Lewis H Kuller

University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States

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Publications (1000)6600.22 Total impact

  • Rachel H. Mackey, Lewis H. Kuller
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 06/2015; 65(23). DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2015.03.574 · 15.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To understand the incidence and persistence of severe obesity (>1.2x 95th BMI percentile-for-age) in girls across the transition to adolescence, and map developmental trajectories of adolescent severe obesity in a high-risk sample.
    06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jcte.2015.04.001
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    ABSTRACT: This report evaluates incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality over 10 years among the >160,000 postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) in relation to self-reported RA, disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARD) use, anti-CCP+, RF+, CVD risk factors, joint pain, and inflammation (white blood cell (WBC) count and IL-6.) Methods: Anti-CCP and RF were measured on a sample (n=9,988) of WHI participants with self-reported RA. RA was classified as self-reported RA plus anti-CCP+ positivity and/or use of DMARDs. Self-reported RA that was both anti-CCP- and DMARD- was classified as "unverified RA." Age-adjusted rates of coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, CVD, fatal CVD and total mortality were higher for women with RA vs. no RA, with multivariable-adjusted HR(95%CI) of 1.46(1.17, 1.83) for CHD, and 2.55(1.86, 3.51) for fatal CVD. Within RA, anti-CCP+ and RF+ were not significantly associated with higher risk of any outcomes, despite slightly higher risk of fatal CVD and death for anti-CCP+ vs. anti-CCP- RA. Joint pain severity and CVD risk factors were strongly associated with CVD risk, even for women with no RA. CVD incidence was increased for RA vs. no RA at almost all risk factor levels, except low levels of joint pain or inflammation. Within RA, inflammation was more strongly associated with fatal CVD and total mortality than CHD or CVD. Among postmenopausal women, RA was associated with 1.5-2.5 higher CVD risk, strongly associated with CV risk factors, joint pain severity, and inflammation, but similar for anti-CCP+ and RF+. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2015, American College of Rheumatology.
    05/2015; DOI:10.1002/art.39198
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    ABSTRACT: Given conflicting data regarding the association of HIV infection and ischemic stroke risk, we sought to determine whether HIV infection conferred an increased ischemic stroke risk among male veterans. The Veterans Aging Cohort Study-Virtual Cohort consists of HIV-infected and uninfected veterans in care matched (1:2) for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and clinical site. We analyzed data on 76,835 male participants in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study-Virtual Cohort who were free of baseline cardiovascular disease. We assessed demographics, ischemic stroke risk factors, comorbid diseases, substance use, HIV biomarkers, and incidence of ischemic stroke from October 1, 2003, to December 31, 2009. During a median follow-up period of 5.9 (interquartile range 3.5-6.6) years, there were 910 stroke events (37.4% HIV-infected). Ischemic stroke rates per 1,000 person-years were higher for HIV-infected (2.79, 95% confidence interval 2.51-3.10) than for uninfected veterans (2.24 [2.06-2.43]) (incidence rate ratio 1.25 [1.09-1.43]; p < 0.01). After adjusting for demographics, ischemic stroke risk factors, comorbid diseases, and substance use, the risk of ischemic stroke was higher among male veterans with HIV infection compared with uninfected veterans (hazard ratio 1.17 [1.01-1.36]; p = 0.04). HIV infection is associated with an increased ischemic stroke risk among HIV-infected compared with demographically and behaviorally similar uninfected male veterans. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.
    Neurology 04/2015; 84(19). DOI:10.1212/WNL.0000000000001560 · 8.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) is a simple and reproducible measure of arterial stiffness and is extensively used to assess cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in eastern Asia. We examined whether baPWV is associated with coronary atherosclerosis in an international study of healthy middle-aged men. A population-based sample of 1131 men aged 40-49years was recruited - 257 Whites and 75 Blacks in Pittsburgh, US, 228 Japanese-Americans in Honolulu, US, 292 Japanese in Otsu, Japan, and 279 Koreans in Ansan, Korea. baPWV was measured with an automated waveform analyzer (VP2000, Omron) and atherosclerosis was examined as coronary artery calcification (CAC) by computed-tomography (GE-Imatron EBT scanner). Association of the presence of CAC (defined as ≥10Agatston unit) was examined with continuous measure as well as with increasing quartiles of baPWV. As compared to the lowest quartile of baPWV, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (95% Confidence Interval [CI]) for the presence of CAC in the combined sample was 1.70 (0.98, 2.94) for 2nd quartile, 1.88 (1.08, 3.28) for 3rd quartile, and 2.16 (1.19, 3.94) for 4th quartile (p-trend=0.01). The odds for CAC increased by 19% per 100cm/s increase (p<0.01), or by 36% per standard-deviation increase (p<0.01) in baPWV. Similar effect-sizes were observed in individual races, and were significant among Whites, Blacks and Koreans. baPWV is cross-sectionally associated with CAC among healthy middle-aged men. The association was significant in Whites and Blacks in the US, and among Koreans. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine its CVD predictive ability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    International journal of cardiology 04/2015; 189:67-72. DOI:10.1016/j.ijcard.2015.04.020 · 6.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We hypothesized that higher concentrations of LDL particles (LDL-P) and leptin, and lower concentrations of HDL particles (HDL-P), and total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin, would predict incident coronary heart disease (CHD) among severely obese postmenopausal women. In a case-cohort study nested in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study, we sampled 677 of the 1852 white or black women with body mass index (BMI) ≥40 kg/m(2) and no prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD), including all 124 cases of incident CHD over mean 5.0 year follow-up. Biomarkers were assayed on stored blood samples. In multivariable-adjusted weighted Cox models, higher baseline levels of total and small LDL-P, and lower levels of total and medium HDL-P, and smaller mean HDL-P size were significantly associated with incident CHD. In contrast, large HDL-P levels were inversely associated with CHD only for women without diabetes, and higher total and HMW adiponectin levels and lower leptin levels were associated with CHD only for women with diabetes. Higher total LDL-P and lower HDL-P were associated with CHD risk independently of confounders including CV risk factors and other lipoprotein measures, with adjusted HR (95%CIs) of 1.55(1.28, 1.88) and (0.70 (0.57, 0.85), respectively, and similar results for medium HDL-P. Higher CHD risk among severely obese postmenopausal women is strongly associated with modifiable concentrations of LDL-P and HDL-P, independent of diabetes, smoking, hypertension, physical activity, BMI and waist circumference. Severely obese postmenopausal women should be considered high risk candidates for lipid lowering therapy.
    03/2015; 120. DOI:10.1016/j.bbacli.2015.03.005
  • Akira Sekikawa, Margaret F Doyle, Lewis H Kuller
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    ABSTRACT: Recent long-term randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3 PUFAs) on coronary heart disease (CHD) among high-risk patients conducted in Western countries all failed to show their clinical benefits. In striking contrast, an RCT of LCn-3 PUFAs on CHD conducted in Japan, which is a combination of secondary and primary prevention, showed a significant 19% reduction. Potential reasons for this discrepancy are large differences in doses of LCn-3 PUFAs administered (300-900mg/day in Western countries vs. 1800 mg/day in Japan) and background dietary intake of LCn-3 PUFAs (<300mg/day in Western countries vs. >1000mg/day in Japan). These observations suggest that higher doses of LCn-3 PUFAs than examined in RCTs in Western countries may be cardio-protective. Atherosclerosis is the major underlying cause of CHD. Recent observational studies and an RCT of LCn-3 PUFAs on atherosclerosis in Japan show that LCn-3 PUFAs are anti-atherogenic. In this brief review, we focus on recent epidemiological and clinical findings of LCn-3 PUFAs on atherosclerosis and CHD, contrasting studies in Western countries to those in Japan. We also discuss mechanisms of high-dose LCn-3 PUFAs on atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Trends in cardiovascular medicine 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.tcm.2015.03.001 · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to identify, at the voxel level, brain regions associated with the time to develop mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or Alzheimer's disease (AD) from normal cognition. We analyzed incident MCI (n = 58) or AD (n = 151) in 292 cognitively normal participants in the Cardiovascular Health Study-Cognition Study (mean age = 79.2 ± 3.6 years). We used segmented, modulated grey matter maps from 3D (spoiled gradient echo) MRI scans obtained in 1998/99 (with clinical follow-up through 2012) that were smoothed with a 3-D 4 mm Gaussian filter. We fit approximately 1.92 million voxel-level Cox proportional hazard models to examine the grey matter volume effect on time to event, adjusting for age, sex, and diabetes. We used the significance threshold of p < 0.005 with contiguity threshold of at least 68 voxels (false detection probability <2.5 × 10-8). Areas within the mesial temporal lobe (MTL), anterior temporal lobe, hippocampus, and posterior cingulate gyrus were associated with time to MCI or AD. The presence of white matter lesions (a marker of small vessel disease in the brain) was associated with the volumes of the MTL and precuneus; MRI-identified infarcts also predicted MTL volume. These findings are important because we identified critical brain regions that predict a person's increased likelihood of developing MCI or AD over a decade prior to the onset of clinical symptoms; these critical brain regions were themselves affected by the presence of vascular disease.
    Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 02/2015; 46(1). DOI:10.3233/JAD-150047 · 4.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We study regularized estimation in high-dimensional longitudinal classification problems, using the lasso and fused lasso regularizers. The constructed coefficient estimates are piecewise constant across the time dimension in the longitudinal problem, with adaptively selected change points (break points). We present an efficient algorithm for computing such estimates, based on proximal gradient descent. We apply our proposed technique to a longitudinal data set on Alzheimer's disease from the Cardiovascular Health Study Cognition Study, and use this data set to motivate and demonstrate several practical considerations such as the selection of tuning parameters, and the assessment of model stability.
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    ABSTRACT: Human Immunodeficiency Virus- (HIV-) infected persons have a higher risk for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) than HIV-uninfected persons. Earlier studies suggest that HIV viral load, CD4(+) T-cell count, and antiretroviral therapy are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Whether CD8(+) T-cell count is associated with CVD risk is not clear. We investigated the association between CD8(+) T-cell count and incident AMI in a cohort of 73,398 people (of which 97.3% were men) enrolled in the U.S. Veterans Aging Cohort Study-Virtual Cohort (VACS-VC). Compared to uninfected people, HIV-infected people with high baseline CD8(+) T-cell counts (>1065 cells/mm(3)) had increased AMI risk (adjusted HR = 1.82, P < 0.001, 95% CI: 1.46 to 2.28). There was evidence that the effect of CD8(+) T-cell tertiles on AMI risk differed by CD4(+) T-cell level: compared to uninfected people, HIV-infected people with CD4(+) T-cell counts ≥200 cells/mm(3) had increased AMI risk with high CD8(+) T-cell count, while those with CD4(+) T-cell counts <200 cells/mm(3) had increased AMI risk with low CD8(+) T-cell count. CD8(+) T-cell counts may add additional AMI risk stratification information beyond that provided by CD4(+) T-cell counts alone.
    BioMed Research International 01/2015; 2015:246870. DOI:10.1155/2015/246870 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background C-reactive protein (CRP) and many fatty acids (FAs) have been linked to cardiovascular disease. Associations of serum CRP with FAs in different populations have not been established. Methods Participants were 926 men aged 40-49 (2002-2006) from a population-based sample; 310 Whites from Pennsylvania, U.S., 313 Japanese from Shiga, Japan, and 303 Japanese Americans from Hawaii, U.S. Serum CRP (mg/L) was measured using immunosorbent assay while serum FAs (%) were measured using capillary-gas-liquid chromatography. Results Whites had CRP (mg/L) levels higher than Japanese with Japanese Americans in-between (age-adjusted geometric mean “GM” 0.96, 0.38, 0.66, respectively). Whites had also higher levels of total n-6 FAs (%) and trans fatty acids (TFAs) but lower levels of marine-derived n-3 FAs compared to Japanese (41.78 vs. 35.05, 1.04 vs. 0.58, & 3.85 vs. 9.29, respectively). Japanese Americans had FAs levels in-between the other two populations. Whites had significant inverse trends between CRP and tertiles of total n-6 FAs (GM 1.20, 0.91 & 0.80; p=0.002) and marine-derived n-3 FAs (GM 1.22, 1.00 & 0.72; p Conclusions With the exception of consistent inverse association of CRP with total n-6 FAs, there are considerable variations across the three populations in the associations of CRP with different FAs.
    The Journal of Nutrition Health and Aging 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12603-015-0551-7 · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: To examine whether the inflammatory markers C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen are associated with biomarkers of atherosclerosis [carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and coronary artery calcification (CAC)] in the general male population, including Asians.Methods: Population-based samples of 310 Japanese, 293 Japanese-American and 297 white men 40-49 years of age without clinical cardiovascular disease underwent measurement of IMT, CAC and the CRP and fibrinogen levels as well as other conventional risk factors using standardized methods. Statistical associations between the variables were evaluated using multiple linear or logistic regression models.Results: The Japanese group had significantly lower levels of inflammatory markers and subclinical atherosclerosis than the Japanese-American and white groups (P-values all <0.001). The mean level of CRP was 0.66 vs. 1.11 and 1.47 mg/L, while that of fibrinogen was 255.0 vs. 313.0 and 291.5 mg/dl, respectively. In addition, the mean carotid IMT was 0.61 vs. 0.73 and 0.68 mm, while the mean prevalence of CAC was 11.6% vs. 32.1% and 26.3%, respectively. Body mass index (BMI) showed significant positive associations with both the CRP and fibrinogen levels. Although CRP showed a significant positive association with IMT in the Japanese men, this association became non-significant following adjustment for traditional risk factors or BMI. In all three populations, CRP was not found to be significantly associated with the prevalence of CAC. Similarly, fibrinogen did not exhibit a significant association with either IMT or the prevalence of CAC.Conclusions: The associations between inflammatory markers and subclinical atherosclerosis may merely reflect the strong associations between BMI and the levels of inflammatory markers and incidence of subclinical atherosclerosis in both Eastern and Western populations.
    Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis 11/2014; 22(6). DOI:10.5551/jat.23580 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aims/hypothesis At the same level of BMI, white people have less visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and are less susceptible to developing type 2 diabetes than Japanese people. No previous population-based studies have compared insulin resistance and insulin secretion between these two races in a standardised manner that accounts for VAT. We compared HOMA-IR, HOMA of beta cell function (HOMA-β%) and disposition index (DI) in US white men and Japanese men in Japan. Methods We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study, comprising 298 white men and 294 Japanese men aged 40–49 years without diabetes. Insulin, glucose, VAT and other measurements were performed at the University of Pittsburgh. We used ANCOVA to compare geometric means of HOMA-IR, HOMA-β% and DI, adjusting for VAT and other covariates. Results White men had higher HOMA-IR, HOMA-β% and DI than Japanese men, and the difference remained significant (p Conclusions/interpretation The higher VAT-adjusted DI in white men than Japanese men may partly explain lower susceptibility of white people than Japanese people to developing type 2 diabetes. The results, however, should be interpreted with caution because the assessment of insulin indices was made using fasting samples and adjustment was not made for baseline glucose tolerance. Further studies using formal methods to evaluate insulin indices are warranted.
    Diabetologia 10/2014; 58(2). DOI:10.1007/s00125-014-3414-6 · 6.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To examine the association between brain structural changes and b-amyloid deposition, and incident dementia in 183 elderly subjects without dementia (mean age 85.5 years) 2 years later. Methods: Subjects had a brain structural MRI scan and a PET scan with 11C-labeled Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) in 2009, and were evaluated clinically in 2011. Results: At baseline evaluation, of the 183 participants (146 cognitively normal [CN]); 37 mild cognitive impairment [MCI]), 139 (76%) were PiB1, had small hippocampal volume (,25th percentile), or had high white matter lesion (WML) volume (.75th percentile). Two years later, 111 (61%) were classified as CN, 51 (28%) as MCI, and 21 (11%) as dementia. At baseline, 51% of the CN participants and 67.5% of the MCI cases were PiB1. Thirty percent of the CN and 51% of the MCI cases had small hippocampi, and 24% of the CN and 40.5% of the MCI cases had abnormal WMLs. Of the 21 participants who progressed to dementia, 20 (95%) had at least one imaging abnormality. Only 3 (14%) were only PiB1, 1 (5%) had only small hippocampi, 1 (5%) had only WMLs, 1 (5%) was biomarker negative, and the other 16 had various pairs of imaging abnormalities. Continuous variables of PiB retention, left and right hippocampal volume, and WML volume were independent predictors of dementia in a logistic regression analysis controlling for age, sex, education level, and Mini-Mental State Examination scores. Conclusions: The prevalence of b-amyloid deposition, neurodegeneration (i.e., hippocampal atrophy), and small vessel disease (WMLs) is high in CN older individuals and in MCI. A combination of 2 or 3 of these factors is a powerful predictor of short-term incidence of dementia.
    Neurology 10/2014; 83(20). DOI:10.1212/WNL.0000000000000977 · 8.30 Impact Factor
  • Lewis H. Kuller, Oscar L. Lopez
    Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports 10/2014; 8(10). DOI:10.1007/s12170-014-0401-x
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) low fat (20% kcal) diet modification (DM) trial (1993-2005) demonstrated a non-significant reduction in breast cancer, a nominally significant reduction in ovarian cancer and no effect on other cancers (mean 8.3 years intervention). Consent to non-intervention follow-up was 83% (n=37,858). This analysis was designed to assess post-intervention cancer risk in women randomized to the low-fat diet (40%) versus usual diet comparison (60%). Methods: Randomized, controlled low fat diet intervention for prevention of breast and colorectal cancers conducted in 48,835 postmenopausal U.S. women, aged 50-79 years at 40 U.S. sites. Outcomes included total invasive cancer, breast and colorectal cancer, cancer-specific and overall mortality. Results: There were no intervention effects on invasive breast 1.08 (0.94, 1.24) or colorectal cancer, other cancers, cancer-specific or overall mortality during the post-intervention period or the combined intervention and follow-up periods. For invasive breast cancer, the HRs were 0.92 (0.84, 1.01) during intervention, during the post-intervention period, and 0.97 (0.89, 1.05) during cumulative follow up. A reduced risk for estrogen receptor positive/progesterone receptor negative tumors was demonstrated during follow-up. Women with higher baseline fat intake (quartile), point estimates of breast cancer risk were HR-0.76; 0.62, 0.92 during intervention versus HR-1.11; 0.84, 1.4 during post-intervention follow-up (p-diff=.03). Conclusions: Dietary fat intake rose post-intervention in intervention women; no long-term reduction in cancer risk or mortality was shown in the WHI DM trial. Impact: Dietary advisement to reduce fat for cancer prevention after menopause generally was not supported by the WHI DM trial.
    Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 09/2014; 23(12). DOI:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-14-0922 · 4.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is a paucity of literature describing metabolic and histological data in adult-onset autoimmune diabetes. This subgroup of diabetes mellitus affects at least 5% of clinically diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients (T2DM) and it is termed Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA). We evaluated indexes of insulin secretion, metabolic assessment, and pancreatic pathology in clinically diagnosed T2DM patients with and without the presence of humoral islet autoimmunity (Ab). A total of 18 patients with at least 5-year duration of clinically diagnosed T2DM were evaluated in this study. In those subjects we assessed acute insulin responses to arginine, a glucose clamp study, whole-body fat mass and fat-free mass. We have also analyzed the pancreatic pathology of 15 T2DM and 43 control cadaveric donors, using pancreatic tissue obtained from all the T2DM organ donors available from the nPOD network through December 31, 2013. The presence of islet Ab correlated with severely impaired β-cell function as demonstrated by remarkably low acute insulin response to arginine (AIR) when compared to that of the Ab negative group. Glucose clamp studies indicated that both Ab positive and Ab negative patients exhibited peripheral insulin resistance in a similar fashion. Pathology data from T2DM donors with Ab or the autoimmune diabetes associated DR3/DR4 allelic class II combination showed reduction in beta cell mass as well as presence of autoimmune-associated pattern A pathology in subjects with either islet autoantibodies or the DR3/DR4 genotype. In conclusion, we provide compelling evidence indicating that islet Ab positive long-term T2DM patients exhibit profound impairment of insulin secretion as well as reduced beta cell mass seemingly determined by an immune-mediated injury of pancreatic β-cells. Deciphering the mechanisms underlying beta cell destruction in this subset of diabetic patients may lead to the development of novel immunologic therapies aimed at halting the disease progression in its early stage.
    PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e106537. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0106537 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cerebral white matter lesions (WMLs) are considered a reflection of cerebral and systemic small vessel disease (SVD), and are associated with reductions in brain volume. Like the brain, the kidney is also sensitive to factors that affect vasculature. Glomerular dysfunction due to renal vascular damage can be measured with different biochemical parameters, such as creatinine or cystatin C, although cystatin C is considered to be more accurate than creatinine in the elderly. The purpose of the study was to determine whether manifestations of SVD in the kidney can predict SVD-based damage to the brain. We examined the relationship between glomerular dysfunction as a measure of SVD on WMLs, gray matter (GM) volume, and cognition in 735 cognitively normal participants from the Cardiovascular Health Study Cognition Study. The multivariate analyses controlled for demographic characteristics, hypertension, heart disease, diabetes, Apolipoprotein 4 allele, C reactive protein, lipids, physical activity, smoking, and body mass index (BMI). Elevated cystatin C levels were associated with lower neuropsychological test scores, the presence of MRI-identified brain infarcts, the severity of WMLs, and GM atrophy five years later. In adjusted models, GM volume was significantly associated with cystatin-C only until BMI and severity of WMLs were added to the model, meaning that the effect of SVD on GM volume is mediated by these two variables. These findings suggest that age-related SVD is a process that leads to altered brain structure, and creates a vulnerability state for cognitive decline.
    Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 09/2014; 44(1). DOI:10.3233/JAD-141077 · 4.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to use a novel imaging biomarker to assess associations between physical activity (PA), body mass index (BMI), and brain structure in normal aging, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's dementia. We studied 963 participants (mean age: 74.1 ± 4.4 years) from the multisite Cardiovascular Health Study including healthy controls (n = 724), Alzheimer's dementia patients (n = 104), and people with mild cognitive impairment (n = 135). Volumetric brain images were processed using tensor-based morphometry to analyze regional brain volumes. We regressed the local brain tissue volume on reported PA and computed BMI, and performed conjunction analyses using both variables. Covariates included age, sex, and study site. PA was independently associated with greater whole brain and regional brain volumes and reduced ventricular dilation. People with higher BMI had lower whole brain and regional brain volumes. A PA-BMI conjunction analysis showed brain preservation with PA and volume loss with increased BMI in overlapping brain regions. In one of the largest voxel-based cross-sectional studies to date, PA and lower BMI may be beneficial to the brain across the spectrum of aging and neurodegeneration.
    Neurobiology of Aging 08/2014; 36. DOI:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2014.05.036 · 4.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Objectives:Higher volumes of ectopic cardiovascular fat (ECF) are associated with greater risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Identifying factors that are associated with ECF volumes may lead to new preventive efforts to reduce risk of CHD. Significant racial/ethnic differences exist for overall and central adiposity measures which are known to be associated with ECF volumes. Whether racial/ethnic differences also exist for ECF volumes and their associations with these adiposity measures remain unclear.Subjects/Methods:Body-mass index (BMI), CT-measured ECF volumes (epicardial, pericardial and their summation), and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) were examined in a community-based sample of 1,199 middle-aged men (24.2% Caucasians, 7.0% African-Americans, 23.6% Japanese-Americans, 22.0% Japanese, 23.2% Koreans).Results:Significant racial/ethnic differences existed in ECF volumes and their relationships with BMI and VAT. ECF volumes were highest among Japanese-Americans and lowest among African-Americans. The associations of BMI and VAT with ECF differed by racial/ethnic groups. Compared to Caucasians, for each 1-unit increase in BMI, African-Americans had lower whereas Koreans had higher increases in ECF volumes (P-values<0.05 for both). Meanwhile, compared to Caucasians, for each 1-unit increase in log-transformed-VAT, African-Americans, Japanese-Americans and Japanese had similar increases, whereas Koreans had a lower increase in ECF volumes (P-value<0.05).Conclusions:Racial/ethnic groups differed in their propensity to accumulate ECF at increasing level of overall and central adiposity. Future studies should evaluate whether reducing central adiposity or overall-weight will decrease ECF volumes more in certain racial/ethnic groups. Evaluating these questions might help in designing race-specific prevention strategy of CHD risk associated with higher ECF.International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 11 August 2014; doi:10.1038/ijo.2014.154.
    International journal of obesity (2005) 08/2014; 39(3). DOI:10.1038/ijo.2014.154 · 5.39 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

51k Citations
6,600.22 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1975–2015
    • University of Pittsburgh
      • • Graduate School of Public Health
      • • Department of Epidemiology
      • • Division of Cardiology
      • • Department of Medicine
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2013
    • Wake Forest University
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States
  • 2011
    • University of Texas Health Science Center at Tyler
      Tyler, Texas, United States
    • Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
      • Division of Public Health Sciences
      Seattle, Washington, United States
    • Weill Cornell Medical College
      • Department of Medicine
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2010
    • Medical University of South Carolina
      • Department of Medicine
      Charleston, South Carolina, United States
  • 1998–2010
    • University of Minnesota Duluth
      Duluth, Minnesota, United States
  • 2007–2009
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Epidemiology
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      North Carolina, United States
    • University of California, Davis
      • Center for Neuroscience
      Davis, CA, United States
  • 1997–2009
    • University of Vermont
      • Department of Pathology
      Burlington, VT, United States
    • Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Hospital
      Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States
  • 2008
    • Tufts University
      • Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging
      Georgia, United States
    • George Washington University
      • Department of Medicine
      Washington, D. C., DC, United States
  • 2003–2007
    • University of Helsinki
      • Department of Psychology
      Helsinki, Province of Southern Finland, Finland
    • San Diego State University
      San Diego, California, United States
    • Philadelphia University
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
    • Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
      • Division of General Medicine and Primary Care
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2006
    • VU University Amsterdam
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
    • University at Buffalo, The State University of New York
      • Department of Social and Preventive Medicine
      Buffalo, NY, United States
  • 1973–2006
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Medicine
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2005
    • University of Bristol
      Bristol, England, United Kingdom
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2004
    • Saint Louis University
      Сент-Луис, Michigan, United States
    • New England Baptist Hospital
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2000–2004
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Department of Medicine
      Seattle, Washington, United States
    • Swedish Medical Center Seattle
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 1988–2001
    • Pennsylvania Department of Health
      Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1999
    • North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services
      Raleigh, North Carolina, United States
  • 1991–1997
    • Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1996
    • University of Benin Teaching Hospital
      Benim, Edo, Nigeria
    • The University of Arizona
      Tucson, Arizona, United States
  • 1994–1996
    • University of Alabama at Birmingham
      • Department of Medicine
      Birmingham, Alabama, United States
    • Karolinska Institutet
      • Department of Hematology
      Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden
    • University of Melbourne
      • Department of Ophthalmology
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 1995
    • UPMC
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1994–1995
    • University of Benin
      • Department of Community Health
      Benim, Edo, Nigeria
  • 1993
    • Allegheny General Hospital
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
    • University of Tennessee
      • Department of Preventive Medicine
      Knoxville, Tennessee, United States
  • 1982–1992
    • Childrens Hospital of Pittsburgh
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1990
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Office of Disease Prevention
      Bethesda, MD, United States
  • 1986
    • Georgia Health Sciences University
      • Department of Medicine
      Augusta, Georgia, United States
  • 1984
    • Rutgers New Jersey Medical School
      • Department of Medicine
      Newark, New Jersey, United States