[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Altered development of the human cerebral cortex can cause severe malformations with often intractable focal epileptic seizures and may participate in common pathologies, notably epilepsy. This raises important conceptual and therapeutic issues. Two missense mutations in the sushi repeat-containing protein SRPX2 had been previously identified in epileptic disorders with or without structural developmental alteration of the speech cortex. In the present study, we aimed to decipher the precise developmental role of SRPX2, to have a better knowledge on the consequences of its mutations, and to start addressing therapeutic issues through the design of an appropriate animal model. Using an in utero Srpx2 silencing approach, we show that SRPX2 influences neuronal migration in the developing rat cerebral cortex. Wild-type, but not the mutant human SRPX2 proteins, rescued the neuronal migration phenotype caused by Srpx2 silencing in utero, and increased alpha-tubulin acetylation. Following in utero Srpx2 silencing, spontaneous epileptiform activity was recorded post-natally. The neuronal migration defects and the post-natal epileptic consequences were prevented early in embryos by maternal administration of tubulin deacetylase inhibitor tubacin. Hence epileptiform manifestations of developmental origin could be prevented in utero, using a transient and drug-based therapeutic protocol.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Identification of biomarkers is a major issue for enhancement of chemotherapies. The molecular characterization of tissues necessitates the identification of thousands of biomolecules each participating in physiopathological processes. MALDI in-source decay (ISD) fragmentation has already proven to be effective for protein characterization. However, the difficulty to identify proteins from complex mixtures such as tissue sections can limit the applications of this technique. In this study, we evidenced that tubulin has an unusual fragmentation pathway in the MALDI source. This striking property allowed detecting several mouse brain tubulin isotypes simultaneously simply using laser fragmentation. Tubulin isoforms are consistent markers of bad prognosis of solid tumors and could be the target of targeted chemotherapies. Such a direct molecular printout of tubulin in tissues is a milestone that should be useful either at preclinical or clinical stage.
Journal of proteomics 12/2012; · 5.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mass spectrometry (MS)-based technology provides label-free localization of molecules in tissue samples. Drugs, proteins, lipids and metabolites can easily be monitored in their environment. Resolution can be achieved down to the cellular level (10-20 μm) for conventional matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) imaging, or even to the subcellular level for more complex technologies such as secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS) imaging. One question remains: are we going to be able to investigate functional relationships between drugs and proteins and compare with localized phenomena? This review describes the various spatial levels of investigation offered by mass spectrometry imaging (MSI), and the advantages and disadvantages compared with other labeling technologies.
Trends in Biotechnology 07/2012; 30(9):466-74. · 9.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In-source decay (ISD), although a process known for decades in mass spectrometry, has a renewed interest due to increased theoretical knowledge in fragmentation processes of large biomolecules coupled with technological improvements. We report here an original method consisting of isolating matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI)-generated in-source fragments of large proteins and subsequently performing selective fragmentation experiments (up to four cycles) using a hybrid MALDI quadrupole ion-trap time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MALDI-QIT-TOF). This technology takes advantage of keeping high resolution on the selection of precursors and detection of fragments. It allows exhaustive N- and C-terminal sequencing of proteins. In this work, human serum albumin (HSA), β-casein, and recombinant Tau proteins were submitted to in source decay in the MALDI source. The fragments were stored in the ion-trap and submitted to sequential collision-induced dissociation (CID). Finally, ISD and pseudo MS(n) were performed on oxidized Tau protein and acetylated bovine serum albumin to identify amino acid modifications. This work highlights the potential of the MALDI-QIT-TOF instrument for pseudo MS(n) strategies and top down proteomics.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microtubule dynamics is regulated by an array of microtubule associated proteins of which the microtubule plus-end tracking proteins (+TIPs) are prominent examples. +TIPs form dynamic interaction networks at growing microtubule ends in an EB1-dependent manner. The interaction between the C-terminal domain of EB1 and the CAP-Gly domains of the +TIP CLIP-170 depends on the last tyrosine residue of EB1. In the present study, we generated peptidic probes corresponding to the C-terminal tail of EB1 to affinity-capture binding partners from cell lysates. Using an MS-based approach, we showed that the last 15 amino-acid residues of EB1, either free or immobilized on beads, bound recombinant CAP-Gly domains of CLIP-170. We further demonstrate that this binding was prevented when the C-terminal tyrosine of EB1 was absent in the peptidic probes. Western blotting in combination with a label-free quantitative proteomic analysis revealed that the peptidic probe harboring the C-terminal tyrosine of EB1 effectively pulled-down proteins with CAP-Gly domains from endothelial cell extracts. Additional proteins known to interact directly or indirectly with EB1 and the microtubule cytoskeleton were also identified. Our peptidic probes represent valuable tools to detect changes induced in EB1-dependent +TIP networks by external cues such as growth factors and small molecules.
Journal of proteomics 04/2012; 75(12):3605-16. · 5.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Top-down mass spectrometry strategies allow identification and characterization of proteins and protein networks by direct fragmentation. These analytical processes involve a panel of fragmentation mechanisms, some of which preserve protein post-translational modifications. Thus top-down is of special interest in clinical biochemistry to probe modified proteins as potential disease biomarkers. This review describes separating methods, mass spectrometry instrumentation, bioinformatics, and theoretical aspects of fragmentation mechanisms used for top-down analysis. The biological interest of this strategy is extensively reported regarding the characterization of post-translational modifications in biochemical pathways and the discovery of biomarkers. One has to bear in mind that quantitative aspects that are beyond the focus of this review are also of critical important for biomarker discovery. The constant evolution of technologies makes top-down strategies crucial players in clinical and basic proteomics.
Journal of proteomics 06/2011; 74(7):920-34. · 5.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Burkholderia is a bacterial genus comprising several pathogenic species, including two species highly pathogenic for humans, B. pseudomallei and B. mallei. B. thailandensis is a weakly pathogenic species closely related to both B. pseudomallei and B. mallei. It is used as a study model. These bacteria are able to exhibit multiple resistance mechanisms towards various families of antibiotics. By sequentially plating B. thailandensis wild type strains on chloramphenicol we obtained several resistant variants. This chloramphenicol-induced resistance was associated with resistance against structurally unrelated antibiotics including quinolones and tetracyclines. We functionally and proteomically demonstrate that this multidrug resistance phenotype, identified in chloramphenicol-resistant variants, is associated with the overexpression of two different efflux pumps. These efflux pumps are able to expel antibiotics from several families, including chloramphenicol, quinolones, tetracyclines, trimethoprim and some β-lactams, and present a partial susceptibility to efflux pump inhibitors. It is thus possible that Burkholderia species can develop such adaptive resistance mechanisms in response to antibiotic pressure resulting in emergence of multidrug resistant strains. Antibiotics known to easily induce overexpression of these efflux pumps should be used with discernment in the treatment of Burkholderia infections.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(2):e16892. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tubulin is one of the major targets in cancer chemotherapy and the target of more than twenty percent of the cancer chemotherapic agents. The modulation of isoform content has been hypothesized as being a cause of resistance to treatment. Isoform differences lie mostly in the C-terminus part of the protein. Extensive characterization of this polypeptide region is therefore of critical importance. MALDI-TOF fragmentation of tubulin C-terminal domains was tested using synthetic peptides. Then, isotypes from HeLa cells were successfully characterized for the first time by in-source decay (ISD) fragmentation of their C-terminus coupled to a pseudo MS(3) technique named T(3)-sequencing. The fragmentation occurred in-source, preferentially generating y(n)-series ions. This approach required guanidination for the characterization of the beta(III)-tubulin C-terminus peptide. This study is, to our knowledge, the first example of reflectron in-source decay (reISD) of the C-terminus of a 50 kDa protein. This potentially occurs via a CID-like mechanism occurring in the MALDI plume. There are now new avenues for top-down characterization of important clinical biomarkers such as beta(III)-tubulin isotypes, a potential marker of drug resistance and tumor progression. This paper raises the challenge of protein isotypes characterization for early cancer detection and treatment monitoring.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The most widely used molecules in cancer chemotherapy are Vinca-alkaloids and Taxoids, numerous chemists attempted the synthesis of analogs which bind to their well-known tubulin pharmacological site. Unfortunately, tumors develop resistance to these compounds; therefore the definition of anchoring points and potential binding sites for new drugs on tubulin is of major interest. Caulerpenyne (Cyn), the major secondary metabolite synthesized by the green marine alga Caulerpa taxifolia could be one of these drugs, since it inhibits the assembly of tubulin and MTP (Barbier et al., 2001). We observed that the tubulin-Cyn complex is poorly reversed. Cyn did not bind to sulfhydryl groups and the measure of the extent of binding is 1.6 +/- 0.2 suggesting two potential binding sites. Then, we demonstrated by competition measurements that Cyn did not interact to colchicine, Taxol and Vinca-alkaloid binding domain. Finally, mass spectrometric analysis of proteolytic cleavage of tubulin-Cyn complex demonstrated that Cyn did not bind covalently to tubulin and evidenced two good candidate regions for Cyn binding, one on alpha-tubulin and the other on beta-tubulin.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The proteome of Tropheryma whipplei, the intracellular bacterium responsible for Whipple's disease (WD), was analyzed using two complementary approaches: 2-DE coupled with MALDI-TOF and SDS-PAGE with nanoLC-MS/MS. This strategy led to the identification of 206 proteins of 808 predicted ORFs, resolving some questions raised by the genomic sequence of this bacterium. We successfully identified antibiotic targets and proteins with predicted N-terminal signal sequences. Additionally, we identified a family of surface proteins (known as T. whipplei surface proteins (WiSPs)), which are encoded by a unique group of species-specific genes and serve as both coding regions and DNA repeats that promote genomic recombination. Comparison of the protein expression profiles of the intracellular facultative host-associated WD bacterium with other host-associated, intracellular obligate, and environmental bacteria revealed that T. whipplei shares a proteomic expression profile with other host-associated facultative intracellular bacteria. In summary, this study describes the global protein expression pattern of T. whipplei and reveals some specific features of the T. whipplei proteome.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exosomes are vesicles secreted by most hematopoietic cells on fusion of multivesicular endosomes with the plasma membrane. Many studies have reported that exosomes may also be released by tumor cells. Exosomes are believed to play an antitumor role through immune cells. We asked whether tumor exosomes have biological activities on tumor cells. We report that human pancreatic tumor nanoparticles, exosome-like as characterized by proteomic analyses and rich in lipid rafts, decreased tumor cell proliferation. Nanoparticles increased Bax and decreased Bcl-2 expressions. Caspase-3 and -9 but not caspase-8 inhibitors impaired apoptosis, which implicates the mitochondria apoptotic pathway. The ceramide-sphingomyelin apoptotic pathway was inoperative. Moreover, nanoparticles induced phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) -3beta activation and decreased pyruvate dehydrogenase activity. In nanoparticle-treated cells, PTEN formed complexes with actin, beta-catenin, and GSK-3beta. Thus, beta-catenin may no longer be available to activate the survival pathway. Nanoparticles triggered the down-regulation of cyclin D1 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Hence, nanoparticles counteracted the constitutively activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt survival pathway to drive tumor cells toward apoptosis. Our study provides the first evidence of an apoptotic function of tumor-derived nanoparticles on tumor cells. We propose a new role for nanoparticles, i.e., as signal carriers for interaction between cells, which may have implications in physiopathological situations.
The FASEB Journal 06/2008; 22(9):3358-69. · 5.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Whipple's disease (WD) is a chronic multisystemic infection, caused by the bacterium Tropheryma whipplei. The main clinical presentations are classic WD (CWD) with histologic lesions in the gastrointestinal tract, endocarditis, and isolated neurologic infection. The current strategy for diagnosis remains invasive.The present study aimed to select the protein candidates for serological diagnosis of WD. The first step was to identify candidate proteins by an immunoproteomic approach combining 2-DE using a total extract of a T. whipplei, immunoblotting, and MS. The second step was to validate the discovered biomarkers using a recombinant protein-based ELISA. Serum samples from 18 patients with WD and from 54 control individuals were tested. A sugar ABC transporter, TWT328 (sensitivity (Se) 61%, specificity (Sp) 87%, positive predictive value (PPV) 61%, negative predictive value (NPV) 87%, and positive likelihood ratio (PLR) 4.69) was the best marker for development of serodiagnosis for CWD. We also obtained a reproducible immunoreactive protein pattern for patients with isolated neurological infection due to T. whipplei (Se 100%, Sp 93%, PPV 55.5%, NPV 100%, and PLR 13.51) as an encouraging step towards noninvasive diagnosis of this particular manifestation. Nine recombinant candidates have been successfully screened with serum samples. Results from these ELISA assays skewed with those obtained with immunoblots.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vinca alkaloids vinblastine and vincristine and some of their derivatives such as vinorelbine are widely used in therapy of leukemia and several solid tumors. Their action is associated with alterations of the mitotic spindle functions that prevent the cell cycle progression and lead to mitotic block. A number of studies show that some Vinca alkaloids inhibit CaM-target interaction. The newest microtubule inhibitor, vinflunine (Javlor), currently in clinical trials, is remarkably more active than vinblastine against a number of tumors. Moreover, vinflunine is significantly less toxic than other Vinca alkaloids. The high antitumor activity of this molecule is not well understood since it binds to tubulin with an overall affinity several-fold lower than that of vinblastine or vincristine. In this study, we examined the interaction of Ca2+-CaM with vinflunine, vinblastine, and stable tubule only polypeptide (STOP) by using a combination of thermodynamic and mass spectrometric approaches. We characterized the influence of Vinca alkaloids on Ca2+-CaM-STOP complex formation. Our results revealed different binding modes to Ca2+-CaM for vinflunine and vinblastine, highlighting that adding fluorine atoms on the cleavamine moiety of the Vinca alkaloid molecule is critical for the localization of the drug on calmodulin. We demonstrate that vinflunine is a better inhibitor for STOP binding to calmodulin than vinblastine. We suggest that vinflunine action on calmodulin can have an effect on microtubule dynamics. These data may contribute to a better understanding of the superior antitumor efficiency and lower toxicity of vinflunine.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess intestinal lipid rafts functions through the characterization of their protein markers, we have isolated lipid rafts of rat mucosa either from the total membrane or purified brush-border membrane (BBM) by sucrose gradient fractionation after detergent treatment. In both membrane preparations, the floating fractions (4-5) were enriched in cholesterol, ganglioside GM1, and N aminopeptidase (NAP) known as intestinal lipid rafts markers. Based on MALDI-TOF/MS identification and simultaneous detection by immunoblotting, 12 proteins from BBM cleared from contaminants were selected as rafts markers. These proteins include several signaling/trafficking proteins belonging to the G protein family and the annexins as well as GPI-anchored proteins. Remarkably GP2, previously described as the pancreatic granule GPI-anchored protein, was found in intestinal lipid rafts. The proteomic strategy assayed on the intestine leads to the characterization of known (NAP, alkaline phosphatase, dipeptidyl aminopeptidase, annexin II, and galectin-4) and new (GP2, annexin IV, XIIIb, Galpha(q), Galpha(11), glutamate receptor, and GPCR 7) lipid rafts markers. Together our results indicate that some digestive enzymes, trafficking and signaling proteins may be functionally distributed in the intestine lipid rafts.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 04/2006; 342(1):236-44. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Enterobacter aerogenes eefABC locus, which encodes a tripartite efflux pump, was cloned by complementation of an Escherichia coli tolC mutant. E. aerogenes deltaacrA expressing EefABC became less susceptible to a wide range of antibiotics. Data from eef::lacZ fusions showed that eefABC was not transcribed in the various laboratory conditions tested. However, increased transcription from Peef was observed in an E. coli hns mutant. In addition, EefA was detected in E. aerogenes expressing a dominant negative E. coli hns allele.
Journal of Bacteriology 07/2005; 187(11):3894-7. · 3.19 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new cellulosomal protein from Clostridium cellulolyticum Cel9M was characterized. The protein contains a catalytic domain belonging to family 9 and a dockerin domain. Cel9M is active on carboxymethyl cellulose, and the hydrolysis of this substrate is accompanied by a decrease in viscosity. Cel9M has a slight, albeit significant, activity on both Avicel and bacterial microcrystalline cellulose, and the main soluble sugar released is cellotetraose. Saccharification of bacterial microcrystalline cellulose by Cel9M in association with two other family 9 enzymes from C. cellulolyticum, namely, Cel9E and Cel9G, was measured, and it was found that Cel9M acts synergistically with Cel9E. Complexation of Cel9M with the mini-CipC1 containing the cellulose binding domain, the X2 domain, and the first cohesin domain of the scaffoldin CipC of the bacterium did not significantly increase the hydrolysis of Avicel and bacterial microcrystalline cellulose.
Journal of Bacteriology 04/2002; 184(5):1378-84. · 3.19 Impact Factor