[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We sought to describe patterns of initial radiotherapy among non-metastatic prostate cancer (PC) patients by recurrence risk groups.
Medical records were abstracted for a sample of 9017 PC cases diagnosed in 2004 as a part of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's Prostate and Breast Patterns of Care Study in seven states. Non-metastatic PC cases are categorized as low-risk (LR), intermediate-risk (IR) or high-risk (HR) groups based on pretreatment PSA, tumor stage, and Gleason score per 2002 NCCN guidelines. Univariate and multivariate analyses were employed to determine factors associated with the type and dose of radiotherapy by the risk groups.
Of the 9,017 patients, 3153 who received definitive radiotherapy either alone or in combination with hormone therapy (HT) were selected for in-depth analysis. Multivariate models showed that LR patients were more likely to receive seed implant brachytherapy (BT) than those in higher risk groups. Those in the IR group were most likely to receive external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) combined with BT or high-dose radiotherapy. Use of HT in combination with radiotherapy was more common in the IR and HR groups than for LR patients. Intensity modulated radiation treatment (IMRT) was used to treat 32.6% of PC patients treated with EBRT, with the majority (60.6%) treated with high-dose radiotherapy.
Radiotherapy types and dosage utilization varied by PC risk groups. Patients in IR were more likely than those in LR or HR to receive high-dose radiotherapy. IMRT was used in about one third of patients to deliver high-dose radiotherapy.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Melanoma incidence and mortality are increasing among U.S. adults. Currently, routine skin cancer screening total body skin examinations (TBSE) by a physician are not recommended by the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF); while organizations such as the American Cancer Society recommend screening. Currently, there are limited data on the prevalence, correlates, and trends of TBSE among U.S. adults.
We analyzed data by race/ethnicity, age, skin cancer risk level, among other characteristics from three different National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) cancer control supplements conducted every five years since 2000 in random U.S. households. High- and middle-risk status were defined based on USPSTF criteria (age, race, sunburn, and family history).
Prevalence of having at least one TBSE increased from 14.5 in 2000 to 16.5 in 2005 to 19.8 in 2010 (p<0.0001). In 2010, screening rates were higher among the elderly, the fair-skinned, those reporting sunburn(s), and individuals with a family history of skin cancer. Approximately 104.7 million (51.1%) U.S. adults are high-risk for developing melanoma, of which 24.0% had at least one TBSE.
TBSE rates have been increasing since 2000 both overall and among higher-risk groups. Data on screening trends could help tailor future prevention strategies.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the extent to which initial therapy for nonmetastatic prostate cancer was concordant with nationally recognized guidelines using supplemented cancer registry data and what factors were associated with receipt of nonguideline-concordant care.
Initial therapy for 8229 nonmetastatic prostate cancer cases diagnosed in 2004 from cancer registries in 7 states was abstracted as part of the Centers for Disease Control's Patterns of Care Breast and Prostate Cancer study conducted during 2007 to 2009. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network clinical practice guidelines version 1.2002 was used as the standard of care based on recurrence risk group and life expectancy (LE). A multivariable model was used to determine risk factors associated with receipt of nonguideline-concordant care.
Nearly 80% with nonmetastatic prostate cancer received guideline-concordant care for initial therapy. Receipt of nonguideline-concordant care (including receiving either less aggressive therapy or more aggressive therapy than indicated) was related to older age, African American race/ethnicity, being unmarried, rural residence, and especially to being in the high recurrence risk group where receiving less aggressive therapy than indicated occurred more often than receiving more aggressive therapy (adjusted OR=4.2; 95% CL, 3.5-5.2 vs. low-risk group). Compared with life table estimates adjusted for comorbidity, physicians tended to underestimate LE.
Receipt of less aggressive therapy than indicated among high-risk group men with >5-year LE based on life table estimates adjusted for comorbidity was a concern. Physicians may tend to underestimate 5-year survival among this group and should be alerted to the importance of recommending aggressive therapy when warranted. However, based on more recent guidelines, among those with low-risk disease, the proportion considered to be receiving less aggressive therapy than indicated may now be lower because active surveillance is now considered appropriate.
American journal of clinical oncology 01/2014; · 2.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Different rules for registering multiple primary (MP) cancers are used by cancer registries throughout the world, making international data comparisons difficult. This study evaluates the effect of Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) and International Association of Cancer Registries (IACR) MP rules on population-based cancer survival estimates. METHODS: Data from five US states and six metropolitan area cancer registries participating in the SEER Program were used to estimate age-standardized relative survival (RS%) for first cancers-only and all first cancers matching the selection criteria according to SEER and IACR MP rules for all cancer sites combined and for the top 25 cancer site groups among men and women. RESULTS: During 1995-2008, the percentage of MP cancers (all sites, both sexes) increased 25.4 % by using SEER rules (from 14.6 to 18.4 %) and 20.1 % by using IACR rules (from 13.2 to 15.8 %). More MP cancers were registered among females than among males, and SEER rules registered more MP cancers than IACR rules (15.8 vs. 14.4 % among males; 17.2 vs. 14.5 % among females). The top 3 cancer sites with the largest differences were melanoma (5.8 %), urinary bladder (3.5 %), and kidney and renal pelvis (2.9 %) among males, and breast (5.9 %), melanoma (3.9 %), and urinary bladder (3.4 %) among females. Five-year survival estimates (all sites combined) restricted to first primary cancers-only were higher than estimates by using first site-specific primaries (SEER or IACR rules), and for 11 of 21 sites among males and 11 of 23 sites among females. SEER estimates are comparable to IACR estimates for all site-specific cancers and marginally higher for all sites combined among females (RS 62.28 vs. 61.96 %). CONCLUSION: Survival after diagnosis has improved for many leading cancers. However, cancer patients remain at risk of subsequent cancers. Survival estimates based on first cancers-only exclude a large and increasing number of MP cancers. To produce clinically and epidemiologically relevant and less biased cancer survival estimates, data on all cancers should be included in the analysis. The multiple primary rules (SEER or IACR) used to identify primary cancers do not affect survival estimates if all first cancers matching the selection criteria are used to produce site-specific survival estimates.
Cancer Causes and Control 04/2013; · 3.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Differences in health status and behavioral risk factors may explain racial/ethnic breast cancer disparities. We examined racial/ethnic differences in health status and behaviors among female breast cancer survivors compared to females without breast cancer. METHODS: Using cross-sectional data from the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a national state-based, random sample telephone survey, we explored differences in self-rated health, obesity and selected behaviors (physical activity, smoking, alcohol use, fruit, and vegetable consumption) among females aged 18 years and older, who reported a previous breast cancer diagnosis (survivors, n = 10,035) and those who reported no breast cancer history (n = 234,375) by race/ethnicity. Adjusted prevalences of health status and behaviors, accounting for sociodemographics, comorbidities and health care access, were estimated by race/ethnicity. RESULTS: Compared to all other racial/ethnic groups, more white females reported heavy alcohol consumption and more black females reported obesity regardless of their breast cancer status. Among breast cancer survivors, more whites (33.7 %) were former smokers compared to blacks (24.5 %), "others" (20.5 %), and Hispanics (16.2 %) (p = 0.001). Racial/ethnic differences in obesity also varied by reported time since diagnosis (p value = 0.018). Among long-term survivors (diagnosed >5 years before interview), more black survivors (34.8 %) reported obesity compared to white survivors (23.0 %). Also, among "other" race survivors, long-term survivors (22.0 %) reported more obesity than survivors diagnosed less than 5 years before interview (7.8 %). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest opportunities to increase health behaviors and reduce racial disparities among breast cancer survivors. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: Engaging in healthy behaviors can play a significant role in enhancing health outcomes and quality of life of breast cancer survivors. More research is needed to better understand racial differences in obesity, smoking and alcohol consumption in order to develop effective, culturally appropriate interventions to promote a healthy lifestyle after a breast cancer diagnosis.
Journal of Cancer Survivorship 12/2012; · 3.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to examine reporting of treatment summaries and follow-up instructions among cancer survivors. METHODS: Using the 2010 National Health Interview Survey, we created logistic regression models among cancer survivors not in treatment (n = 1,345) to determine characteristics associated with reporting treatment summaries and written follow-up instructions, adjusting for sociodemographic, access, and cancer-related factors. Findings are presented for all survivors and those recently diagnosed (≤4 years). We also examined unadjusted associations between written instructions and subsequent surveillance and screening. RESULTS: Among those recently diagnosed, 38 % reported receiving treatment summaries and 58 % reported written instructions. Among all survivors, approximately one third reported summaries and 44 % reported written instructions. After adjustment, lower reporting of summaries was associated with cancer site, race, and number of treatment modalities among those recently diagnosed, and white vs. black or Hispanic race/ethnicity, breast vs. colorectal cancer, >10 vs. ≤5 years since diagnosis, no clinical trials participation, and better than fair health among all survivors. For instructions, lower reporting was associated with no trials participation and lower income among those recently diagnosed, and increasing age, white vs. black race, lower income, >10 vs. ≤5 years since diagnosis, 1 vs. ≥2 treatment modalities, no trials participation, and at least good vs. fair/poor health among all survivors. Written instructions were associated with reporting provider recommendations for breast and cervical cancer surveillance, and recent screening mammograms. CONCLUSION: Many recently diagnosed cancer survivors did not report receiving treatment summaries and written follow-up instructions. Opportunities exist to examine associations between use of these documents and recommended care and outcomes, and to facilitate their adoption. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: Cancer survivors who have completed therapy should ask their providers for treatment summaries and written follow-up instructions, and discuss with them how their cancer and therapy impact their future health care.
Journal of Cancer Survivorship 11/2012; · 3.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The goal of breast cancer screening is to reduce breast cancer mortality. Mammography is the standard screening method for detecting breast cancer early. Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is recommended to be used in conjunction with mammography for screening subsets of women at high risk for breast cancer. We offer the first study to provide national estimates of breast MRI use among women in the United States. METHODS: We analyzed data from women who responded to questions about having a breast MRI on the 2010 National Health Interview Survey. We assessed report of having a breast MRI and reasons for it by sociodemographic characteristics and access to health care and computed 5-year and lifetime breast cancer risk using the Gail model. RESULTS: Among 11,222 women who responded, almost 5% reported ever having a breast MRI and 2% reported having an MRI within the 2 years preceding the survey. Less than half of the women who reported having a breast MRI were at increased risk. Approximately 60% of women reported having the breast MRI for diagnostic reasons. Women who ever had a breast MRI were more likely to be older, black, and insured and to report a usual source of health care compared to women who reported no MRI. CONCLUSIONS: Breast MRI use may be underused or overused in certain subgroups of women. Impact: As access to health care improves, the use of breast MRI and the appropriateness of its use for breast cancer detection will be important to monitor.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 11/2012; · 4.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recommended colorectal cancer (CRC) screening tests for adults ages 50 to 75 years include home fecal occult blood tests (FOBT), sigmoidoscopy with FOBT, and colonoscopy. A newer test, computed tomographic (CT) colonography, has been recommended by some, but not all, national organizations.
We analyzed 2010 National Health Interview Survey data, including new CT colonography questions, from respondents ages 50 to 75 years (N = 8,952). We (i) assessed prevalence of CRC test use overall, by test type, and by sociodemographic and health care access factors and (ii) assessed reported reasons for not having a CRC test.
The age-standardized percentage of respondents reporting FOBT, sigmoidoscopy, or colonoscopy within recommended time intervals was 58.3% [95% confidence interval (CI), 57.0-59.6]. Colonoscopy was the most commonly reported test [within past 10 years: 54.6% (95% CI, 53.2-55.9)]. Home FOBT and sigmoidoscopy with FOBT were less frequently used [FOBT within past year: 8.8% (95% CI, 8.1-9.6); sigmoidoscopy within past 5 years with FOBT within past 3 years: 1.3% (95% CI, 1.0-1.6)]. CT colonography was rare: 1.3% (95% CI, 1.0-1.7). Increasing age, education, income, having health care insurance, and having a usual source of health care were associated with higher CRC test use. Test use within recommended time intervals was particularly low among individuals ages 50 to 64 years without health care insurance [21.2% (95% CI, 18.3-24.4)]. The most common reason for nonuse was "no reason or never thought about it."
About 40% of Americans ages 50 to 75 years do not meet the recommendations for having CRC screening tests. Impact: Expanded health care coverage and greater awareness of CRC screening are needed to further decrease CRC mortality.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are scant data available on the relationship between smoking and total prostate specific antigen, free prostate specific antigen and percent-free prostate specific antigen. Given the high prevalence of smoking and the frequency of prostate specific antigen screening, it is important to determine any association between smoking and prostate specific antigen values using nationally representative data.
Included in the final study population were 3,820 men 40 years old or older who participated in the 2001-2006 NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) and met the eligibility criteria for prostate specific antigen testing. The distributions of total, free and percent free prostate specific antigen were estimated by sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Multivariate linear regression models were fit to determine the adjusted relationship between smoking and total and percent free prostate specific antigen while simultaneously controlling for these characteristics.
For all ages combined the median total and free prostate specific antigen levels were 0.90 (0.81-0.90) and 0.26 (0.25-0.28) ng/ml, respectively. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that total prostate specific antigen was 7.9% and 12.2% lower among current and former smokers, respectively, than among never smokers. High body mass index and diabetes were also statistically significantly associated with a lower total prostate specific antigen. Approximately a third of the men had a percent free prostate specific antigen less than 25%. Current smokers had a significantly lower percent free prostate specific antigen than former smokers.
Our finding that smoking is inversely associated with total prostate specific antigen may have potential implications for the interpretation of prostate specific antigen levels in men who are current or former smokers. Given the high prevalence of smoking, obesity and diabetes, additional research on the combined effect of these health risk factors is warranted.
The Journal of urology 02/2012; 187(4):1228-33. · 4.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the association between in utero exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) and clear cell adenocarcinoma of the cervix and vagina (CCA) was first reported among young women, subsequent case reports and cohort studies suggest that an elevated risk for CCA may persist with age. Data from the National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR) and the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program were used to construct indirect standardized incidence ratios (SIR) comparing CCA risk among women born during the exposure period 1947 through 1971, when DES was prescribed to pregnant women, to the relevant time period for nonexposed women born before or after DES exposure period. CCA incidence among the women born before the DES exposure period (ages 30-54 at diagnosis of CAA) or after the DES exposure period (ages 15-29 at diagnosis) were used to calculate the expected rates for women born during the DES exposure period. Among women aged 15-29 years, CCA risk increased with age and peaked in the 25-29 year age group, but the risk estimates were unstable (SIR = 6.06; 95% CI: 0.97, -251.07, SEER data). Among women aged 40-54 years, CCA risk was greatest in the 40-44 year age group (SIR = 4.55; 95% CI: 1.11, 40.19, SEER data and SIR = 3.94; 95% CI: 1.06, 33.01, NPCR/SEER data) and remained significantly elevated throughout this age group in the combined data set. Risk was not elevated among women aged 30-39 years. The observed risk of CCA, if causally related to DES exposure, reflects a persistent health impact from in utero exposure that is widespread in the general population. When assessing a woman's cancer risks, whether her mother took DES while pregnant may still be a relevant aspect of the medical history for women born during the period of DES use in pregnancy.
Cancer Causes and Control 01/2012; 23(1):207-11. · 3.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Whether disparities in mammography surveillance among breast cancer survivors exist by health insurance type is unclear.
To determine the association of surveillance mammography with insurance and other factors among breast cancer survivors. DESIGN/PARTICIPANTS/MEASURES: We examined mammography within the prior year among 1511 breast cancer survivors aged 30 or older and ≥1 year after diagnosis from the 2000, 2003, 2005, and 2008 National Health Interview Surveys. Insurance included private (health maintenance organization/independent practice association, other, unspecified), Medicare+private, public only (Medicare+Medicaid, other Medicare, other public), and uninsured. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with mammography, including age, race/ethnicity, education, time since diagnosis, health status, insurance, income to poverty threshold ratios, having a usual provider, and survey year. Results are presented as predictive margins. For insurance, pairwise comparisons were used to compare Medicare+private versus other groups.
Overall 75% reported a mammogram. Mammography reporting was lower for uninsured survivors and those with only public insurance versus Medicare+private or private (50% and 68% vs. 76% and 80%, respectively; P=0.001). In each insurance group, 20% to 50% reported not receiving a mammogram. After adjustment, use remained lower for women with only public insurance versus Medicare+private (71% vs. 78%, P=0.029). Age of at least 75 years, greater time since diagnosis, and no usual provider were associated with not reporting a mammogram.
One in 4 breast cancer survivors did not report guideline-concordant mammography surveillance. Women with only public insurance were less likely than those with Medicare+private coverage to report a mammogram. Efforts to understand barriers and promote mammography among survivors are needed.
Medical care 12/2011; 50(3):270-6. · 3.24 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Information on prostate cancer testing and incidence among men under age 50 is scant. This study aims to describe trends of prostate cancer testing and incidence by demographic and clinical characteristics and identify potential correlations between prostate cancer testing and incidence.
We examined prostate cancer testing and incidence rates among American men under age of 50 using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (2002, 2004, 2006, and 2008) and data from the National Program of Cancer Registries and Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results programs (2001-2006). We conducted descriptive, logistic regression, and trend analyses using SUDAAN and SEER*Stat.
The prostate cancer incidence rate among black men was more than 2-fold that of white men. The overall prostate cancer incidence rate slightly increased from 2001 to 2006; however, the prevalence of prostate cancer testing declined over time. There was a borderline significant increase in prostate cancer incidence rate (APC=3.5, 95% CI=0.0, 7.0) for men aged 40-44. Well-differentiated prostate cancer incidence decreased significantly (APC=-24.7; 95% confidence interval (CI)=-34.9, -12.8) over time.
We observed a large difference in prostate cancer incidence between blacks and whites under age 50. Similar patterns in prostate cancer testing and cancer incidence by race and ethnicity suggested prostate cancer testing might have influenced incidence to some extent in this young population. The different temporal patterns for prostate cancer testing and incidence, especially for men aged 40-44 years, suggested screening alone could not fully accounted for the increasing prostate cancer incidence rates. Decreasing trend of well-differentiated prostate cancer may be partially due to "Grade Inflation".
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Of the types of cancer that affect both men and women, colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Screening reduces colorectal cancer incidence and mortality. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommended in 2008 that persons aged 50--75 years at average risk for colorectal cancer be screened for the disease by using one or more of the following methods: fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) every year, sigmoidoscopy every 5 years (with high-sensitivity FOBT every 3 years), or colonoscopy every 10 years.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the relationship between glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and free prostate-specific antigen (fPSA), percent-free PSA (%fPSA), and total PSA (tPSA) in patients with diminished kidney function not on dialysis, using nationally representative data.
A total of 3782 men aged ≥ 40 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2006, and who met eligibility criteria for PSA testing were included in the final study population. GFR (mL/min/1.73 m(2)) was calculated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation 7 and categorized as ≥ 90, 60 to < 90, and 15 to < 60. Distribution of tPSA, fPSA, and %fPSA were estimated by GFR category and by age and race. Multivariate linear regression models were fit to determine the adjusted relationship between GFR and tPSA and %fPSA after adjusting for age, race, and body mass index.
The multivariate linear regression analysis showed that GFR had a linear relationship with tPSA that was of borderline significance. There was a significant nonlinear relationship between GFR and %fPSA (P < .001): increased GFR was associated with a decrease in %fPSA for GFR levels below 90 [eg, change in %fPSA = -2.67 (95% CI -3.56, -1.77) for a GFR of 85 as compared with 65; P < .001]. The decline in %fPSA with increasing GFR was nonsignificant for GFR levels above 90.
Our finding that renal function as measured by GFR is negatively associated with %fPSA has potential implications for use of this test in men with renal disease.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: To explore contextual effects and to test for interactions, this study examined how breast cancer stage at diagnosis among U.S. women related to individual- and county-level (contextual) variables associated with access to health care and socioeconomic status. METHODS: Individual-level incidence data were obtained from the National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR) and the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End-Results (SEER) program. The county of residence of women with diagnosed breast cancer (n = 217,299) was used to link NPCR and SEER data with county-level measures of health care access from the 2004 Area Resource File (ARF). In addition to individual-level covariates such as age, race, and Hispanic ethnicity, we examined county-level covariates (residence in a Health Professional Shortage Area, urban/rural residence; race/ethnicity; and number of health centers/clinics, mammography screening centers, primary care physicians, and obstetrician-gynecologists per 100,000 female population or per 1000 square miles) as predictors of stage of breast cancer at diagnosis. RESULTS: Both individual-level and contextual variables are associated with later stage of breast cancer at diagnosis. Black women and women of "other race" had higher odds of receiving a diagnosis of regional or distant stage breast cancer (P <0.0001 and P = 0.02). With adjustment for age, Hispanics were more likely to receive a diagnosis of later stage breast cancer than non-Hispanics (P <0.0.001). Women living in areas with a higher proportion of black women had greater odds of receiving a diagnosis of regional or late stage breast cancer compared with women living in areas with the lowest proportion of black women. The same was noted for women living in areas with intermediate proportions of Hispanic women (age-adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92-0.97]. Other important contextual variables associated with stage at diagnosis included the percentage of persons living below the poverty level and the number of office-based physicians per 100,000 women. Women living in counties with a higher proportion of persons living below the poverty level or fewer office-based physicians were more likely to receive a diagnosis of later stage breast cancer than those living in other counties (P < 0.001). In multivariable analysis, residence in areas with a higher proportion of non-Hispanic black women modified the associations of age and Hispanic ethnicity with later stage breast cancer (P = 0.0159 and P = 0.0002, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: This study found that county-level contextual variables related to the availability and accessibility of health care providers and health services can affect the timeliness of breast cancer diagnosis. This information could help public health officials develop interventions to reduce the burden of breast cancer among U.S. women.
The Open Health Services and Policy Journal 01/2009; 2:45-46.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: We examined how predisposing, enabling and reinforcing factors influence mammography referrals by primary care physicians (PCPs). METHODS: Using the 2001-2003 National Ambulatory Medical Care and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys, we identified visits to office (n=8,756) and outpatient (n=17,067) PCPs by women≥40 without breast symptoms or breast cancer. We examined mammography referrals by predisposing (age, race, ethnicity, education, chronic problem), enabling (income, payer, visits within 12 months, time with physician), and reinforcing factors (physician age, gender, specialty/clinic, PCP status, region, MSA, solo/group practice). Gender, specialty, physician age, time with physician and solo/group were only in NAMCS. Clinic type was only in NHAMCS. We fitted logistic regression models adjusted for all factors and year. RESULTS: Office-based referrals were more likely during visits: for preventive or chronic care; with private payer vs self/uninsured; by women with no visit within 12 months vs≥3; lasting≥15 minutes; to female PCPs; to PCPs aged ≥45; to gynecologists. Outpatient referrals were more likely during visits: by Hispanics; for preventive or chronic care; by women with no visit within 12 months; to one's own PCP; to gynecologic clinics; in the Northeast or Midwest. CONCLUSIONS: Reinforcing factors, in addition to predisposing and enabling factors, are associated with mammography referral. Interventions to increase referrals should consider provider factors and aspects of the healthcare environment, and recognize differences between settings. Efforts to facilitate referrals during chronic care visits or outpatient visits to non-PCP providers may provide opportunities to increase screening. Efforts are needed to ensure that uninsured women are receiving appropriate referrals.
The Open Health Services and Policy Journal 01/2009; 2:57-70.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examined the association between county-level measures of socioeconomic status (SES) and the incidence rate of human papillomavirus(HPV)-associated cancers, including cervical, vulvar, vaginal, anal, penile, and oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers.
The authors collected data from cancer registries for site-specific invasive cancer diagnoses between 1998 and 2003, inclusive, among adults aged >20 years at the time of diagnosis. County-level variables that included education, income, and poverty status were used as factors for socioeconomic status. Measures of rural-urban status, the percentage of the population that currently smoked, and the percentage of women who reported having ever had a Papanicolaou (Pap) test were also studied.
Lower education and higher poverty were found to be associated with increased penile, cervical, and vaginal invasive cancer incidence rates. Higher education was associated with increased incidence of vulvar cancer, male and female anal cancer, and male and female oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers. Race was an independent predictor of the development of these potentially HPV-associated cancers.
These findings illustrate the association between SES variables and the development of HPV-associated cancers. The findings also highlight the importance of considering SES factors when developing policies to increase access to medical care and reduce cancer disparities in the United States.
Cancer 11/2008; 113(10 Suppl):2910-8. · 5.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of disease and premature death in the United States. The 2004 Surgeon General report found convincing evidence for a direct causal relationship between tobacco use and the following cancers: lung and bronchial, laryngeal, oral cavity and pharyngeal, esophageal, stomach, pancreatic, kidney and renal pelvis, urinary bladder, and cervical cancers and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). This report provides state-level cancer incidence data and recent trends for cancers associated with tobacco use. Because information on tobacco use was not available in the databases of the National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR) and Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program, cases of cancer included in this report might or might not be in persons who used tobacco; however, the cancer types included in this report are those defined by the U.S. Surgeon General as having a direct causal relationship with tobacco use (i.e., referred to as tobacco-related cancer in this report). These data are important for initiation, monitoring, and evaluation of targeted tobacco prevention and control measures.
Data were obtained from cancer registries affiliated with CDC's NPCR and the National Cancer Institute's SEER program; combined, these data cover approximately 92% of the U.S. population. Combined data from the NPCR and SEER programs provide the best source of information on population-based cancer incidence for the nation and are the only source of information for 41 states (including the District of Columbia) with cancer surveillance programs that are funded solely by NPCR. This report provides age-adjusted cancer incidence rates by demographic and geographic characteristics, percentage distributions for tumor characteristics, and trends in cancer incidence by sex.
Approximately 2.4 million cases of tobacco-related cancer were diagnosed during 1999--2004. Age-adjusted incidence rates ranged from 4.0 per 100,000 persons (for AML) to 69.4 (for lung and bronchial cancer). High rates occurred among men, black and non-Hispanic populations, and older adults. Higher incidence rates of lung and laryngeal cancer occurred in the South compared with other regions, particularly the West, consistent with high smoking patterns in the South.
The high rates of tobacco-related cancer observed among men, blacks, non-Hispanics, and older adults reflect overall demographic patterns of cancer incidence in the United States and reflect patterns of tobacco use.
The findings in this report emphasize the need for ongoing surveillance and reporting to monitor cancer incidence trends, identify populations at greatest risk for developing cancer related to tobacco use, and evaluate the effectiveness of targeted tobacco control programs and policies.