Eriko Muro

Saga University, Сага Япония, Saga Prefecture, Japan

Are you Eriko Muro?

Claim your profile

Publications (24)56.1 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A Th2 cytokine, IL-4, induces various chemokines from epidermal keratinocytes which play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of skin disorders such as atopic dermatitis. In contrast, the role of IFN-gamma, a Th1 cytokine, on eosinophilic skin inflammation is unclear. This study investigated the effects of IFN-gamma on IL-4-induced production of eotaxin-3/CCL26, a potent chemoattractant to eosinophils, in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK). When the cells were stimulated with IL-4 and IFN-gamma simultaneously, IL-4-induced CCL26 production was attenuated. In contrast, prior stimulation with IFN-gamma enhanced IL-4-induced CCL26 production. NHEK constitutively expressed type 1 IL-4 receptor, and expression at the cell surface was upregulated by stimulation with IFN-gamma. This upregulation resulted in an enhanced IL-4-mediated cellular signal. These results indicate that IFN-gamma has opposite effects on IL-4-induced CCL26 production in NHEK depending on the time of exposure. Thus, changes in IL-4R expression by IFN-gamma might modulate eosinophilic skin inflammation.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 10/2008; 376(1):234-40. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2008.08.136 · 2.28 Impact Factor
  • World Allergy Organization Journal 01/2007; DOI:10.1097/01.WOX.0000301473.36795.60
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The exacerbation of asthma during viral infections is mainly explained by neutrophils infiltrating into the airways. However, enhanced functions of eosinophils are also observed. The aim of this study was to reveal the mechanism of how eosinophils are activated during and after viral infection of the airways, using a model of viral infection. A synthetic double-stranded RNA, poly inosinic-cytidyric acid (poly(IC)), was transfected to a human airway epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) and the primary bronchial epithelial cells, to mimic a viral infection. The production of chemokines from the cells was investigated. The transfection of poly(IC), alone, marginally affected the eotaxin-3 production of the cells. However, the transfection of poly(IC) prior to interleukin (IL)-4 stimulation enhanced eotaxin-3 production. Poly(IC) transfection increased mRNA and protein expressions of IL-4 receptor (R)alpha and IL-2Rgamma, components of the IL-4R. In BEAS-2B cells, IL-4-mediated phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription six was enhanced in poly(IC) transfected cells. This was reversed by the addition of anti-IL-4Ralpha antibody, suggesting the role of an increased number of IL-4 receptors in enhanced IL-4-induced eotaxin-3 production. Poly(IC)-induced upregulation of IL-4Ralpha was inhibited by treatment with cycloheximide or dexamethasone. In conclusion, these results suggest that viral airway infection may enhance interleukin-4-induced eotaxin-3 production through upregulation of the interleukin-4 receptor in airway epithelial cells.
    European Respiratory Journal 12/2005; 26(5):795-803. DOI:10.1183/09031936.05.00010805 · 7.13 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Increased serum levels of squamous cell carcinoma-related antigen (SCCA) have been observed in patients with allergic disorders, such as atopic dermatitis and bronchial asthma. T(H)2 cytokines, which are known to be involved in the pathogenesis of allergic disorders, stimulate new synthesis of SCCA in cultured human airway epithelial cells. To investigate whether SCCA levels increase during acute exacerbations of asthma in children and whether the T(H)2 cytokines, interleukin 4 (IL-4) and IL-13, are associated with SCCA levels. Serum levels of SCCA, IL-4, and IL-13 were measured by enzyme immunoassay during the acute phase of an asthma exacerbation (on hospital admission) and in the recovery phase (after symptoms had subsided). In the 35 children who participated in this study, serum levels of SCCA were significantly elevated in the acute phase (mean +/- SD, 3.09 +/- 2.03 ng/mL) compared with the recovery phase (mean +/- SD, 1.47 +/- 0.64 ng/mL) of an asthma exacerbation (P < .001). In 12 children, the IL-13 levels were observed to correlate with SCCA levels during the recovery phase (r = 0.68, P = .02) but not during the acute phase of an asthma exacerbation. Serum SCCA levels increase during the acute phase of an asthma exacerbation. During this phase, the increased synthesis of SCCA is not associated with IL-13 but rather mediated by other undefined stimuli. IL-13 may contribute to the basal production of SCCA in asthmatic children.
    Annals of allergy, asthma & immunology: official publication of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology 03/2005; 94(3):391-7. DOI:10.1016/S1081-1206(10)60993-3 · 2.75 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Airway epithelial cells produce a number of chemokines, including eotaxins. Among the three known eotaxins, T helper (Th) type 2 cytokines have been observed to induce the expression of eotaxin-3 mRNA. This study investigated the effect of interferon (IFN)-gamma, a Th1 cytokine, on Th2 cytokine-induced eotaxin-3 production in a bronchial epithelial cell line, BEAS-2B. BEAS-2B cells produced eotaxin-3 after stimulation with the Th2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-13 and IL-4. When BEAS-2B cells were cultured with varying concentrations of IFN-gamma for 24 h, dose-dependent inhibition of Th2 cytokine-induced eotaxin-3 mRNA expression and protein production was observed. This was associated with downregulation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 activation. On the other hand, 2-d pretreatment of BEAS-2B cells with IFN-gamma dose-dependently enhanced Th2 cytokine-induced eotaxin-3 mRNA expression and production. IFN-gamma also increased the mRNA expression and protein production of IL-4 receptor (R) alpha in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In addition, IL-2Rgamma, a component of the type 1 IL-4R, was also upregulated by IFN-gamma. These results indicate that IFN-gamma has opposite effects on Th2 cytokine-induced eotaxin-3 production in BEAS-2B cells, depending on the length of exposure. Because high levels of IFN-gamma are produced during viral infection, airway viral infection may affect allergic airway inflammation in vivo by modulation of eotaxin-3 production.
    American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 11/2004; 31(4):456-62. DOI:10.1165/rcmb.2004-0128OC · 4.11 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: AS-35, (9-[4-acetyl-3-hydroxy-2-n-propylphenoxy) methyl]-3-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-4H-pyrido[1, 2-a] pyrimidin-4-one), was developed as a leukotriene (LT) receptor antagonist, which also inhibited IgE-mediated release of leukotrienes (LTs). We have investigated the action of AS-35 on the enzyme activities which are involved in the synthesis of LTC(4) and LTB(4) (LT-synthesizing enzymes); cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), leukotriene (LT)C(4) synthase and LTA(4) hydrolase. AS-35 dose-dependently inhibited IgE- and A23187-stimulated production of LTC(4) by up to 71.5-84.8% and that of LTB(4) by 48.3-49.2% at 2. 5x10(-5) M. The assays for cPLA(2)(-), 5-LO-, LTC(4) synthase- and LTA(4) hydrolase-activities revealed that the inhibition is attributable to suppression of cPLA(2), 5-LO and LTC(4) synthase but not LTA(4) hydrolase. We have also studied the action of AS-35 on the release of beta-hexosaminidase (beta-HEX) as a marker of preformed mediators. AS-35 had only weak inhibitory action on the release of beta-HEX. The results indicate that anti-allergic action of AS-35 is predominantly attributable to its inhibition of LT synthesis by suppressing three consecutive enzymes for LTC(4) synthesis.
    International Journal of Immunopharmacology 08/2000; 22(7):483-90. DOI:10.1016/S0192-0561(00)00010-2
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, and IL-13, Th2 cell-derived cytokines, play major roles in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases. These cytokines up-regulate or down-regulate the production of arachidonic acid metabolites. In this study, we have investigated the effect of IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, and other cytokines on A23187-stimulated synthesis of leukotriene (LT) B(4) in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). Production of LTB(4) was measured by specific radioimmunoassay and high performance liquid chromatography. Messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), and LTA(4) hydrolase, which were involved in the synthesis of LTB(4), was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Northern blot analysis. Protein synthesis of their enzymes was determined by Western blot analysis. IL-4 and IL-13 enhanced A23187-stimulated LTB(4) synthesis and increased mRNA expression and protein synthesis of LTA(4) hydrolase, but not those of cPLA(2) or 5-LO. These results indicate that IL-4 and IL-13 transcriptionally or post-transcriptionally up-regulate the synthesis of LTB(4), a potent chemotactic factor to PMNs, at the enzyme level of LTA(4) hydrolase, and this up-regulation mechanism may participate in the development of allergic inflammation. (Blood. 2000;96:601-609)
    Blood 08/2000; 96(2):601-9. · 10.43 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) produce arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites including thromboxane A2 (TXA2). These cells are the first line of defense against bacterial invasion, which often causes endotoxin shock. TXA2 which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of endotoxin shock is synthesized by three consecutive enzyme activation, cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), prostaglandin H2 synthase (PHS type 1 and type 2) and TXA2 synthase. Among them, cPLA2- and PHS-2 activity is known to be transcriptionally and/or posttranscriptionally up-regulated by various bioactive substances including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacterial endotoxin, in many cell types. We investigated the action of LPS on TXA2 synthesis in human PMNs. A23187-stimulated production of thromboxane B2 (TXB2, a stable metabolite of TXA2), assayed by specific radioimmunoassay (RIA), was significantly increased from 566.7+/-44.1 pg/10(6) cells to 966.7+/-44.1 pg/10(6) cells (p<0.05) after 6 h-exposure to LPS at the concentration of 100 ng/ml. Messenger RNA for PHS-2, PHS-1, TXA2 synthase and cPLA2, which was assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), was expressed in PMNs without LPS stimulation. Although PHS-2 was putatively an inducible enzyme, abundance of mRNA for PHS-2 in PMNs without LPS stimulation was detectable. Messenger RNA abundance for PHS-2 and cPLA2, but not for PHS-1 and TXA2 synthase, was enhanced by LPS-treatment, indicating that the increased production of TXB2 was attributable to the up-regulation of cPLA2 and PHS-2. We conclude that (1) PHS-2 plays a more important role than PHS-1 in the production of TXA2 in human PMNs and (2) TXA2 synthesis in human PMNs is transcriptionally up-regulated by new induction of cPLA2 as well as PHS-2, when the cells encounter endotoxin producing bacteria.
    European Journal Of Haematology 08/1999; 63(2):94-102. · 2.41 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) produce arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites including thromboxane A2 (TXA2). These cells are the first line of defense against bacterial invasion, which often causes endotoxin shock. TXA2 which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of endotoxin shock is synthesized by three consecutive enzyme activation, cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), prostaglandin H2 synthase (PHS type 1 and type 2) and TXA2 synthase. Among them, cPLA2- and PHS-2 activity is known to be transcriptionally and/or post-transcriptionally up-regulated by various bioactive substances including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacterial endotoxin, in many cell types. We investigated the action of LPS on TXA2 synthesis in human PMNs. A23187-stimulated production of thromboxane B2 (TXB2, a stable metabolite of TXA2), assayed by specific radioimmunoassay (RIA), was significantly increased from 566.7±44.1 pg/106 cells to 966.7±44.1 pg/106 cells (p <0.05) after 6 h-exposure to LPS at the concentration of 100 ng/ml. Messenger RNA for PHS-2, PHS-1, TXA2 synthase and cPLA2, which was assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), was expressed in PMNs without LPS stimulation. Although PHS-2 was putatively an inducible enzyme, abundance of mRNA for PHS-2 in PMNs without LPS stimulation was detectable. Messenger RNA abundance for PHS-2 and cPLA2, but not for PHS-1 and TXA2 synthase, was enhanced by LPS-treatment, indicating that the increased production of TXB2 was attributable to the up-regulation of cPLA2 and PHS-2. We conclude that (1) PHS-2 plays a more important role than PHS-1 in the production of TXA2 in human PMNs and (2) TXA2 synthesis in human PMNs is transcriptionally up-regulated by new induction of cPLA2 as well as PHS-2, when the cells encounter endotoxin producing bacteria.
    European Journal Of Haematology 07/1999; 63(2):94 - 102. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0609.1999.tb01122.x · 2.41 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We have observed an inhibitory action of magnolol on the production of leukotriene (LT) C4 and LTB4, important lipid mediators in allergy and inflammation. IgE- and A23187-stimulated production of LTC4 and LTB4 was measured by radio-immunoassay (RIA) in the absence or presence of various concentrations of magnolol in intact rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-2H3 cells. Magnolol dose-dependently inhibited synthesis of LTC4 and LTB4. Magnolol inhibited the IgE-mediated increase of intracellular calcium ion concentration, resulting in the inhibition of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) and possibly 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), both calcium ion-dependent enzymes. In cell-free studies magnolol inhibited LTC4 synthase activity. LTA4 hydrolase activity was only inhibited at the higher concentration (2.5 x 10(-5)M). These results indicate that magnolol inhibits production of LTs by inhibiting PLA2, 5-LO, LTC4 synthase and LTA4 hydrolase which are essential for LT-synthesis. Magnolol may have anti-allergic effect by blocking LT-synthesis.
    Planta Medica 05/1999; 65(3):222-6. DOI:10.1055/s-1999-13984 · 2.34 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Human leukemia (HL) 60 cells were differentiated by dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) treatment to granulocyte-like cells, leukotriene (LT) synthesizing activity of which was increased in response to the differentiation of the cells. Four synthesizing enzymes, cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), LTA4 hydrolase and LTC4 synthase, and an enzyme associated protein, 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP) are involved in the generation of LTC4 and LTB4. We examined the expression of messenger RNA (mRNA) for these LT synthesizing enzymes and an associated protein in DMSO differentiated HL-60 cells by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The production of LTC4 and LTB4, measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA), was increased after the incubation with DMSO for more than 3 days. Messenger RNA abundance for 5-LO, LTC4 synthase and LTA4 hydrolase was increased, that for FLAP was stable, but that for cPLA2 was decreased. These results indicate that DMSO induced increase of LT synthesis is associated with the increase of mRNA expression of 5-LO, LTC4 synthase and LTA4 hydrolase, although the precise regulatory mechanisms of the increased mRNA expression are not determined. We also investigated an action of dexamethasone (DEX) on DMSO-induced enhancement of LT synthesis. DEX suppressed DMSO induced increase of LTC4 synthesis, but rather enhanced DMSO induced LTB4 production. The DEX attenuated the DMSO-induced increase of mRNA expression for LTC4 synthase, but showed no effect on that for LTA4 hydrolase. The inhibition of LTC4 synthesis is associated with the suppression of mRNA expression for LTC4 synthase. However, increased LTB4 synthesis by DEX is regulated by the mechanisms which are independent from mRNA level of LTA4 hydrolase.
    Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 01/1999; 59(6):385-93. DOI:10.1016/S0952-3278(98)90100-4 · 1.98 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To determine the inhibitory mechanisms of terfenadine on the synthesis of leukotriene C4 (LTC4), an important mediator in allergic diseases, we evaluated the action of terfenadine on the IgE-dependent production of LTC4 in rat basophilic leukaemia 2H3 cells. Rat IgE-loaded cells were stimulated with anti-IgE in the presence or absence of various concentrations of terfenadine and the level of LTC4 released into the medium was measured by performing a specific radio immunoassay. Terfenadine inhibited the synthesis of LTC4 to 67.2% at a concentration of 5 microg/ml. LT synthesis was directly suppressed by inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) through calcium ion-independent mechanisms, and was also possibly suppressed by inhibition of cytosolic phospholipase A2 and 5-LO by blocking the influx of intracellular calcium ion that was initiated by IgE-related stimulation.
    Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 05/1998; 58(4):265-70. DOI:10.1016/S0952-3278(98)90035-7 · 1.98 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There are substantial numbers of reports showing that leukotrienes (LTs) play important roles in adult asthma. No definite evidence has been demonstrated that LTs are involved in asthma attacks in children, although it is highly expected. In this report, we demonstrated that the levels of LTB4 and LTC4 but not thromboxane B2 (TXB2), a stable metabolite of TXA2, were significantly elevated in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, which was obtained from intubated and mechanically ventilated children with severe asthma attacks. This is direct evidence that LTB4 and LTC4 predominantly participate in asthma attacks in pediatric patients.
    Journal of Asthma 02/1998; 35(5):445-8. · 1.83 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There are substantial numbers of reports showing that leukotrienes (LTs) play important roles in adult asthma. No definite evidence has been demonstrated that LTs are involved in asthma attacks in children, although it is highly expected. In this report, we demonstrated that the levels of LTB4 and LTC4 but not thromboxane B-2 (TXB2), a stable metabolite of TXA(2), were significantly elevated in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, which was obtained from intubated and mechanically ventilated children with severe asthma attacks. This is direct evidence that LTB4 and LTC4 predominantly participate in asthma attacks in pediatric patients.
    Journal of Asthma 01/1998; 35(5):445-448. DOI:10.3109/02770909809048953 · 1.83 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To determine anti-allergic effects of Koboku, a Chinese herbal medicine, we investigated its inhibitory action on the production of cysteinyl leukotrienes (LT) and LTB4, which are important chemical mediators in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. A23187-stimulated synthesis of cysteinyl LT and LTB4 was measured by HPLC in the absence or presence of various concentrations of Koboku in rat basophilic leukemia-1 (RBL-1) cells. In a dose-dependent manner, Koboku inhibited synthesis of cysteinyl LT and LTB4 by up to 92.3 and 100%, respectively. Immunoglobulin E-mediated release of cysteinyl LT and LTB4, which was measured by specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) was also inhibited by Koboku in RBL-2H3 cells. Sites of inhibition of Koboku in the metabolic pathway of LT synthesis were phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), but not LTC4 synthase or LTA4 hydrolase. We conclude that the anti-allergic effect of Koboku may be attributable, at least in part, to the inhibition of LT synthesis.
    Allergology International 12/1997; 46(3):187-193. DOI:10.2332/allergolint.46.187
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We examined the action of Shinpi-To (Formula divinita; TJ-85), a granular extract of seven Chinese medicinal herbs that is used in treating childhood asthma, on the leukotriene synthesis in rat basophilic leukemia-2H3 cells (RBL-2H3 cells). IgE-loaded cells were stimulated with anti-IgE serum in the presence or absence of Shinpi-To. Released LTC4 and LTB4 were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Shinpi-To significantly inhibited IgE-mediated synthesis of leukotriene (LT)C4 and LTB4. To identify the inhibitory sites, we investigated the action of this extract on four synthetic enzymes, phospholipase A2 (PLA2), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO). LTC4 synthase, and LTA4 hydrolase. Shinpi-To inhibited the A23187-stimulated release of [3H]arachidonic acid (AA) from the cell membrane, reflecting an effect on PLA2 activity. It also suppressed production of LTC4 and LTB4 when cell lysates were incubated with AA as substrate. It did not inhibit the production of LTC4 and LTB4 when LTA4-free acid was used as the substrate. Shinpi-To did not inhibit the IgE-mediated increase of intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) concentration. Results indicate that Shinpi-To inhibits LT synthesis by inhibiting PLA2 and 5-LO activities without affecting the mobilization of [Ca2+]i.
    Journal of Ethnopharmacology 05/1997; 56(2):123-31. DOI:10.1016/S0378-8741(97)01520-1 · 2.94 Impact Factor
  • Nihon Shoni Arerugi Gakkaishi The Japanese Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology 01/1997; 11(1):18-23. DOI:10.3388/jspaci.11.18
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The effects of honokiol, a diphenyl compound extracted from a Chinese herbal medicine, on leukotriene (LT) synthesis were evaluated in rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cells. The production of LTC4 and LTB4 stimulated by the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 was measured in RBL-1 cells by high-performance liquid chromatography. Honokiol inhibited the production of LTC4 and LTB4 stimulated by A23187 in RBL-1 cells. Honokiol did not inhibit either phospholipase A2 activity, measured by the release of 3H-arachidonic acid (AA), or LTC4 synthase and LTA4 hydrolase activities, measured with LTA4-free acid as substrate. The synthesis of LTC4 and LTB4 from AA in RBL-1 cell lysates in the presence of Ca2+ was inhibited by honokiol. These results indicate that honokiol blocks LT synthesis by inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase activity. Honokiol also inhibited immunoglobulin E-mediated production of these LTs in RBL-2H3 cells, which was measured by a specific radioimmunoassay (RIA). These results suggest that honokiol may exhibit antiallergic actions by inhibiting LT synthesis in immediate-type hyperreactivity.
    International Archives of Allergy and Immunology 08/1996; 110(3):278-81. DOI:10.1159/000237299 · 2.43 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We investigated the effects of Saiboku-to, Syoseiryu-to and compornent herbs of these two Kampo-Medicines (Saiko, Hange, Bukuryo, Ogon, Koboku, Taiso, Ninjin, Kanzo, Soyo, Syokyo, Keihi, Gomisi, Saisin, Syakuyaku, Mao and Kankyo) on the production of peptide leukotrienes (LTs) and LTB4 in cultured rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-1 cells. Cultured RBL-1 cells were stimulated with Ca ionophore, A23187, at 10(-5) M in the absence or presence of various concentrations of these substances, and the production of peptide LTs and LTB4 was measured by reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The production of LTs was dose-dependently suppressed by the addition of Saibokuto. Saiboku-to (100 micrograms/ml) showed 35% and 30% inhibition on the production of peptide LTs and LTB4, respectively. These inhibitory actions of Saiboku-to on LT-synthesis were attributable to the effects of its component herbs, Ogon, Koboku and Kanzo. On the other hand, Syoseiryu-to showed no inhibitory action on LT-production. these results indicate that anti-allergic action of Saiboku-to is, at least in part, attributable to its inhibitory action on LT-synthesis.
    Arerugī = [Allergy] 07/1996; 45(6):577-83.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Azelastine, oxatomide, and ketotifen are used for patients with allergic diseases. These drugs inhibit the release of chemical mediators including the leukotrienes; however, the mechanism involved is unclear. To clarify the mechanism of inhibition, we investigated the effects of three drugs on the function of phospholipase A2, 5-lipoxygenase, leukotriene C4 synthase, and leukotriene A4 hydrolase, which are all catabolic enzymes involved in synthesizing leukotriene C4 and leukotriene B4 in rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-1 cells. The production of leukotriene C4 and leukotriene B4 was measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). All three drugs inhibited the production of leukotriene C4 and leukotriene B4 when cells were stimulated with A23187. All three drugs also inhibited the A23187-stimulated release of 3H-arachidonic acid from membrane phospholipids. Azelastine inhibited the production of leukotriene C4, but not leukotriene B4, when either arachidonic acid or leukotriene A4 free acid was used as the substrate in our cell free system. Oxatomide and ketotifen did not inhibit the synthesis of either leukotriene C4 or leukotriene B4 in the same cell free study. Results indicated that oxatomide and ketotifen inhibit the production of leukotriene C4 and leukotriene B4 by inhibiting phospholipase A2 activity, whereas, azelastine inhibits the leukotriene C4 production by inhibiting phospholipase A2 and leukotriene C4 synthase.
    Annals of allergy, asthma & immunology: official publication of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology 06/1996; 76(5):469-75. DOI:10.1016/S1081-1206(10)63465-5 · 2.75 Impact Factor