign bodies of variable shape and size were seen within the herniated part of the reticulum. The apex of the heart was difficult to visualize. With traumatic pericarditis, survey radiography of the thorax revealed poor differentiation of thoracic contents. The contour of the diaphragm was lost and the cardiac silhouette was obscured. In several animals radiopaque foreign bodies (sewing needles, nails, and pieces of wire) were detected at the level of the heart or in the area connecting the dome of the diaphragm with the heart.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study included 45 unaffected animals and 593 animals affected with heterochromia irides, and 85 enucleated eyeballs with heterochromia irides. The classification of heterochromia irides, morphology of normal and heterochromic irides, and the histology, ultrastructure, and scanning electron microscopy are presented. The incidence of heterochromia irides in water buffaloes was 7.62% affecting either one or both eyes. Both complete and partial heterochromia irides occurred. Complete heterochromia iridis is more frequent than the partial form in either bilateral or unilateral cases. The pupil has a dumb-bell-shape appearance. Granula iridica occurred at the upper (100%) and lower (30%) pupillary margins and originated from the posterior pigmented epithelium. In heterochromia irides, the melanocytes is absent in the anterior border and stromal layers, and iridal thickness appeared thinner than that of normal eyes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heterochromia irides is one of the most frequent congenital abnormalities. When multiple colors occur within one iris or between the two irides, the term heterochromia irides is applicable. 1±5 Heterochromia irides in water buffaloes, to the authors' knowledge, has not been reported in the literature. This study reports the incidence, morphology, histology, ultrastructure and scanning electron microscopy of hetero-chromia irides in water buffaloes. A total of 7782 buffaloes was examined by the naked eye and in daylight for the presence of heterochromia irides, and 593 animals were found to be affected by heterochromia irides. An additional 45 normal and 85 heterochromic enucleated eyeballs were used in this study. Globes were collected from freshly slaughtered animals of both sexes and of different ages. The majority of the globes (40 normal eyes and 80 with heterochromia irides) were preserved in 10% formalin, and the cornea was excised just before examination. The remainder of the globes (five normal and five with heterochromia irides) were processed for histologic and ultrastructural examination and scanning electron micro-scopy. The irides were immediately excised from freshly enucleated eyeballs and specimens, 0.5 6 1.0 cm in diameter, were excised and immersed in Bouin's fluid for 24 h, then dehydrated in a graded alcohol series, cleared in methylbenzoate, and embedded in paraplast. Serial sections were cut at 3±5 mm and stained with H&E for general histologic examination. 6 For the ultrastructural study, small iridal blocks were taken and fixed in paraformaldehyde glutaraldehyde as described by Karnovsky. 7 For scanning electron microscopy the specimens were fixed in parafor-maldehyde glutaraldehyde solution, then washed in 0.1 M cacodylate buffer at pH 7.3, dehydrated in ascending graded ethanol, critical point dried in liquid carbon dioxide, and examined using a JSM-5400 LV scanning electron micro-scope. Iridal width and thickness were measured using an image analysis system (Leica Q500) with special software (visualize) on formalin-fixed specimens.