[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Endocannabinoids and temperament traits have been linked to both physical activity and body mass index (BMI) however no study has explored how these factors interact in females. The aims of this cross-sectional study were to 1) examine differences among distinct BMI groups on daytime physical activity and time spent in moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), temperament traits and plasma endocannabinoid concentrations; and 2) explore the association and interaction between MVPA, temperament, endocannabinoids and BMI.
PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e104534. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Androgens acting via the androgen receptor (AR) stimulate production of prostate specific antigen (PSA), which is a clinical marker of prostate cancer (PCa). Since genetic variants in the AR may have a significant impact on the risk of being diagnosed with PCa, the aim was to investigate if AR-variants were associated with the risk of having PSA above clinically used cut-off thresholds of 3 or 4 ng/mL in men without PCa. Methods Men without PCa history (n=1744) were selected from the European Male Ageing Study (EMAS) cohort of 40-80 year old men from 8 different European centers. Using linear and logistic regression models, with age and center as covariates, we investigated whether AR-variants (CAG repeat-length and/or SNP genotype) were associated with having serum PSA concentrations above 3 or 4 ng/mL, which often are set as cut-off concentrations for further investigation of PCa. Results Carriers of the SNP rs1204038 A-allele (16% of the men) were more likely to have PSA>3 and 4 ng/mL (OR; 95%CI 1.65; 1.13-2.40 and 1.87; 1.18-2.96, respectively) than G-allele carriers. They also had shorter CAG-repeats (median 20 vs. 23, p<0.0005), but CAG repeat length per se did not affect the PSA concentrations. Conclusion The A-allele of the SNP rs1204038 gives a 65% higher risk of having PSA above 3 ng/mL than the G-allele in men without PCa, and thereby an increased risk of being referred for further examination on suspicion of PCa. Impact Serum PSA as a clinical marker could be improved by adjustment for AR-genotype.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Certain clinical conditions and markers have recently been demonstrated to modify the natural history of acromegaly in affected patients. Thus, some clinical, histological, radiological and molecular factors are associated with more aggressive pituitary tumors that have higher biochemical activity, higher tumor volumes and decreased tumoral and biochemical responses to current therapies. However, these factors do not seem to have an equal influence on the prognosis of patients with acromegaly. We present a review of the factors that influence the clinical course of patients with acromegaly and propose a risk value for each factor that will allow prognostic scoring for affected patients by considering a combination of these factors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The treatment of adults with GH deficiency (GHD) with human recombinant growth hormone has interindividual variability and several factors influence it. The aims of this study were : 1-to analyze the GH receptor (GHR) genotype in terms of exon 3 deletion GHR (d3-GHR) in adults with GHD; 2-to assess the effects of d3-GHR on initial IGF-I levels; 3-to evaluate whether d3-GHR and/or initial IGF-I levels were associated with adverse effects and/or treatment discontinuation.
Forty-four adult patients with GHD were included. Demographic, clinical and biochemical characteristics were retrospectively evaluated at baseline and 6 months, 1 and 3 years after the initiation of treatment. d3-GHR was analyzed in 35 patients.
37.1 % of patients were d3-GHR carriers (31.4 % heterozygous, 5.7 % homozygous). IGF-I at baseline was low in 64 % of patients and was not related to d3-GHR status. There was no association between the d3-GHR allele and baseline IGF-I (p = 0.14). Although adverse events were more frequent in the d3-GHR carriers (30.7 vs. 18.2 % in fl/fl) and in patients with normal IGF-I levels at diagnosis (43.7 vs. 17.8 % in patients with low IGF-I levels), this association was not statistically significant. d3-GHR status was not related to the incidence of adverse events (p = 0.4) or treatment discontinuation (p = 0.47). Baseline IGF-I levels were neither associated with adverse events (p = 0.08) nor treatment discontinuation (p = 0.75).
The d3-GHR allele was not related to baseline levels of IGF-I. Neither d3-GHR nor baseline IGF-I level was related to adverse events or treatment discontinuation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The global prevalence of obesity has significantly increased in most industrialized countries. Anti-obesity drugs are scarce, and indications to change their life style are impractical. Therefore, to identify diets able to produce significantly and maintained weight loss is mandatory. The present work evaluated the efficacy of a very low-calorie-ketogenic (VLCK) diet in obesity. A group of obese patients were randomized into two groups: the VLCK diet group and a standard low-calorie diet (LC group). The follow-up period was 12 months. Both groups received external support, counseling, to perform physical activity and adhered to the diet. The VLCK diet induced a 30-45 days of mild ketosis and significant effects on body weight within 15 days. At 2 months, the weight reductions in the VLCK diet and LC diet groups were 13.6 ± 3.9 and 4.8 ± 2.7 kg, respectively (p < 0.0001). At the end of the study, at 12 months, the weight reductions were 19.9 ± 12.3 and 7.0 ± 5.6 kg, respectively (p < 0.0001), and more than 88 % of patients in the VLCK diet group lost more of 10 % of their initial weight. Lean mass was practically unaffected. The VLCK diet was well tolerated and the side effects were moderate and transitory. In a group of obese patients, the VLCK diet was significantly more effective than a standard LC diet. At one year follow-up in the group with VLCK diet, most of the patients loss more than 10 % of their initial weight and lean mass was well preserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: FNDC5/irisin protein has been recently postulated as beneficial in the treatment of
obesity and diabetes because it is induced by exercise and is able to increase energy
expenditure. However, recent reports have shown that WAT also secretes irisin, and
that circulating irisin is elevated in obese subjects. The aim of this study was to
evaluate the circulating levels of irisin in conditions of extreme BMI, such as anorexia
and obesity, and the correlations of irisin with basal metabolism and daily activity.
Materials and methods: The study involved 145 female patients, including 96
patients with extreme BMIs [30 anorexic (AN) and 66 obese (OB) patients] and 49
healthy normal weight control patients (NW) to assess the circulating irisin levels.
Biochemical, anthropometric and body composition measurements, daily physical
activity and resting energy expenditure (REE) were analysed in the subjects.
Results: The plasma irisin levels were significantly elevated in the OB patients
compared with the AN and NW patients. Irisin also correlated positively with body
weight, BMI and fat mass. The OB patients exhibited the highest REE and higher
daily physical activity compared with the AN patients but lower activity compared with
the NW patients. The irisin levels were inversely correlated with daily physical activity
and directly correlated with REE. Fat mass contributed to most of the variability of the
irisin plasma levels independently of the other studied parameters.
Conclusions: Irisin plasma levels are influenced by energy expenditure
independently of daily physical activity but fat mass is the main contributing factor
International Journal of Endocrinology 02/2014; · 2.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In March 2013, the Acromegaly Consensus Group met to revise and update guidelines for the medical treatment of acromegaly. The meeting comprised experts skilled in the medical management of acromegaly. The group considered treatment goals covering biochemical, clinical and tumour volume outcomes, and the place in guidelines of somatostatin receptor ligands, growth hormone receptor antagonists and dopamine agonists, and alternative modalities for treatment including combination therapy and novel treatments. This document represents the conclusions of the workshop consensus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Irisin is assumed to be a relevant link between muscle and weight maintenance as well as to mediate exercise benefits on health. The aim of this study was to assess the possible associations between irisin levels and glucose homeostasis in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS) following an energy-restricted treatment. Ninety-six adults with excessive body weight and MetS features underwent a hypocaloric dietary pattern for 8 weeks, within the RESMENA randomized controlled trial (www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT01087086). After the intervention, dietary restriction significantly reduced body weight and evidenced a dietary-induced decrease in circulating levels of irisin in parallel with improvements on glucose homeostasis markers. Interestingly, participants with higher irisin values at baseline (above the median) showed a greater reduction on glucose (P=0.022) and insulin (P=0.021) concentrations as well as on the homeostasis model assessment index (P=0.008) and triglycerides (P=0.006) after the dietary intervention, compared with those presenting low-irisin baseline values (below the median). Interestingly, a positive correlation between irisin and carbohydrate intake was found at the end of the experimental period. In conclusion, irisin appears to be involved in glucose metabolism regulation after a dietary-induced weight loss.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leptin and ghrelin appear to play a role in weight regain after a successful weight loss. The pre-treatment plasma levels of leptin/ghrelin ratio (L/G) could have power to predict this clinically relevant issue in the obesity treatment.
To evaluate the ability of the L/G as a non-invasive tool for the early discrimination of obese patients who are more likely to regain weight after an energy restriction program (regainers) from those who maintain the lost weight (non-regainers).
Fasting leptin and ghrelin levels were evaluated in 88 overweight/obese patients who followed an 8-week hypocaloric diet program and were categorized as regainers (≥10 % weight-lost regain) and non-regainers (<10 % weight-lost regain) 6 months (32 weeks) after finishing the dietary treatment. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was employed to evaluate the diagnostic value of the L/G ratio and to establish a cut-off point to differentiate regainers from non-regainers.
Regainers showed a statistically higher baseline (week 0) and after treatment (week 8) L/G ratio than non-regainers. The baseline L/G ratio was associated with an increased risk for weight regain (odds ratio 1.051; p = 0.008). Using the area under the ROC curve (AUC), the L/G ratio significantly identified female (AUC = 0.69; p = 0.040) and male regainers (AUC = 0.68; p = 0.030). The maximum combination of sensitivity and specificity was shown at the cut-off point of 26.0 for women and 9.5 for men.
The pre-intervention fasting leptin/ghrelin ratio could be a useful non-invasive approach to personalize obesity therapy and avoid unsuccessful treatment outcomes.
Journal of endocrinological investigation 02/2014; 37(2):119-26. · 1.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: Eating styles have been studied in both obesity (OB) and eating disorders (ED), but they have not been examined in these two weight conditions together. The present study explores differences in eating styles in an Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and OB sample, compared to healthy controls (HC), and it analyses their relationship with Body Mass Index (BMI) and personality traits. Method: The total sample consisted of 291 female participants (66 AN, 79 OB and 146 HC). Evaluation: Assessment measures included the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire -DEBQ- and the Temperament and Character Inventory–revised -TCI-R-. Results: The MANCOVA test showed significant differences among the three groups for all eating styles, with emotional eating being more typical in the OB group and restrained eating more typical in the AN group. Partial correlation analyses showed relationships between emotional and external eating and BMI, as well as relationships with different temperament and character traits. The stepwise discriminant function analysis showed that the DEBQ correctly classified 65.6% of the sample into the three weight categories; when combined with the TCI-R, correct classification increased to 72.6%. Conclusions: Weight conditions showed different eating behaviour patterns. Temperament and character traits were related to eating behaviours. DEBQ and TCI-R were able to discriminate between groups. Differences in eating styles in the weight groups can have implications for understanding the development and maintenance of OB and ED.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cushing's disease is a rare chronic disease caused by a pituitary adenoma, which leads to excess secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). The over-production of ACTH leads to hyperstimulation of the adrenal glands and a chronic excess of cortisol, resulting in the signs and symptoms of a severe clinical state (Cushing's syndrome) that leads to significant morbidity, negative impacts on the patient's quality of life, and, if untreated, increased mortality. The management of patients with Cushing's disease is complicated by the heterogeneity of the condition, with signs and symptoms that overlap with those of other diseases, and high subclinical incidence rates. Controversies surrounding the tests used for screening and identifying patients with Cushing's disease add to the challenge of patient management. Surgical intervention to remove the adenoma is the first-line treatment for patients with Cushing's disease, but medical therapies are useful in patients who relapse or are unsuitable for surgery. The recent introduction of pasireotide, the first pituitary-directed medical therapy, expands the number of treatment options available for patients with Cushing's disease. This state-of-the-art review aims to provide an overview of the most recent scientific research and clinical information regarding Cushing's disease. Continuing research into improving the diagnosis and treatment of Cushing's disease will help to optimize patient management.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously reported that in male patients consulting for sexual dysfunction, low prolactin (PRL) levels were associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS), arteriogenic erectile dysfunction, and incident major cardiovascular events.
The aim of this study is to assess the clinical associations of PRL levels in the European Male Ageing Study (EMAS).
EMAS is a prospective, observational cohort of community-dwelling men aged 40-79 years old (mean age 60 ± 11 years old). PRL was available for 2,948 men.
Different parameters were evaluated including the Short Form-36 questionnaire, Becks Depression Inventory, the Adverse Life Events Scale, the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly, and the EMAS sexual function questionnaire (EMAS-SFQ).
After the adjustment for confounders, PRL levels were inversely related with worsening of sexual function as compared with the previous year, as derived from change in sexual functioning domain of the EMAS-SFQ (adj. r = -0.043; P = 0.029). The strongest correlation (Wald = 6.840; P = 0.009) was observed between lower PRL levels and reduced enjoyment of orgasmic experiences. Furthermore, an inverse relationship between PRL levels and stressful life events or depressive symptoms was observed. Low PRL was also negatively associated with an unhealthy metabolic phenotype as well as with the MetS (Wald = 5.229; P = 0.022). In line with these data, low PRL was associated with a lower level of physical activity and feeling unhealthier.
Low PRL is related to several metabolic, psychological, and sexual unhealthy characteristics in European men. Checking PRL might be useful to stratify men for cardiovascular risk and to encourage appropriate lifestyle changes.
Journal of Sexual Medicine 01/2014; 11:240. · 3.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: vitamin D deficiency has been associated with an increased risk of mortality, but whether this relationship is causal or linked to co-existent comorbidity and adverse life factors remains uncertain. Our objective was to determine whether endogenous 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels predicted all-cause, cardiovascular and cancer mortality independently of health and lifestyle factors.Setting: prospective cohort analysis within the European Male Ageing Study.Participants: 2,816 community-dwelling men aged 40-79 years at baseline.Methods: Cox regression was used to examine the association of all-cause mortality with 25(OH)D, 1,25(OH)2D and PTH; cardiovascular and cancer mortality were modelled using competing-risks regression. Results were expressed as hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for Cox models; sub-hazard ratios (SHR) and 95% CIs for competing-risks models.Results: a total of 187 men died during a median of 4.3 years of follow-up. Serum levels of 25(OH)D (per 1 SD decrease: HR = 1.45; 95% CI = 1.16, 1.81) and 1,25(OH)2D (per 1 SD decrease: HR = 1.20; 95% CI = 1.00, 1.44) were associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality after adjusting for age, centre, smoking, self-reported morbidities, physical activity and functional performance. Only levels of 25(OH)D <25 nmol/l predicted cancer mortality (SHR = 3.33; 95% CI = 1.38, 8.04).Conclusion: lower 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D levels independently predicted all-cause mortality in middle-aged and older European men. Associations with cancer mortality were only observed among men with very low levels of 25(OH)D. These associations were only partially explained by the range of adverse health and lifestyle factors measured here.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
Weight regain is associated with the promotion of insulin resistance. The newly discovered myokine irisin, which was proposed to be involved in the management of insulin sensitivity, could play a role in this process. This study aimed to investigate the association between irisin and reduced insulin sensitivity induced by weight regain.
Insulin sensitivity was evaluated according to the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in 136 obese patients who followed an eight-week hypocaloric diet (30% reduced energy expenditure) to lose weight and were re-evaluated four or six months after treatment. Irisin plasma levels, as well as the levels of leptin, adiponectin, ghrelin and TNF-α, were quantified in a sub-cohort (n=73) from the initially studied patients at baseline (T0), at the diet endpoint (T1) and after the follow-up period (T2).
After a successful dietary intervention to lose weight, 50% of the patients who regained the lost weight during the follow-up period were categorized as insulin resistant (HOMA-IR≥2.5) compared with only 25% of patients who maintained the weight loss (p=0.018). Importantly, in addition to the well-studied hormones leptin and adiponectin, irisin plasma levels were statistically associated with several risk factors for insulin resistance. Indeed, the increased risk of insulin resistance during the follow-up period was related to high irisin levels at baseline (odds ratio=4.2; p=0.039).
Circulating irisin predicts the insulin resistance onset in association with weight regain. Therefore, irisin could be secreted as an adaptive response to counteract the deleterious effect of excess adiposity on glucose homeostasis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A recently discovered myokine, irisin, may have an important role in energy metabolism. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between this hormone and the lipid profile of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) patients following a hypocaloric diet.
Ninety-three Caucasian adults (52 men/41 women) diagnosed with MetS followed an 8-week-long energy restricted programme (-30% of the energy requirements). Anthropometric measurements, biochemical markers and plasma irisin levels were analysed before and after the nutritional intervention.
Global plasma irisin levels were significantly reduced at the end of the study (-72·0 ± 100·9 ng/mL, p < 0·001) accompanying the weight loss (-6·9%). The depletion of irisin significantly correlated with changes in some atherogenic-related variables: total cholesterol (B = 0·106, p = 0·018), total cholesterol/high density lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio (B = 0·002, p = 0·036), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (B = 0·085, p = 0·037) and apolipoprotein B (B = 0·052, p = 0·002), independently of changes in body weight.
An association between the reduction of plasma irisin levels and the depletion of important lipid metabolism biomarkers was observed in patients with MetS undergoing an energy restricted programme. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Context: Late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) has recently been defined as a syndrome in middle-aged and elderly men reporting sexual symptoms in the presence of low T. The natural history of LOH, especially its relationship to mortality, is currently unknown. Objective: The aim of this study was to clarify the associations between LOH, low T, and sexual symptoms with mortality in men. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective data from the European Male Aging Study (EMAS) on 2599 community-dwelling men aged 40'79 years in eight European countries was used for this study. Main Outcome Measure(s): All-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer-related mortality was measured. Results: One hundred forty-seven men died during a median follow-up of 4.3 years. Fifty-five men (2.1%) were identified as having LOH (31 moderate and 24 severe). After adjusting for age, center, body mass index (BMI), current smoking, and poor general health, compared with men without LOH, those with severe LOH had a 5-fold [hazard ratio (HR) 5.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.7, 11.4] higher risk of all-cause mortality. Compared with eugonadal men, the multivariable-adjusted risk of mortality was 2-fold higher in those with T less than 8 nmol/L (irrespective of symptoms; HR 2.3; 95% CI 1.2, 4.2) and 3-fold higher in those with three sexual symptoms (irrespective of serum T; compared with asymptomatic men; HR 3.2; 95% CI 1.8, 5.8). Similar risks were observed for cardiovascular mortality. Conclusions: Severe LOH is associated with substantially higher risks of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, to which both the level of T and the presence of sexual symptoms contribute independently. Detecting low T in men presenting with sexual symptoms offers an opportunity to identify a small subgroup of aging men at particularly high risk of dying.
The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 12/2013; · 6.50 Impact Factor