Hongzhuan Chen

Renji Hospital, Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China

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Publications (39)179.62 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Reactive astrogliosis, characterized by cellular hypertrophy and various alterations in gene expression and proliferative phenotypes, is considered to contribute to brain injuries and diseases as diverse as trauma, neurodegeneration, and ischemia. KCa3.1, a potassium channel protein, has been reported to be up-regulated in reactive astrocytes after spinal cord injury in vivo. However, little is known regarding the exact role of KCa3.1 in reactive astrogliosis. To elucidate the role of KCa3.1 in regulating reactive astrogliosis, we investigated the effects of either blocking or knockout of KCa3.1 channels on the production of astrogliosis and astrocytic proliferation in response to transforming growth factor (TGF)-β in primary cultures of mouse astrocytes. We found that TGF-β increased KCa3.1 protein expression in astrocytes, with a concomitant marked increase in the expression of reactive astrogliosis, including glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs). These changes were significantly attenuated by the KCa3.1 inhibitor TRAM-34. Similarly, the increase in GFAP and CSPGs in response to TGF-β was attenuated in KCa3.1-/- astrocytes. TRAM-34 also suppressed astrocytic proliferation. Additionally, the TGF-β-induced phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3 proteins was reduced with either inhibition of KCa3.1 with TRAM-34 or in KCa3.1-/- astrocytes. These findings highlight a novel role for the KCa3.1 channel in reactive astrogliosis phenotypic modulation and provide a potential target for therapeutic intervention for brain injuries. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 03/2014; · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A major cross-cutting problem for glioma therapy is the poor extravasation and penetration of the payload drug in target glioma parenchyma. Here, to overcome these obstacles, a tumor vessel recognizing and tumor penetrating system is developed by functionalizating the poly (ethyleneglycol)-poly (l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles with an iNGR moiety (iNGR-NP). The nanoparticulate formulation is expected to achieve specific deep penetration in the tumor tissue by initially binding to aminopeptidase N, with iNGR proteolytically cleaved to CRNGR, and then bind with neuropilin-1 to mediate deep penetration in the tumor parenchyma. iNGR-NP exhibits significantly enhanced cellular uptake in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, improves the anti-proliferation and anti-tube formation abilities of paclitaxel in vitro. Following intravenous administration, iNGR-NP present favorable pharmacokinetic and tumor homing profiles. Glioma distribution and penetration assays confirm that iNGR-NP achieve the highest accumulation and deepest penetration at the glioma sites. The anti-glioma efficacy of paclitaxel-loaded iNGR-NP is verified by its improved anti-angiogenesis activity and the significantly prolonged survival time in mice bearing intracranial glioma. These evidences highlight the potential of iNGR-decorated nanoparticles in overcoming the leading edge problem in anti-glioma drug delivery.
    Biomaterials 02/2014; · 7.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Amyloid-beta (Aβ) accumulation in the brain is believed to play a central role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis, and the common late-onset form of AD is characterized by an overall impairment in Aβ clearance. Therefore, development of nanomedicine that can facilitate Aβ clearance represents a promising strategy for AD intervention. However, previous work of this kind was concentrated at the molecular level, and the disease-modifying effectiveness of such nanomedicine has not been investigated in clinically relevant biological systems. Here, we hypothesized that a biologically-inspired nanostructure - ApoE3-reconstituted high density lipoprotein (ApoE3-rHDL), which presents high binding affinity to Aβ, might serve as a novel nanomedicine for disease modification in AD by accelerating Aβ clearance. Surface plasmon resonance, transmission electron microscopy and co-immunoprecipitation analysis showed that ApoE3-rHDL demonstrated high binding affinity to both Aβ monomer and oligomer. It also accelerated the microglial, astroglial and liver cell degradation of Aβ by facilitating the lysosomal transport. One hour after intravenous administration, about 0.4% ID/g of ApoE3-rHDL got access to the brain. Four-week daily treatment with ApoE3-rHDL decreased Aβ deposition, attenuated microgliosis, ameliorated neurologic changes and rescued memory deficits in an AD animal model. The findings here provided the direct evidence of biomimetic nanostructures crossing the blood-brain barrier, capturing Aβ and facilitating its degradation by glial cells, indicating that ApoE3-rHDL might serve as a novel nanomedicine for disease modification in AD by accelerating Aβ clearance, which also justified the concept that nanostructures with Aβ-binding affinity might provide a novel nanoplatform for AD therapy.
    ACS Nano 02/2014; · 12.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nanotechnology plays a unique instrumental role in the revolutionary development of brain-specific drug delivery, imaging, and diagnosis, but is highly limited by the existence of blood-brain barrier (BBB). In this study, microbubble-enhanced unfocused ultrasound (MEUUS) was developed as an approach to mediate an extensive brain delivery of poly (ethylene glycol) - poly (lactic acid) (PEG-PLA) nanoparticles. Following the MEUUS treatment, the nanoparticles signals were found to penetrate through the vascular walls and distributed deeply into the parenchyma at a significantly higher level (more than 250%) than those of the non-MEUUS treated control. Such effect was reversible and dependent on nanoparticles injection timing, sonication mode and mechanical index. Together with the transmission electron microscopy analysis, the increased brain accumulation of nanoparticles was claimed to be largely mediated by an ultrasound-induced stable cavitation of the microbubble which resulted in mechanical stretching of the vessel wall and consequently induced cellular transcytosis of the nanoparticles. The MEUUS technique was also used to facilitate the brain delivery of PEG-PLA nanoparticles functionalized with amyloid beta-specific antibody 6E10 for enabling the recognition of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease that widely distributed in the brain. No erythrocytes extravasation and other visible damages in the brain were detected following the MEUUS treatment. These findings together indicated that unfocused ultrasound with the aid of microbubble could effectively improve the brain delivery of nanoparticles, and this approach might serve as a safe and flexible platform for the potential application of nanoparticles in the diagnosis and therapy of brain diseases.
    Biomaterials 01/2014; · 7.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation and the associated neuronal damage play critical roles in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Evidence shows an elevated concentration of extracellular copper(II) in brains of these disorders, which may contribute to neuronal death through direct neurotoxicity. Here we explored whether extracellular copper(II) triggers microglial activation. Primary rat microglia and murine microglial cell line BV-2 cells were cultured and treated with copper(II). The content of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nitric oxide in the medium was determined. Extracellular hydrogen peroxide was quantified by a fluorometric assay with Amplex Red. Mitochondrial superoxide was measured by MitoSOX oxidation. At subneurotoxic concentrations, copper(II) treatment induced dose- and time-dependent release of TNF-α and nitric oxide from microglial cells, and caused an indirect, microglia-mediated neurotoxicity that was blocked by inhibition of both TNF-α and nitric oxide production. Copper(II)-initiated microglial activation was accompanied with reduced IкB-α expression as well as phosphorylation and translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 and was blocked by NF-κB inhibitors (BAY11-7082 and SC-514). Moreover, copper(II) treatment evoked a rapid release of hydrogen peroxide from microglial cells, an effect that was not affected by NADPH oxidase inhibitors. N-acetyl-cysteine, a scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS), abrogated copper(II)-elicited microglial release of TNF-α and nitric oxide and subsequent neurotoxicity. Importantly, mitochondrial production of superoxide, paralleled to extracellular release of hydrogen peroxide, was induced after copper(II) stimulation. Our findings suggest that extracellular copper(II) at subneurotoxic concentrations could trigger NF-κB-dependent microglial activation and subsequent neurotoxicity. NADPH oxidase-independent, mitochondria-derived ROS may be involved in this activation.
    Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 01/2014; · 3.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antiangiogenic therapy shows great advantages in clinical cancer treatment while no overall survival has been achieved. The compromised results were mainly contributed by intrinsic/acquired antiangiogenic drug resistance and increased local invasion or distant metastasis after antiangiogenic therapy. Here we constructed a CGKRK peptide-modified PEG-co-PCL nanoparticulate drug delivery system (DDS), aiming at targeting both tumor angiogenic blood vessels and tumor cells to achieve enhanced anti-tumor activity as well as holding a great potential to overcome the drawbacks of antiangiogenic therapy alone. The obtained CGKRK-functionalized PEG-co-PCL nanoparticles (CGKRK-NP) with a particle size of 117.28 ± 10.42 nm and zeta potential of -15.7 ± 3.32 mV, exhibited an enhanced accumulation via an energy-dependent, lipid raft/caveolae-mediated endocytosis with the involvement of microtubules in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and an energy-dependent, lipid raft/caveolae-mediated endocytosis with the participation of Golgi apparatus in human U87MG cells. Using coumarin-6 as the fluorescence probe, in vitro U87MG tumor spheroids assays showed that CGKRK-NP effectively penetrated into the tumor spheroids. Selective accumulation and extensive bio-distribution of CGKRK-NP at tumor site was confirmed by in vivo imaging and tumor section analysis. After drug loading, CGKRK-NP enhanced cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction activity of the loaded PTX on both HUVEC cells and U87MG cells and improved its inhibition effect on the growth of U87MG tumor spheroids. The smallest tumor volume was achieved by those mice bearing subcutaneous U87MG tumor following the treatment of PTX-loaded CGKRK-NP. The findings here indicated that CGKRK peptide-functionalized nanoparticulate DDS could be used as an effective tumor angiogenic blood vessels and tumor cells dual-targeting DDS and might provide a great promising approach for reducing the disadvantages of antiangiogenic therapy alone.
    Biomaterials 09/2013; · 7.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A simple, robust and specific liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated to determine the concentration of corticosterone (Cort) which is usually regarded as a stress biomarker in mouse serum. Since Cort is an endogenous hormone, a 'surrogate analyte' strategy was adopted using the stable isotope-deuterated corticosterone as a surrogate of the authentic analyte to generate the calibration curve. With telmisartan as the internal standard, the analytes were extracted with methanol, ethanol and acetone (1:1:1, v/v/v) and separated on a XTerra C18 (2.1 × 50 mm, 3.5 µm) column using a mobile phase consisting of 0.2% formic acid in water-methanol (30:70, v/v). Detection was performed in multiple reaction monitoring mode with an electrospray ionization source operated in positive ion mode. The standard curves were linear (r(2) > 0.999) over the dynamic range of 8.60-430 ng/mL, with a lower limit of quantification of 8.60 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-assay precisions were less than 15.0% of the relative standard deviation. This method was further used for analysis of serum samples from C57B/L tumor-bearing mice before and after the treatment of fluoxetine. Validation of the assay and its application to the analysis demonstrated that the method was applicable to determine meaningful changes in Cort concentrations in serum samples of the tumor-bearing mice for the stress status evaluation. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Biomedical Chromatography 06/2013; · 1.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The blood-brain barrier (BBB), which is formed by the brain capillary wall, greatly hinders the development of new drugs for the brain. Over the past decades, among the various receptor-mediated endogenous BBB transport systems, the strategy of using transferrin or anti-transferrin receptor antibodies to facilitate brain drug delivery system is of particular interest. However, the application of large proteins still suffers from the drawbacks including synthesis procedure, stability, and immunological response. Here we explored a B6 peptide discovered by phase display as a substitute for transferrin, and conjugated it to PEG-PLA nanoparticles (NP) with the aim to enhance the delivery of neuroprotective drug across the BBB for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. B6-modified NP (B6-NP) exhibited significantly higher accumulation in brain capillary endothelial cells via lipid raft-mediated and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. In vivo, fluorescently labeled B6-NP exhibited much higher brain accumulation when compared with NP. Administration of B6-NP encapsulated neuroprotective peptide NAPVSIPQ (NAP) to Alzheimer's disease mouse models showed excellent amelioration in learning impairments, cholinergic disruption and loss of hippocampal neurons even at lower dose. These findings together suggested that B6-NP might serve as a promising DDS for facilitating the brain delivery of neuropeptides.
    Bioconjugate Chemistry 05/2013; · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: By taking advantage of the excessively upregulated expression of neuropilin (NRP) on the surface of both glioma cells and endothelial cells of angiogenic blood vessels, the ligand of NRP with high affinity - tLyp-1 peptide, which also contains a CendR motif ((R/K)XX(R/K)), was functionalized to the surface of PEG-PLA nanoparticles (tLyp-1-NP) to mediate its tumor homing, vascular extravasation and deep penetration into the glioma parenchyma. The tLyp-1-NP was prepared via a maleimide-thiol coupling reaction with uniformly spherical shape under TEM and particle size of 111.30 ± 15.64 nm. tLyp-1-NP exhibited enhanced cellular uptake in both human umbilical vein endothelial cells and Rat C6 glioma cells, increased cytotoxicity of the loaded PTX, and improved penetration and growth inhibition in avascular C6 glioma spheroids. Selective accumulation and deep penetration of tLyp-1-NP at the glioma site was confirmed by in vivo imaging and glioma distribution analysis. The longest survival was achieved by those mice bearing intracranial C6 glioma treated with PTX-loaded tLyp-1-NP. The findings here strongly indicate that tLyp-1 peptide-functionalized nanoparticulate DDS could significantly improve the efficacy of paclitaxel glioma therapy.
    Biomaterials 04/2013; · 7.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Low permeability across the blood-brain tumor barrier (BTB) and poor penetration into the glioma parenchyma represent key obstacles for anti-glioblastoma drug delivery. In this study, MT1-AF7p peptide, which presents high binding affinity to membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) that over-expressed on both angiogenic blood vessels and glioma cells, was employed to decorate the paclitaxel-loaded PEG-PLA nanoparticles (MT1-NP-PTX) to mediate glioblastoma targeting. Tumor-homing and penetrating peptide iRGD was co-administrated to further facilitate nanoparticles extravasation from the tumor vessels and penetration into the glioma parenchyma. MT1-NP-PTX showed satisfactory encapsulated efficiency, loading capacity and size distribution. In C6 glioma cells, MT1-NP was found to exhibit significantly enhanced cellular accumulation than that of unmodified NP via both energy-dependent macropinocytosis and lipid raft-mediated endocytosis. The anti-proliferative and apoptosis-induction activity of PTX was significantly enhanced following its encapsulation in MT1-NP. In vivo imaging and glioma distribution together confirmed that MT1-AF7p functionalization and iRGD co-administration significantly improved the nanoparticles extravasation across BTB and accumulation in glioma parenchyma. Furthermore, in vitro C6 glioma spheroid assays evidenced that MT1-NP effectively penetrated into the glioma spheroids and significantly improved the growth inhibitory effects of loaded PTX on glioma spheroids. More importantly, the median survival time of those nude mice bearing intracranial C6 glioma received MT1-NP-PTX and iRGD combination regimen was 60 days, significantly longer than that of other groups. The findings suggested that the BTB/glioma cells dual-targeting DDS co-administrated with iRGD peptide might provide a both practical and feasible solution to highly efficient anti-glioblastoma drug delivery.
    Biomaterials 04/2013; · 7.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Development of effective non-invasive drug delivery systems is of great importance to the treatment of Alzheimer's diseases and has made great progress in recent years. In this work, lactoferrin (Lf), a natural iron binding protein, whose receptor is highly expressed in both respiratory epithelial cells and neurons is here utilized to facilitate the nose-to-brain drug delivery of neuroprotection peptides. The Lf-conjugated PEG-PCL nanoparticle (Lf-NP) was constructed via a maleimide-thiol reaction with the Lf conjugation confirmed by CBQCA Protein Quantitation and XPS analysis. Other important parameters such as particle size distribution, zeta potential and in vitro release of fluorescent probes were also characterized. Compared with unmodified nanoparticles (NP), Lf-NP exhibited a significantly enhanced cellular accumulation in 16HBE14o-cells through both caveolae-/clathrin-mediated endocytosis and direct translocation. Following intranasal administration, Lf-NP facilitated the brain distribution of the coumarin-6 incorporated with the AUC0-8h in rat cerebrum (with hippocampus removed), cerebellum, olfactory tract, olfactory bulb and hippocampus 1.36, 1.53, 1.70, 1.57 and 1.23 times higher than that of coumarin-6 carried by NP, respectively. Using a neuroprotective peptide - NAPVSIPQ (NAP) as the model drug, the neuroprotective and memory improvement effect of Lf-NP was observed even at lower dose than that of NP in a Morris water maze experiment, which was also confirmed by the evaluation of acetylcholinesterase, choline acetyltransferase activity and neuronal degeneration in the mice hippocampus. In conclusion, Lf-NP may serve as a promising nose-to-brain drug delivery carrier especially for peptides and proteins.
    Biomaterials 02/2013; · 7.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Biodegradable polyester nanoparticles have now attracted growing interest as promising drug delivery system. However, a fundamental understanding about its cellular transport as well as the influence by the polymeric architecture is still lack, which remains a significant obstacle to optimal nanocarrier design. In this work, using Caco-2 cell model, we characterized the cellular transport pathway of pegylated polyester nanoparticles and determined the effect of polymer architecture including PEG chain length and core material on its cellular interaction and transcellular transport. The nanoparticles were found to undergo an energy-dependent, lipid raft-mediated, but caveolae-independent endocytosis. PEG chain length (from 2000 to 5000Da) and core material (PLA/PLGA) hardly affected the cellular interaction and the intracellular itinerary of the nanoparticles. However, in the case of transcellular transport, the maximal transcellular transport efficiency for its payload was achieved by the PEG(5000)-PLA(40000) nanoparticles which present higher drug loading capacity and slower drug release. The findings here revealed the cellular interaction mechanism of pegylated polyester nanoparticles and provided evidence for the role of polymer architectures in modulating the transcellular permeability of the agents loaded by the nanoparticles, and would be helpful in improving carrier design to enhance drug delivery.
    International journal of pharmaceutics 02/2013; · 2.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Based on the powerful cell-penetrating ability of low molecular weight protamine (LMWP) and the over-expression of matrix metalloproteinases in the tumor sites, we here constructed an activatable low molecular weight protamine (ALMWP) and modified it onto the surface of PEG-PLA nanoparticles to develop a 'smart' drug delivery system with enhanced permeability for facilitating site-specific targeting delivery of anticancer drug. The obtained ALMWP-NP with a particle size of 134.0 ± 4.59 nm and a zeta potential of -34.4 ± 2.7 mV, exhibited an enhanced MMP-dependent accumulation in HT-1080 cells via both energy-independent direct translocation and clathrin-mediated, cytoskeleton-dependent endocytosis. Pharmacokinetic and biodistribution study in HT-1080 tumor-bearing mice showed that ALMWP-NP significantly increased the accumulation of paclitaxel (PTX) in the tumor site but not the non-target tissues. In addition, intra-tumor distribution analysis demonstrated that more ALMWP-NP penetrated deeply into the tumor parenchyma. As a result, PTX loaded by ALMWP-NP exhibited improved anti-tumor efficacy over that by NP and LMWP-NP. The findings suggested that ALMWP-NP could be used as a safe and effective tumor-targeting drug delivery system and opened a new gateway to the application of cell-penetrating peptides for targeted anti-tumor therapy.
    Bioconjugate Chemistry 01/2013; · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, the distribution of a new triazole drug, iodiconazole, in rat dermal interstitial fluid and blood was investigated by double-site microdialysis following dermal administration. It was demonstrated that well-calibrated microdialysis sampling in rats could be used to assess the percutaneous penetration kinetics of iodiconazole cream. Iodiconazole penetrated rapidly and cleared slowly from the dermis. The ratio of area under the concentration-time curve in dermis (AUC(dermis)) to that in blood (AUC(blood)) was close to 20, which meant that the free iodiconazole concentration had a higher distribution in the target tissue. Subsequently, the in vitro antifungal activities of iodiconazole were evaluated and were compared with those of fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, miconazole and terbinafine. Iodiconazole exhibited broad spectrum and potent activity against 12 kinds of clinically pathogenic fungi. The drug concentration percentage inhibition curves versus time of iodiconazole against the tested fungi elucidated the two-dimensional relationship (concentration-effect) following drug administration, indicating that the percentage inhibition (%) of iodiconazole compared with the drug-free control in dermal dialysate were all >90% in the 900-min sampling time following dermal administration. Moreover, integration of in vivo pharmacokinetic data with the in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) provided iodiconazole AUC/MIC ratios in rat dermis and blood of 347.7h and 18.8h, respectively, with an iodiconazole cream (2%) dosage of 0.033g/cm(2) (3cm×5cm). These findings show a reservoir effect in the skin following topical application. Iodiconazole topical cream may be a future alternative for treatment of dermatophytosis in humans.
    International journal of antimicrobial agents 01/2013; · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Citalopram is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) mainly prescribed to treat major depression. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetic characteristics of a new and a branded citalopram 20 mg formulation to support the marketing authorization of the test formulation in China. METHODS: A single-dose, open-label, randomized-sequence, two-period crossover design was used in this study. Healthy Chinese male cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 extensive metabolizers, aged 18-40 years, were eligible to participate. CYP2C19 poor metabolizers were excluded, based on genotyping of genomic DNA from blood samples. Twenty-four subjects were randomly assigned to receive the test formulation followed by the reference formulation, and then vice versa. A 2-week washout occurred between study periods. Blood samples were collected for up to 144 h post-dose. Quantification was carried out using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated and analysed statistically. The two formulations were considered pharmacokinetically equivalent if the 90 % confidence intervals (CIs) of the log-transformed ratios (test/reference) of the maximum plasma concentration (C(max)), area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to the last measurable concentration (AUC(last)), and area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC(∞)) were within the predetermined acceptance range (70-143 % for C(max); 80-125 % for AUC(last) and AUC(∞)) according to China State Food and Drug Administration bioequivalence guidelines. Tolerability was monitored by clinical assessment, vital signs, laboratory analysis and interviews with participants about adverse events. RESULTS: A total of 24 participants, with a mean (SD) age of 26 (3) years (range 22-32 years), body weight of 65.2 (5.0) kg (range 53-73 kg), and height of 172.7 (4.9) cm (range 159-182 cm), were enrolled in this study. Both formulations showed similar pharmacokinetic profiles. Mean (SD) AUC(last), AUC(∞) and C(max) were 1436 (341) ng · h/mL, 1595 (381) ng · h/mL and 32.3 (5.9) ng/mL, respectively, for the test formulation, and 1444 (388) ng · h/mL, 1648 (504) ng · h/mL, 33.1 (7.4) ng/mL, respectively, for the reference formulation. Median (range) time to reach C(max) (t(max)) was 2 (1-12) hours (test) and 3 (1-6) hours (reference). The 90 % CIs of the treatment ratios for the ln-transformed values of C(max), AUC(last) and AUC(∞) were 92.5-103.6, 95.2-100.6 and 96.4-105.4, respectively. No significant difference was found between treatments with regard to pharmacokinetic parameters. Fifteen adverse events were reported during the study but none were considered serious. CONCLUSION: This single-dose study found that the test and reference citalopram 20 mg tablets met the regulatory criteria for assuming bioequivalence in the selected healthy Chinese male subjects. Both formulations were well tolerated.
    Clinical Drug Investigation 11/2012; · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The strategy of dual binding site acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition along with metal chelation may represent a promising direction for multi-targeted interventions in the pathophysiological processes of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, two derivatives (ZLA and ZLB) of a potent dual binding site AChE inhibitor bis-(-)-nor-meptazinol (bis-MEP) were designed and synthesized by introducing metal chelating pharmacophores into the middle chain of bis-MEP. They could inhibit human AChE activity with IC(50) values of 9.63μM (for ZLA) and 8.64μM (for ZLB), and prevent AChE-induced amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregation with IC(50) values of 49.1μM (for ZLA) and 55.3μM (for ZLB). In parallel, molecular docking analysis showed that they are capable of interacting with both the catalytic and peripheral anionic sites of AChE. Furthermore, they exhibited abilities to complex metal ions such as Cu(II) and Zn(II), and inhibit Aβ aggregation triggered by these metals. Collectively, these results suggest that ZLA and ZLB may act as dual binding site AChEIs with metal-chelating potency, and may be potential leads of value for further study on disease-modifying treatment of AD.
    Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 07/2012; 264(1):65-72. · 3.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nanoparticulate drug delivery system possesses distinct advantages for brain drug delivery. However, its amount that reach the brain is still not satisfied. Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), short peptides that facilitate cellular uptake of various molecular cargo, would be appropriate candidates for facilitating brain delivery of nanoparticles. However, such effect could be deprived by the rapid systemic clearance of CPPs-functionalized nanoparticles due to their positive surface charge. Penetratin (CPP with relatively low content of basic amino acids) was here functionalized to poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic acid) nanoparticles (NP) to achieve desirable pharmacokinetic and biodistribution profiles for brain drug delivery. The obtained penetratin-NP showed a particle size of 100 nm and zeta potential of -4.42 mV. The surface conjugation of penetratin was confirmed by surface chemical compositions analysis via X-ray photo electron spectroscopy. In MDCK-MDR cell model, penetratin-NP presented enhanced cellular accumulation via both lipid raft-mediated endocytosis and direct translocation processes with the involvement of Golgi apparatus, lysosome and microtubules. In vivo pharmacokinetic and biodistribution studies showed that penetratin-NP exhibited a significantly enhanced brain uptake and reduced accumulation in the non-target tissues compared with low-molecular-weight protamine (CPP with high arginine content)-functionalized nanoparticles. These data strongly implicated that penetratin-NP might represent a promising brain-targeting drug delivery system. The findings also provided an important basis for the optimization of brain drug delivery systems via surface charge modulation.
    International journal of pharmaceutics 07/2012; 436(1-2):840-50. · 2.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transcellular transport is essential for transmucosal and plasma-to-tissue drug delivery by nanoparticles, whereas its fundamental pathways have not been fully clarified. In this study, an in-depth investigation was conducted into the intracellular itinerary and the transcytosis pathway of wheat germ agglutinin-functionalized nanoparticles (WGA-NP) with various polymer architectures in the Caco-2 cell model. GFP-Rabs, Rab4, Rab5, Rab7, Rab11, GTPases served as key regulators of vesicular transport, and their mutants were transfected to Caco-2 cells respectively to determine the cellular itinerary of WGA-NP and the role of Rabs therein. Transcytosis inhibition experiments indicated that transcellular transport of WGA-NP (PEG(3000)-PLA(40000) formulation) happened in a cytoskeleton-dependent manner and majorly by means of clathrin-mediated mechanism. Intracellular transport, especially the endolysosome pathway was found largely contribute to the transcytosis of WGA-NP. WGA-NP with shorter surface PEG length (2000) resulted in higher cellular association and more colocalization with the clathrin-mediated transport pathway, while that with longer surface PEG length (5000) avoided the clathrin-mediated transport pathway but achieved higher transcytosis after 4 h incubation. WGA-NP with PLGA as the core materials obtained elevated lysosome escape and enhanced transcytosis after 2 h incubation. These findings provided important evidence for the role of polymer architectures in modulating cellular transport of functionalized nanocarriers, and would be helpful in improving carrier design to enhance drug delivery.
    Biomaterials 06/2012; 33(28):6769-82. · 7.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hypoxia-induced retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death has been proposed to be the critical event in the pathophysiology of glaucoma. Therefore, delaying or halting RGC degeneration, known as neuroprotection, is a novel and promising approach with potential clinical applications for treating glaucoma. In this study, we investigate hypoxia-induced cell death of RGCs and the underlying mechanisms of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) as a neuroprotectant. To establish a model for chemical hypoxia-induced cell death, RGC-5 cells were treated with the hypoxia mimetic cobalt chloride (CoCl(2)). Following CoCl(2) exposure, significant levels of apoptotic and autophagic cell death were observed in RGC-5 cells, evidenced by lysosome dysfunction and autophagosome formation. Pretreating RGC-5 cells with NAC significantly counteracted the autophagic cell death. NAC-mediated neuroprotection was attributed to the direct scavenging of reactive oxygen species and was mediated by targeting the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α pathway via the BNIP3 and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways. These results provide insights into the degeneration of RGCs and present a potential clinical application for NAC as a neuroprotectant.
    Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology 05/2012; · 2.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Loss of cytosolic K(+) through up-regulated delayed rectifier K(+) channels play an important role in beta-amyloid (Aβ) induced neurotoxicity. Potent K(+) channel blocker, particular specific for I(K) channels has been suggested as an attractive candidate for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Talatisamine is a novel I(K) channel blocker discovered by virtual screening and electrophysiological characterization. In the present study, we examined the neuroprotective effect of talatisamine against Aβ oligomers induced cytotoxicity in primarily cultured cortical neurons. The neurotoxicity related to K(+) loss caused by Aβ40 oligomers included enhanced I(K) density, increased cell membrane permeability, reduced cell viability, and impaired mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Decreased Bcl-2 and increased Bax level, activation of Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 were also observed after Aβ40 oligomers incubation. Talatisamine (120 μM) and TEA (5mM) inhibited the enhanced I(K) caused by Aβ40 oligomers, attenuated cytotoxicity of Aβ oligomers by restoring cell viability and suppressing K(+) loss related apoptotic response. Our results suggested that talatisamine may become a leading compound as I(K) channel blocker for neuroprotection.
    Neuroscience Letters 05/2012; 518(2):122-7. · 2.03 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

290 Citations
16 Downloads
2k Views
179.62 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008–2014
    • Renji Hospital
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
  • 2005–2014
    • Shanghai Jiao Tong University
      • Laboratories of Pharmacology
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
  • 2007–2013
    • Fudan University
      • School of Pharmacy
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
    • Shanghai University
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
  • 2012
    • Ruijin Hospital North
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
    • Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
  • 2003
    • Second Military Medical University, Shanghai
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China