[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pregnancy- and birth-related factors may have an effect on handedness. Compared with singletons, twins have a lower birth weight, shorter gestational age, and are at higher risk for birth complications. We tested whether the prevalence of left-handedness is higher among twins than singletons, and if so, whether that difference is fully explained by pregnancy and birth-related differences between twins and singletons. We analyzed Finnish population-based datasets; included were 8,786 twins and 5,892 singletons with information on birth weight (
= 12,381), Apgar scores (
= 11,129), and gestational age (
= 11,811). Two twin cohorts were involved: FinnTwin12 included twins born during 1983–1987, and FinnTwin16 included twins born during 1974–1979. We had two comparison groups of singletons: 4,101 individuals born during 1986–1988 and enrolled in the Helsinki Ultrasound Trial, and 1,791 individuals who were partners of FinnTwin16 twins. We used logistic regression models with writing hand as the outcome for comparison and evaluating effects of covariates. Left-handedness was more common in twins (9.67%) than in singletons (8.27%;
= .004). However, Apgar scores were associated with handedness, and after controlling for covariates, we found no difference in the prevalence of left-handedness between twins and singletons. Increased left-handedness among twins, often reported by others, was evident in our data, but only among our older twin cohorts, and that association disappeared after removing effects of perinatal covariates.
Twin Research and Human Genetics 08/2015; DOI:10.1017/thg.2015.53 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This is the first controlled, randomized follow-up study investigating the effectiveness of hypnotherapy in treating adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The aim was to compare the follow-up outcome of short cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and hypnotherapy. Six-month follow-up data were analyzed from 10 weekly individual treatments with cognitive hypnotherapy (n = 8) and CBT (n = 9). The treatment benefits were measured by self-report ADHD symptom scales (BADDS, SCL-16), psychiatric symptom scales (SCL-90, BDI-II), quality of life scale (Q-LES-Q) and independent evaluation (CGI). The treatment benefits remained with both treatment groups when measured with self-report ADHD symptom scales. However, the hypnotherapy and CBT groups differed statistically significantly from each other in general psychological well-being (SCL-90), anxiety (SCL-90) and depression (BDI-II), and almost significantly in ADHD symptoms (SCL-16) indicating better long-term outcome for hypnotherapy. Independent evaluators' ratings qualitatively supported the results. Hypnotherapy seems to be a usable method for treating ADHD in adults. The possible causes discussed for better longterm outcome for hypnotherapy than for CBT include stronger alliance in hypnotherapy, impact of deep relaxation to core symptoms and greater influence of hypnotherapy to emotional regulation. The generalization of the results requires further studies.
Contemporary Hypnosis and Integrative Therapy 01/2014; 30(3-3):118-134.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
In the national study of multiple registers in 2000, the average prevalence of intellectual disability (ID) was 0.70%, with marked differences by age group (range 0.38-0.96%) - what are these differences in detail, and can they be understood?
This study was based on two national health registers and six social benefit registers. Prevalence of ID was calculated by 1-year age cohorts.
The multiple register prevalence of ID increased steadily from 0.20% in the first life year to 0.74% (male: 0.90%, female: 0.58%) at 10 years. For boys, the rate fell to 0.71% at 11 years. For both sexes, a steady increase was noted in the distribution up to 40 years (male: 0.84%, female: 0.73%), followed by a sharper increase to the maximum prevalence (male: 1.19% at 48 years, female: 1.05% at 50 years). At the pension age of 66 years, a sudden drop to 0.49% occurred for men and women. Different registers gave very different age distributions.
By examining the data by 1-year age cohorts, and by understanding the role of each register, it could be deduced that a proportion of cases in younger age groups is lacking, and a remarkable proportion of elderly ID persons is missing from the pooled data. The findings were more difficult to interpret, if the data were grouped into bigger age groups.
Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 01/2013; 58(3). DOI:10.1111/jir.12017 · 2.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Medical problems are described in a population of persons with Down syndrome. Health surveillance is compared to the recommendations of national guidelines.
Case records from the specialised and primary healthcare and disability services were analysed.
A wide spectrum of age-specific medical and surgical problems was described. Congenital heart defects and middle ear infections were mostly experienced by younger people, while thyroid disease, epilepsy, and Alzheimer's disease were frequent among older people. Psychiatric disorders and behavioural problems were frequent in all age groups.
Health surveillance remained insufficient, despite the guidelines available. A joint effort by healthcare and disability service providers is required to ensure that the medical needs of people with Down syndrome are adequately met across their entire lifespan. An active provision of healthcare and monitoring for this vulnerable group is needed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine whether exposure to prenatal ultrasound increases non-right-handedness in boys.
The association between exposure to prenatal ultrasound and handedness was tested, using logistic regression analysis, in the Helsinki Ultrasound Trial data. We applied an intention-to-treat approach in this analysis of a subset of 4150 subjects whose parents answered a follow-up questionnaire on handedness when the children were aged 13-15 years.
The odds ratio for non-right-handedness of children who had been exposed to prenatal ultrasound was 1.16 (0.98-1.37) for all subjects, 1.12 (0.89-1.41) for boys and 1.24 (0.97-1.58) for girls.
We could not confirm the hypothesis that prenatal ultrasound exposure and handedness are associated. Our findings were independent of the particular definition of handedness used, whether it was considered according to the writing hand alone or defined using a laterality quotient.
Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology 06/2011; 37(6):638-42. DOI:10.1002/uog.8962 · 3.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In clinical practice, a growing need exists for effective non-pharmacological treatments of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Here, we present the results of a pilot study of 10 adults with ADHD participating in short-term individual cognitive- behavioral therapy (CBT), 9 adults participating in cognitive training (CT), and 10 controls. Self-report questionnaires, independent evaluations, and computerized neurocognitive testing were collected before and after the treatments to evaluate change. There were distinctive pre-hypotheses regarding the treatments, and therefore the statistical comparisons were conducted in pairs: CBT vs control, CT vs control, and CBT vs CT. In a combined ADHD symptom score based on self-reports, 6 participants in CBT, 2 in CT and 2 controls improved. Using independent evaluations, improvement was found in 7 of the CBT participants, 2 of CT participants and 3 controls. There was no treatment-related improvement in cognitive performance. Thus, in the CBT group, some encouraging improvement was seen, although not as clearly as in previous research with longer interventions. In the CT group, there was improvement in the trained tasks but no generalization of the improvement to the tasks of the neurocognitive testing, the self- report questionnaires, or the independent evaluations. These preliminary results warrant further studies with more participants and with more elaborate cognitive testing.
Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 09/2010; 6:443-53. · 1.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Beta-2-microglobulin was measured in specimens of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collected from 167 patients classified in 14 diagnostic categories at an outpatient Department of Neurology. In the control group of 29 subjects without any obvious disease of the nervous system, the concentration of beta-2-microglobulin was 1.15 ± 0.37 mg/l (M ± s.d.). The concentration was almost significantly eleveated in the groups with fresh brain infarct, central nervous system infection, and polyneuropathy. The serum concentrations of beta-2-microglobulin did not differ significantly among these diagnostic categories. The mean ratio between CSF and serum beta-2-microglobulin was 0.79 ± 0.32 in the control group and more than 1.0 in the patients with brain infarcts, CNS infections and spinal paresis, but the differences were not statistically significant.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epilepsy has a pervasive impact on the lives of people with intellectual disability and their carers. The delivery of high-quality care is impacted on by the complexity and diversity of epilepsy in this population. This article presents the results of a consensus clinical guideline process.
A Delphi process identified a list of priority areas for the development of evidence-based guidelines. All guidelines were graded and consensus on scoring was achieved across the guideline group.
There is a dearth of high-quality evidence from well-constructed studies on which to base guidance. However, the development of internationally derived consensus guidelines may further support the management of epilepsy in adults with an intellectual disability.
Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 07/2009; 53(8):687-94. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2788.2009.01182.x · 2.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, novel psychological treatments for adult ADHD have been reported with promising results. However, studies about long-term treatment effects are scanty. The authors study effects of cognitive-behaviorally-oriented group rehabilitation during a 6-month follow-up.
Participating in the rehabilitation were 29 adults, of whom 25 were reached 3 and 6 months later. ADHD and other psychiatric symptoms were assessed with self-ratings (Brown ADD Scale for Adults, Symptom Check List-90 [SCL-90], 16 ADHD-related items of SCL-90, Beck Depression Inventory). Participants from the pretreatment period served as their own controls.
Participants having improvement in ADHD symptoms during treatment (n = 11) maintained most of the benefit during follow-up. They also had a decrease in other psychiatric symptoms, but this did not fully persist through the follow-up. Of all participants, 72% found their overall situation improved as compared to the pretreatment situation.
Results suggest that cognitive-behaviorally-oriented group rehabilitation of ADHD adults might have long-term benefits.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In clinical practice, a growing need exists for effective nonpharmacological treatments of adult ADHD. The authors present results from a cognitive-behaviorally oriented psychological group rehabilitation for adult ADHD.
A total of 29 adults with ADHD participated. Rehabilitation consisted of 10 or 11 weekly sessions. Participants were assessed with self-ratings (checklist for ADHD based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Beck Depression Inventory II, Symptom Check List-90 [SCL-90], Brown ADD Scale for Adults [BADDS]), and the ratings of their significant others (BADDS) 3 months prior to treatment, at the beginning of treatment, and at the end of treatment. Also, the Wender Utah Rating Scale questionnaire was completed prior to rehabilitation.
Rehabilitation resulted in reduced self-reported symptoms in 16 ADHD-related items of SCL-90, BADDS total score, and BADDS subdomains of activation and affect.
Results suggest that cognitive-behavioral group rehabilitation can be suitable in treating adult ADHD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Based on standard social benefit registers, the prevalence of intellectual disability (ID) in Finland is estimated to be 0.6%, while epidemiological surveys yield 1.1%. Combining several registers, our aim was to find a more reliable estimate of the prevalence of ID, especially among children and adolescents. This is important when special or inclusive general services are planned to meet the various needs of people with ID.
A survey based on eight national health and social benefit registers.
Combining different registers yielded a mean ID prevalence of 0.70% (95% CI 0.69-0.70%), with marked differences according to sex and age group (range 0.38-0.96%). Capture-recapture analysis gave higher prevalence estimates (range 0.57-1.08%).
When several health and social benefit registers are surveyed, the estimated prevalence of ID increases, approaching that obtained in epidemiological surveys.
Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 10/2007; 51(Pt 9):715-25. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2788.2007.00970.x · 2.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Children with intellectual disability (ID) have a higher risk for psychiatric disturbance than their peers with normal intelligence, but research data on risk factors are insufficient and partially conflicting.
The subjects comprised 75 children with ID aged 6-13 years. Data were obtained from case files and the following four questionnaires completed by their parents or other carers: Developmental Behaviour Checklist, American Association of Mental Deficiency (AAMD) Adaptive Behavior Scale, a questionnaire on additional disabilities, and a questionnaire on family characteristics and child development.
The risk of psychopathology was most significantly increased by moderate ID, limitations in adaptive behaviour, impaired language development, poor socialization, living with one biological parent, and low socio-economic status of the family.
The risk of psychopathology in children with ID is increased by factors related to family characteristics and child development. Identifying these factors will help diagnose and possibly prevent psychiatric disorders in these children.
Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 02/2007; 51(Pt 1):43-53. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2788.2006.00871.x · 2.41 Impact Factor