[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a major neurological disease, often associated with cognitive decline. Since approximately 30% of patients are resistant to antiepileptic drugs, TLE is being considered as a possible clinical target for alternative stem cell-based therapies. Given that insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is neuroprotective following a number of experimental insults to the nervous system, we investigated the therapeutic potential of neural stem/precursor cells (NSCs) transduced, or not, with a lentiviral vector for overexpression of IGF-I after transplantation in a mouse model of kainic acid (KA)-induced hippocampal degeneration, which represents an animal model of TLE. Exposure of mice to the Morris water maze task revealed that unilateral intrahippocampal NSC transplantation significantly prevented the KA-induced cognitive decline. Moreover, NSC grafting protected against neurodegeneration at the cellular level, reduced astrogliosis, and maintained endogenous granule cell proliferation at normal levels. In some cases, as in the reduction of hippocampal cell loss and the reversal of the characteristic KA-induced granule cell dispersal, the beneficial effects of transplanted NSCs were manifested earlier and were more pronounced when these were transduced to express IGF-I. However, differences became less pronounced by 2 months postgrafting, since similar amounts of IGF-I were detected in the hippocampi of both groups of mice that received cell transplants. Grafted NSCs survived, migrated, and differentiated into neurons-including glutamatergic cells-and not glia, in the host hippocampus. Our results demonstrate that transplantation of IGF-I producing NSCs is neuroprotective and restores cognitive function following KA-induced hippocampal degeneration.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cuprizone [bis(cyclohexylidenehydrazide)]-induced toxic demyelination is an experimental animal model commonly used to study de- and remyelination in the central nervous system. In this model, mice are fed with the copper chelator cuprizone which leads to oligodendrocyte death with subsequent demyelination. The underlying mechanisms of cuprizone-induced oligodendrocyte death are still unknown, and appropriate in vitro investigations to study these mechanisms are not available. Thus, we studied cuprizone effects on rat primary glial cell cultures and on the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. Treatment of cells with different concentrations of cuprizone failed to show effects on the proliferation and survival of SH-SY5Y cells, microglia, astrocytes, and oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC). In contrast, differentiated mature oligodendrocytes (OL) were found to be significantly affected by cuprizone treatment. This was accompanied by a reduced mitochondrial potential in cuprizone-treated OL. These results demonstrate that the main toxic target for cuprizone is mature OL, whilst other glial cells including OPC are not or only marginally affected. This explains the selective demyelination induced by cuprizone in vivo.
Neurotoxicity Research 02/2013; 24(2). DOI:10.1007/s12640-013-9380-9 · 3.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epilepsy is a major neurological disease, and patients often show spatial memory deficits. Thus, there is a need of effective new therapeutic approaches. IGF-I has been shown to be neuroprotective following a number of experimental insults to the nervous system, and in a variety of animal models of neurodegenerative diseases. In the present work, we investigated the possible neuroprotective effects of IGF-I following unilateral intrahippocampal administration of kainic acid (KA), an animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). KA induced cell death, as shown by FluoroJade B, and extensive cell loss in both the ipsilateral and contralateral CA3 and CA4 areas, as well as granule cell dispersal in the DG, as revealed by Cresyl violet staining. KA also resulted in intense astrogliosis and microgliosis, as assessed by the number of GFAP and CD11b immunopositive cells, respectively, and increased hippocampal neurogenesis. Exposure to the Morris Water Maze task revealed that mice injected with KA were deficient in spatial learning and both short- and long-term memories, when tested in a larger diameter pool, which requires the use of allocentric strategies. When tested in a smaller pool, only long-term memory was impaired. Administration of IGF-I decreased seizure severity, hippocampal neurogenesis, and protected against neurodegeneration at the cellular level as assessed by FluoroJade B and Cresyl violet staining, as well as the number of GFAP and CD11b immunopositive cells. Furthermore, IGF-I abolished the cognitive deficits. Our results support that IGF-I could have a possible therapeutic potential in TLE.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polysialic acid (PSA) is a carbohydrate polymer added post-translationally on the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) affecting its adhesion properties. It has been suggested that the presence of PSA in demyelinated lesions in multiple sclerosis could prevent axon-glia interactions inhibiting spontaneous remyelination. The enzyme St8siaIV is one of the two polysialyltransferases responsible for PSA synthesis, and it is predominantly active during adult life. Here we treated 8-10-weeks old St8siaIV deficient and wild-type mice for 5 weeks with cuprizone, which is a reliable model for de- and remyelination in the corpus callosum and cortex. Developmental myelination of the St8siaIV knock-out mice was not disturbed and adult mice showed normal myelin protein expression. Demyelination did not differ between transgenic and wild-type mice but early myelin protein re-expression and thus remyelination were accelerated in St8siaIV knock-out mice during the first week after withdrawal of the toxin. This was mainly due to enhanced oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC) differentiation and to a lesser extent to OPC recruitment. These data are proof of principle that PSA expression interferes at least to some extent with remyelination in vivo.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cuprizone feeding is a commonly used model to study experimental de- and remyelination, with the corpus callosum being the most frequently investigated white matter tract. We have previously shown that demyelination is also extensive in the cerebral cortex in the cuprizone model. In the current study, we have performed a detailed analysis of the dynamics of demyelination in the cortex in comparison to the corpus callosum. Prominent and almost complete demyelination in the corpus callosum was observed after 4.5-5 weeks of 0.2% cuprizone feeding, whereas complete cortical demyelination was only observed after 6 weeks of cuprizone feeding. Interestingly, remyelination in the corpus callosum occurred even before the termination of cuprizone administration. Accumulation of microglia in the corpus callosum started as early as week 3 reaching its maximum at week 4.5 and was still significantly elevated at week 6 of cuprizone treatment. Within the cortex only a few scattered activated microglial cells were found. Furthermore, the intensity of astrogliosis, accumulation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and nestin positive cells differed between the two areas investigated. The time course and dynamics of demyelination differ in the corpus callosum and in the cortex, suggesting different underlying pathomechanisms.
Brain research 07/2009; 1283:127-38. DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2009.06.005 · 2.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In multiple sclerosis, demyelination occurs beside the white-matter structures and in the cerebral and cerebellar cortex. We have previously shown that, in the cuprizone model, demyelination is present not only in the corpus callosum but also in the cerebral cortex. Here, we have performed a detailed analysis of the dynamics of de- and remyelination in the cerebellar cortex and white matter at nine timepoints in two cerebellar regions. To induce demyelination, C57BL/6 mice were fed with 0.2% cuprizone for 12 weeks followed by a recovery of 8 weeks. Both cortex and white-matter structures were significantly demyelinated after 12 weeks of cuprizone feeding. Remyelination occurred after withdrawal of cuprizone but was less prominent in the more caudal cerebellar region. Microglia infiltration was prominent in all analyzed cerebellar areas, preceding demyelination by approximately 2-4 weeks, and was delayed in the more caudal cerebellar region. Astrogliosis was also seen but did not reach the extent observed in the cerebrum. In summary, cuprizone feeding provides an excellent model for the investigation of de- and remyelination processes in the cerebellar cortex and white matter. Furthermore, demyelination, microglia and astrocyte changes were different in the cerebellum as compared with the cerebrum, indicating region-dependent pathomechanisms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unravelling the factors that can positively influence remyelination is one of the major challenges in multiple sclerosis research. Expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR2 on oligodendrocytes both in vitro and in MS lesions has suggested a possible role for CXCR2 in the recruitment of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC). To investigate the function of CXCR2 during remyelination in vivo, we studied this receptor in cuprizone-induced demyelination and subsequent remyelination. We found that CXCR2 is constitutively expressed on OPC, whereas on macrophages/microglia CXCR2 is upregulated upon activation during demyelination. Hence, the expression of CXCR2 is differentially regulated in oligodendrocytes and macrophages/microglia. Furthermore, we subjected CXCR2-/- mice to the cuprizone model demonstrating that remyelination was not altered in comparison to wildtype controls. In addition, the number of OPC and the amount of microglial accumulation were similar in both CXCR2-/- and wildtype animals during the whole demyelination and remyelination process. These results suggest that despite expression on OPC and microglia CXCR2 plays only a minor role during remyelination.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In multiple sclerosis demyelination not only affects the white matter, but also the grey matter of the brain. We have previously reported that in the murine cuprizone model for demyelination lesions occur in addition to the corpus callosum also in the neocortex and hippocampus. In the current study, we provide a detailed characterization of hippocampal demyelination in the cuprizone model. Male C57BL/6 mice were challenged with 0.2% cuprizone for 6 weeks. Defined structures within the hippocampus were investigated at week 0 (control), 3, 4, 4.5, 5, 5.5, and 6. Demyelination affected all hippocampal structures analyzed and was complete after 6 weeks of cuprizone treatment. Between the distinct hippocampal structures the temporal pattern of demyelination varied considerably. Furthermore, infiltration of activated microglia as well as astrogliosis was detected. In summary, cuprizone feeding provides a useful model for studying demyelination processes in the mouse hippocampus.