Adam de la Zerda

Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States

Are you Adam de la Zerda?

Claim your profile

Publications (22)161.16 Total impact

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a powerful imaging modality to visualize tissue structures, with axial image pixel resolution as high as 1.6 um in tissue. However, OCT is intrinsically limited to providing structural information as the OCT contrast is produced by optically scattering tissues. Here we demonstrate gold nanorods (GNRs) injected into the anterior chamber (AC) and cornea of mice eyes can create a significant OCT signal and hence can be used as a contrast agent for in vivo OCT imaging. We show that a low dose of 30 nM of GNRs (13 nm in diameter and 45 nm in length) injected to the AC of mice eyes produced an OCT contrast nearly 50-fold higher than control mice injected with saline. Furthermore, we experimentally estimated the lowest detectable concentration of GNRs in living mice eyes to be as low as 120 pM, representing a significant improvement over conventional optical fluorescence imaging. The high sensitivity and low toxicity of GNRs brings great promise for OCT to uniquely become a high-resolution molecular imaging modality.
    Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 02/2014; · 1.96 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Molecular optical imaging is a widespread technique for interrogating molecular events in living subjects. However, current approaches preclude long-term, continuous measurements in awake, mobile subjects, a strategy crucial in several medical conditions. Consequently, we designed a novel, lightweight miniature biosensor for in vivo continuous optical sensing. The biosensor contains an enclosed vertical-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor laser and an adjacent pair of near-infrared optically filtered detectors. We employed two sensors (dual sensing) to simultaneously interrogate normal and diseased tumor sites. Having established the sensors are precise with phantom and in vivo studies, we performed dual, continuous sensing in tumor (human glioblastoma cells) bearing mice using the targeted molecular probe cRGD-Cy5.5, which targets αVβ3 cell surface integrins in both tumor neovasculature and tumor. The sensors capture the dynamic time-activity curve of the targeted molecular probe. The average tumor to background ratio after signal calibration for cRGD-Cy5.5 injection is approximately 2.43±0.95 at 1 h and 3.64±1.38 at 2 h (N=5 mice), consistent with data obtained with a cooled charge coupled device camera. We conclude that our novel, portable, precise biosensor can be used to evaluate both kinetics and steady state levels of molecular probes in various disease applications.
    Journal of Biomedical Optics 11/2012; 17(11):117004. · 2.88 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Photoacoustic imaging is a unique modality that overcomes to a great extent the resolution and depth limitations of optical imaging while maintaining relatively high contrast. However, since many diseases will not manifest an endogenous photoacoustic contrast, it is essential to develop exogenous photoacoustic contrast agents that can target diseased tissue(s). Here we present a family of novel photoacoustic contrast agents that are based on the binding of small optical dyes to single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT-dye). We synthesized five different SWNT-dye contrast agents using different optical dyes, creating five "flavors" of SWNT-dye nanoparticles. In particular, SWNTs that were coated with either QSY(21) (SWNT-QSY) or indocyanine green (SWNT-ICG) exhibited over 100-times higher photoacoustic contrast in living animals compared to plain SWNTs, leading to subnanomolar sensitivities. We then conjugated the SWNT-dye conjugates with cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp peptides to molecularly target the α(v)β(3) integrin, which is associated with tumor angiogenesis. Intravenous administration of these tumor-targeted imaging agents to tumor-bearing mice showed significantly higher photoacoustic signal in the tumor than in mice injected with the untargeted contrast agent. Finally, we were able to spectrally separate the photoacoustic signals of SWNT-QSY and SWNT-ICG in living animals injected subcutaneously with both particles in the same location, opening the possibility for multiplexing in vivo studies.
    ACS Nano 05/2012; 6(6):4694-701. · 12.06 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The difficulty in delineating brain tumor margins is a major obstacle in the path toward better outcomes for patients with brain tumors. Current imaging methods are often limited by inadequate sensitivity, specificity and spatial resolution. Here we show that a unique triple-modality magnetic resonance imaging-photoacoustic imaging-Raman imaging nanoparticle (termed here MPR nanoparticle) can accurately help delineate the margins of brain tumors in living mice both preoperatively and intraoperatively. The MPRs were detected by all three modalities with at least a picomolar sensitivity both in vitro and in living mice. Intravenous injection of MPRs into glioblastoma-bearing mice led to MPR accumulation and retention by the tumors, with no MPR accumulation in the surrounding healthy tissue, allowing for a noninvasive tumor delineation using all three modalities through the intact skull. Raman imaging allowed for guidance of intraoperative tumor resection, and a histological correlation validated that Raman imaging was accurately delineating the brain tumor margins. This new triple-modality-nanoparticle approach has promise for enabling more accurate brain tumor imaging and resection.
    Nature medicine 04/2012; 18(5):829-34. · 27.14 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Various nanoparticles have raised significant interest over the past decades for their unique physical and optical properties and biological utilities. Here we summarize the vast applications of advanced nanoparticles with a focus on carbon nanotube (CNT)-based or CNT-catalyzed contrast agents for photoacoustic (PA) imaging, cytometry and theranostics applications based on the photothermal (PT) effect. We briefly review the safety and potential toxicity of the PA/PT contrast nanoagents, while showing how the physical properties as well as multiple biological coatings change their toxicity profiles and contrasts. We provide general guidelines needed for the validation of a new molecular imaging agent in living subjects, and exemplify these guidelines with single-walled CNTs targeted to α(v) β(3) , an integrin associated with tumor angiogenesis, and golden carbon nanotubes targeted to LYVE-1, endothelial lymphatic receptors. An extensive review of the potential applications of advanced contrast agents is provided, including imaging of static targets such as tumor angiogenesis receptors, in vivo cytometry of dynamic targets such as circulating tumor cells and nanoparticles in blood, lymph, bones and plants, methods to enhance the PA and PT effects with transient and stationary bubble conjugates, PT/PA Raman imaging and multispectral histology. Finally, theranostic applications are reviewed, including the nanophotothermolysis of individual tumor cells and bacteria with clustered nanoparticles, nanothrombolysis of blood clots, detection and purging metastasis in sentinel lymph nodes, spectral hole burning and multiplex therapy with ultrasharp rainbow nanoparticles.
    Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging 01/2011; 6(5):346-69. · 2.87 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Photoacoustic imaging is an emerging modality that overcomes to a great extent the resolution and depth limitations of optical imaging while maintaining relatively high-contrast. However, since many diseases will not manifest an endogenous photoacoustic contrast, it is essential to develop exogenous photoacoustic contrast agents that can target diseased tissue(s). Here we present a novel photoacoustic contrast agent, Indocyanine Green dye-enhanced single walled carbon nanotube (SWNT-ICG). We conjugated this contrast agent with cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptides to molecularly target the alpha(v)beta(3) integrins, which are associated with tumor angiogenesis. Intravenous administration of this tumor-targeted contrast agent to tumor-bearing mice showed significantly higher photoacoustic signal in the tumor than in mice injected with the untargeted contrast agent. The new contrast agent gave a markedly 300 times higher photoacoustic contrast in living tissues than previously reported SWNTs, leading to subnanomolar sensitivities. Finally, we show that the new contrast agent can detect approximately 20 times fewer cancer cells than previously reported SWNTs.
    Nano Letters 06/2010; 10(6):2168-72. · 13.03 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We developed a photoacoustic ocular imaging device and demonstrated its utility in imaging the deeper layers of the eye including the retina, choroid, and optic nerve. Using safe laser intensity, the photoacoustic system was able to visualize the blood distribution of an enucleated pig's eye and an eye of a living rabbit. Ultrasound images, which were simultaneously acquired, were overlaid on the photoacoustic images to visualize the eye's anatomy. Such a system may be used in the future for early detection and improved management of neovascular ocular diseases, including wet age-related macular degeneration and proliferative diabetic retinopathy.
    Optics Letters 02/2010; 35(3):270-2. · 3.39 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We quantified the performance of time-domain imaging (TDI) and spectral imaging (SI) for fluorescence imaging of quantum dots (QDs) in three distinct imaging instruments: eXplore Optix (TDI, Advanced Research Technologies Inc.), Maestro (SI, CRi Inc.), and IVIS-Spectrum (SI, Caliper Life Sciences Inc.). The instruments were compared for their sensitivity in phantoms and living mice, multiplexing capabilities (ability to resolve the signal of one QD type in the presence of another), and the dependence of contrast and spatial resolution as a function of depth. In phantoms, eXplore Optix had an order of magnitude better sensitivity compared to the SI systems, detecting QD concentrations of ~40 pM in vitro. Maestro was the best instrument for multiplexing QDs. Reduction of contrast and resolution as a function of depth was smallest with eXplore Optix for depth of 2-6 mm, while other depths gave comparable results in all systems. Sensitivity experiments in living mice showed that the eXplore Optix and Maestro systems outperformed the IVIS-Spectrum. TDI was found to be an order of magnitude more sensitive than SI at the expense of speed and very limited multiplexing capabilities. For deep tissue QD imaging, TDI is most applicable for depths between 2 and 6 mm, as its contrast and resolution degrade the least at these depths.
    Molecular imaging and biology: MIB: the official publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging 12/2009; 12(5):500-8. · 2.47 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we describe using a 2-D array of capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) to perform 3-D photoacoustic and acoustic imaging. A tunable optical parametric oscillator laser system that generates nanosecond laser pulses was used to induce the photoacoustic signals. To demonstrate the feasibility of the system, 2 different phantoms were imaged. The first phantom consisted of alternating black and transparent fishing lines of 180 mum and 150 mum diameter, respectively. The second phantom comprised polyethylene tubes, embedded in chicken breast tissue, filled with liquids such as the dye indocyanine green, pig blood, and a mixture of the 2. The tubes were embedded at a depth of 0.8 cm inside the tissue and were at an overall distance of 1.8 cm from the CMUT array. Two-dimensional cross-sectional slices and 3-D volume rendered images of pulse-echo data as well as photoacoustic data are presented. The profile and beamwidths of the fishing line are analyzed and compared with a numerical simulation carried out using the Field II ultrasound simulation software. We investigated using a large aperture (64 x 64 element array) to perform photoacoustic and acoustic imaging by mechanically scanning a smaller CMUT array (16 x 16 elements). Two-dimensional transducer arrays overcome many of the limitations of a mechanically scanned system and enable volumetric imaging. Advantages of CMUT technology for photoacoustic imaging include the ease of integration with electronics, ability to fabricate large, fully populated 2-D arrays with arbitrary geometries, wide-bandwidth arrays and high-frequency arrays. A CMUT based photoacoustic system is proposed as a viable alternative to a piezoelectric transducer based photoacoustic systems.
    IEEE transactions on ultrasonics, ferroelectrics, and frequency control 11/2009; 56(11):2411-9. · 1.80 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To determine the effectiveness of robotic stereotactic radiotherapy with image guidance and real-time respiratory tracking against early stage peripheral lung cancer. We treated patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with CyberKnife and analysed their clinical characteristics and outcomes. All patients had co-morbid conditions that precluded lobectomy. The clinical target volume (CTV) included the gross tumour volume (GTV) and a 6mm margin in all directions to account for microscopic extension. The planning target volume (PTV) equalled CTV+2mm in all directions for uncertainty. Tumour motion was tracked using a combination of Synchrony and Xsight Spine tracking methods with the aid of a single gold marker implanted in the centre of the tumour, or using the newer Xsight Lung method without markers for selected tumours. A 60-67.5 Gy dose was prescribed to the 60-80% isodose line (median 65%) and given in three to five fractions. Patients were followed every 3 months for a median of 27.5 months (range 24-53 months). Of the 67 patients with NSCLC stage IA or IB treated between January 2004 and December 2008, we report the results of a cohort of 31 with peripheral stage I tumours of 0.6-71 cm(3) volume treated between January 2004 and December 2007 with total doses between 60 and 67.5 Gy in three to five fractions. The median D(max) was 88.2 Gy and the median V(95) of the PTV was 99.6% or 27.9 cm(3). No grade 3 or above toxicity was encountered. Four cases of radiation pneumonitis and one case of oesophagitis were observed. In those patients whose pre- and post-treatment results were available, no change in pulmonary function tests was observed. Actuarial local control was 93.2% for 1 year and 85.8% for up to 4.5 years. One-year overall survival was 93.6% and 83.5% for up to 4.5 years, as projected by Kaplan-Meier analyses. In this small cohort of patients with stage I peripheral NSCLC, robotic stereotactic radiotherapy seems to be a safe and obviously superior alternative to conventionally fractionated radiotherapy, with results that may be approaching those obtained with lobectomy without the associated morbidity.
    Clinical Oncology 09/2009; 21(8):623-31. · 2.86 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present a monolithically integrated near-infrared fluorescence sensor incorporating a dielectric emission filter for in vivo applications. We successfully integrated a dielectric emission filter (OD3) onto a low-noise detector and sensed 50nM fluorescent dye concentration.
    Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference; 05/2009
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Photoacoustic imaging of living subjects offers high spatial resolution at increased tissue depths compared to purely optical imaging techniques. We have recently shown that intravenously injected single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) can be used as targeted photoacoustic imaging agents in living mice using RGD peptides to target alphavbeta3 integrins. We have now developed a new targeted photoacoustic imaging agent based on SWNTs and Indocyanine Green (SWNT-ICG) with absorption peak at 780nm. The photoacoustic signal of the new imaging agent is enhanced by ~20 times as compared to plain SWNTs. The particles are synthesized from SWNT-RGD that noncovalently attach to multiple ICG molecules through pi-pi stacking interactions. Negative control particles had RAD peptide instead of RGD. We measured the serum stability of the particles and verified that the RGD/RAD conjugation did not alter the particle's absorbance spectrum. Finally, through cell uptake studies with U87MG cells we verified that the particles bind selectively to alphavbeta3 integrin. In conclusion, the extremely high absorption of the SWNT-ICG particles shows great promise for high sensitivity photoacoustic imaging of molecular targets in-vivo. This work lays the foundations for future in-vivo studies that will use the SWNT-ICG particles as imaging agents administered systemically.
    Proc SPIE 02/2009;
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Photoacoustic molecular imaging is an emerging technology offering non-invasive high resolution imaging of the molecular expressions of a disease using a photoacoustic imaging agent. Here we demonstrate for the first time the utility of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as targeted imaging agents in living mice bearing tumor xenografts. SWNTs were conjugated with polyethylene-glycol-5000 connected to Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide to target the alphavbeta3 integrin that is associated with tumor angiogenesis. In-vitro, we characterized the photoacoustic spectra of the particles, their signal linearity and tested their uptake by alphavbeta3-expressing cells (U87MG). The photoacoustic signal of SWNTs was found not to be affected by the RGD conjugation to the SWNTs and was also found to be highly linear with concentration (R2 = 0.9997 for 25-400nM). The cell uptake studies showed that RGD-targeted SWNTs gave 75% higher photoacoustic signal than non-targeted SWNTs when incubated with U87MG cells. In-vivo, we measured the minimal detectable concentration of SWNTs in living mice by subcutaneously injecting SWNTs at increasing concentrations. The lowest detectable concentration of SWNTs in living mice was found to be 50nM. Finally, we administered RGDtargeted and non-targeted SWNTs via the tail-vein to U87MG tumor-bearing mice (n=4 for each group) and measured the signal from the tumor before and up to 4 hours post-injection. At 4 hours post-injection, tumors of mice injected with RGD-targeted SWNTs showed 8 times higher photoacoustic signal compared with mice injected with non-targeted SWNTs. These results were verified ex-vivo using a Raman microscope that is sensitive to the SWNTs Raman signal.
    Proc SPIE 02/2009;
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present the design and fabrication of an implantable fluorescence biosensor suitable for continuously monitored, freely-moving in vivo rodent studies. The GaAs-based semiconductor sensor incorporates an un-cooled photodetector with a 670nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) optimized for sensing fluorescent Cy5.5 dye. For filtering unwanted spectra, a combination of physical and spectral blocking layers yields OD5 excitation rejection at the detector. The sensor detects near-IR fluorescent Cy5.5 molecules in vitro at 100nM concentration (in a 100muL volume) with linear response for concentrations up to 25muM. In a preliminary study in a living mouse, subcutaneously injected dye (1muM Cy5.5 in 50muL) was detected. This technology has the potential to enable new studies of living systems in applications that require long-term, continuous fluorescence sensing.
    Optical Fibers and Sensors for Medical Diagnostics and Treatment Applications IX; 02/2009
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Photoacoustic imaging of living subjects offers higher spatial resolution and allows deeper tissues to be imaged compared with most optical imaging techniques. As many diseases do not exhibit a natural photoacoustic contrast, especially in their early stages, it is necessary to administer a photoacoustic contrast agent. A number of contrast agents for photoacoustic imaging have been suggested previously, but most were not shown to target a diseased site in living subjects. Here we show that single-walled carbon nanotubes conjugated with cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptides can be used as a contrast agent for photoacoustic imaging of tumours. Intravenous administration of these targeted nanotubes to mice bearing tumours showed eight times greater photoacoustic signal in the tumour than mice injected with non-targeted nanotubes. These results were verified ex vivo using Raman microscopy. Photoacoustic imaging of targeted single-walled carbon nanotubes may contribute to non-invasive cancer imaging and monitoring of nanotherapeutics in living subjects.
    Nature Nanotechnology 10/2008; 3(9):557-62. · 31.17 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: An optimized noninvasive Raman microscope was used to evaluate tumor targeting and localization of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in mice. Raman images were acquired in two groups of tumor-bearing mice. The control group received plain-SWNTs, whereas the experimental group received tumor targeting RGD-SWNTs intravenously. Raman imaging commenced over the next 72 h and revealed increased accumulation of RGD-SWNTs in tumor ( p < 0.05) as opposed to plain-SWNTs. These results support the development of a new preclinical Raman imager.
    Nano Letters 10/2008; 8(9):2800-5. · 13.03 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Molecular imaging of living subjects continues to rapidly evolve with bioluminescence and fluorescence strategies, in particular being frequently used for small-animal models. This article presents noninvasive deep-tissue molecular images in a living subject with the use of Raman spectroscopy. We describe a strategy for small-animal optical imaging based on Raman spectroscopy and Raman nanoparticles. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoparticles and single-wall carbon nanotubes were used to demonstrate whole-body Raman imaging, nanoparticle pharmacokinetics, multiplexing, and in vivo tumor targeting, using an imaging system adapted for small-animal Raman imaging. The imaging modality reported here holds significant potential as a strategy for biomedical imaging of living subjects.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 05/2008; 105(15):5844-9. · 9.74 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A scanning acoustic and photoacoustic microscope is demonstrated. The laser illumination and ultrasound detection in the system are co-axial. Pulsed light from a tunable optical parametric oscillator (OPO) laser is delivered to the scan tank via optical fiber. Multiple acoustic transducers with center frequencies varying from 5 MHz to 25 MHz are utilized. Images of a pig kidney (ex vivo) and a microcalcification phantom (eggshells embedded in agarose) are shown.
    Ultrasonics Symposium, 2007. IEEE; 12/2007
  • Adam de la Zerda, Sanjiv S Gambhir
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Combining the optical properties of quantum dots with the ability of carbon nanotubes to carry pharmaceutical cargos could prove highly beneficial in the field of drug delivery.
    Nature Nanotechnology 12/2007; 2(12):745-6. · 31.17 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Adam de la Zerda, Benjamin Armbruster, Lei Xing
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: While ART has been studied for years, the specific quantitative implementation details have not. In order for this new scheme of radiation therapy (RT) to reach its potential, an effective ART treatment planning strategy capable of taking into account the dose delivery history and the patient's on-treatment geometric model must be in place. This paper performs a theoretical study of dynamic closed-loop control algorithms for ART and compares their utility with data from phantom and clinical cases. We developed two classes of algorithms: those Adapting to Changing Geometry and those Adapting to Geometry and Delivered Dose. The former class takes into account organ deformations found just before treatment. The latter class optimizes the dose distribution accumulated over the entire course of treatment by adapting at each fraction, not only to the information just before treatment about organ deformations but also to the dose delivery history. We showcase two algorithms in the class of those Adapting to Geometry and Delivered Dose. A comparison of the approaches indicates that certain closed-loop ART algorithms may significantly improve the current practice. We anticipate that improvements in imaging, dose verification and reporting will further increase the importance of adaptive algorithms.
    Physics in Medicine and Biology 08/2007; 52(14):4137-53. · 2.70 Impact Factor