P Lakatos

Semmelweis University, Budapeŝto, Budapest, Hungary

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Publications (280)906.42 Total impact

  • Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 04/2014; 39(7):743-4. · 4.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Crohn's disease (CD) is a multifactorial potentially debilitating disease. It has a variable disease course, but the majority of patients eventually develop penetrating or stricturing complications leading to repeated surgeries and disability. Studies on the natural history of CD provide invaluable data on its course and clinical predictors, and may help to identify patient subsets based on clinical phenotype. Most data are available from referral centers, however these outcomes may be different from those in population-based cohorts. New data suggest the possibility of a change in the natural history in Crohn's disease, with an increasing percentage of patients diagnosed with inflammatory disease behavior. Hospitalization rates remain high, while surgery rates seem to have decreased in the last decade. In addition, mortality rates still exceed that of the general population. The impact of changes in treatment strategy, including increased, earlier use of immunosuppressives, biological therapy, and patient monitoring on the natural history of the disease are still conflictive. In this review article, the authors summarize the available evidence on the natural history, current trends, and predictive factors for evaluating the disease course of CD.
    World Journal of Gastroenterology 03/2014; 20(12):3198-3207. · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fibrogenesis imperfecta is an extremely rare acquired progressive bone disorder of unknown etiology. In its course, normal bone architecture is replaced at sites by structurally unsound collagen-deficient tissue resulting in a disorganized bone structure and a skeleton that is radically susceptible to deformity and fracture. Herein, we report the case of a patient who had experienced constant bone pain and several spontaneous fractures since 1997. In 10 years' time with the sole exception of his skull, the disease affected the entire skeleton causing a significant decrease in height and progressive disablement. Laboratory findings included elevation of serum alkaline phosphatase and C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen, with normal serum calcium, phosphate, 25-hydroxy-vitamin-D, and parathyroid hormone concentrations. Monoclonal gammopathy was present with no pathological plasma cells in bone marrow. Radiological and histological results were inconclusive suggesting either osteoporosis, osteomalacia, or Paget's disease and later on osteosclerosis. Treatment administered for the abovementioned conditions has proven to be of no effect. The findings eventually raised the possibility of fibrogenesis imperfecta ossium, which was confirmed by polarized light microscopy as well as transmission electron microscopy. The suggested therapy for the disease is melphalan that could not be initiated due to legal restrictions. Steroid monotherapy also reported to be moderately successful in one case resulted in no improvement. Paraproteinemia had been suggested not only to be a characteristic feature but also a possible etiological factor in this condition. In 2012, plasmapheresis was initiated monthly at the beginning, later on biweekly. In response, the patient's symptoms improved dramatically supporting the abovementioned theory.
    Osteoporosis International 03/2014; · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Innate and adaptive immune dysfunction, also referred to as cirrhosis-associated immune dysfunction syndrome, is a major component of cirrhosis, and plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of both the acute and chronic worsening of liver function. During the evolution of the disease, acute decompensation events associated with organ failure(s), so-called acute-on chronic liver failure, and chronic decompensation with progression of liver fibrosis and also development of disease specific complications, comprise distinct clinical entities with different immunopathology mechanisms. Enhanced bacterial translocation associated with systemic endotoxemia and increased occurrence of systemic bacterial infections have substantial impacts on both clinical situations. Acute and chronic exposure to bacteria and/or their products, however, can result in variable clinical consequences. The immune status of patients is not constant during the illness; consequently, alterations of the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory processes result in very different dynamic courses. In this review we give a detailed overview of acquired immune dysfunction and its consequences for cirrhosis. We demonstrate the substantial influence of inherited innate immune dysfunction on acute and chronic inflammatory processes in cirrhosis caused by the pre-existing acquired immune dysfunction with limited compensatory mechanisms. Moreover, we highlight the current facts and future perspectives of how the assessment of immune dysfunction can assist clinicians in everyday practical decision-making when establishing treatment and care strategies for the patients with end-stage liver disease. Early and efficient recognition of inappropriate performance of the immune system is essential for overcoming complications, delaying progression and reducing mortality.
    World Journal of Gastroenterology 03/2014; 20(10):2564-2577. · 2.55 Impact Factor
  • Peter L Lakatos, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet
    Gastroenterology 01/2014; · 12.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Limited data are available on paediatric inflammatory bowel diseases in Eastern Europe. Our aim was to analyse disease characteristics in the population-based Veszprem province database between 1977 and 2011. Methods 187 (10.5%, ulcerative colitis/Crohn's disease/undetermined colitis: 88/95/4) out of 1565 incident patients were diagnosed with a paediatric onset in this population-based prospective inception cohort. Results The incidence of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis increased from 0 and 0.7 in 1977–1981 to 7.2 and 5.2 in 2007–2011 per 100,000 person years. Ileocolonic location (45%) and inflammatory disease behaviour (61%) were most frequent in Crohn's disease, while azathioprine use was frequent (66%) and surgical resection rates were high (33% at 5 years) in cases with paediatric onset. In ulcerative colitis, 34% of patients were diagnosed with extensive disease, with high rates of disease extension (26% and 41% at 5 and 10 years), fulminant episodes (19.3%) and systemic steroid use (52.3%). The cumulative rate of colectomy was low (6.9%). Conclusions The incidence of paediatric inflammatory bowel diseases has rapidly increased in the last three decades in Western Hungary. Ileocolonic disease and a need for azathioprine were characteristic in paediatric Crohn's disease, while paediatric onset ulcerative colitis was characterised by extensive disease and disease extension, while the need for colectomy was low.
    Digestive and Liver Disease 01/2014; · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hypoparathyroidism results in impaired mineral homoeostasis, including hypocalcaemia and hyperphosphataemia. Treatment with high-dose oral calcium and active vitamin D does not provide adequate or consistent control of biochemical indices and can lead to serious long-term complications. We aimed to test the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of once-daily recombinant human parathyroid hormone 1-84 (rhPTH[1-84]) in adults with hypoparathyroidism. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised phase 3 study (REPLACE), we recruited patients with hypoparathyroidism (≥18 months duration) aged 18-85 years from 33 sites in eight countries. After an optimisation period, during which calcium and active vitamin D doses were adjusted to achieve consistent albumin-corrected serum calcium, patients were randomly assigned (2:1) via an interactive voice response system to 50 μg per day of rhPTH(1-84) or placebo for 24 weeks. Active vitamin D and calcium were progressively reduced, while rhPTH(1-84) could be titrated up from 50 μg to 75 μg and then 100 μg (weeks 0-5). The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients at week 24 who achieved a 50% or greater reduction from baseline in their daily dose of oral calcium and active vitamin D while maintaining a serum calcium concentration greater than or the same as baseline concentrations and less than or equal to the upper limit of normal, analysed by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00732615. Between June 23, 2009, and Feb 28, 2011, 134 eligible patients were recruited and randomly assigned to rhPTH(1-84) (n=90) or placebo (n=44). Six patients in the rhPTH(1-84) group and seven in the placebo group discontinued before study end. 48 (53%) patients in the rhPTH(1-84) group achieved the primary endpoint compared with one (2%) patient in the placebo group (percentage difference 51·1%, 95% CI 39·9-62·3; p<0·0001). The proportions of patients who had at least one adverse event were similar between groups (84 [93%] patients in the rhPTH[1-84] group vs 44 [100%] patients in the placebo group), with hypocalcaemia, muscle spasm, paraesthesias, headache, and nausea being the most common adverse events. The proportions of patients with serious adverse events were also similar between the rhPTH(1-84) group (ten [11%] patients) and the placebo group (four [9%] patients). 50 μg, 75 μg, or 100 μg per day of rhPTH(1-84), administered subcutaneously in the outpatient setting, is efficacious and well tolerated as a PTH replacement therapy for patients with hypoparathyroidism. NPS Pharmaceuticals.
    The lancet. Diabetes & endocrinology. 12/2013; 1(4):275-83.
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    ABSTRACT: Major aims of the 5th Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) Summit on Osteoporosis held in Bratislava, Slovakia, on 2 and 3 December 2011, were to provide participants with state-of-the-art knowledge in the fields of osteoporosis research, diagnosis, and therapy and to evaluate, compare, and discuss the very heterogeneous health care situations and related challenges in the different countries in CEE and elsewhere. The summit was attended by 70 delegates from 15 countries. State-of-the-art lectures given by international authorities on osteoporosis covered a broad spectrum of topics ranging from osteoporosis in the male population, novel therapies in osteoporosis such as cathepsin K and sclerostin inhibitors, and the implementation and use of FRAX® in CEE, to an update on denosumab for the management of osteoporosis. Workshops organized to enable the exchange of individual experiences addressed the importance and current availability of osteology training for physicians and the impact of patient training programs on therapy compliance. Furthermore, the availability of and need for standardized quality controls and therapy guidelines in different CEE countries were discussed. Finally, based on a questionnaire, a very up-to-date analysis of all participating countries regarding incidences of osteoporosis, commonly used diagnostic and therapeutic measures, the number of specialists and specialized hospitals, and differences in the reimbursement situation in the different countries was generated and presented. On the whole, the very authentic contributions and the synergistic exchange of ideas allowed the identification of both positive developments as well as still existing issues and needs in diagnosis and therapy of osteoporosis.
    Archives of Osteoporosis 12/2013; 8(1-2):123.
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    ABSTRACT: The use of specific terms under different meanings and varying definitions has always been a source of confusion in science. When we point our efforts towards an evidence based medicine for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) the same is true: Terms such as "mucosal healing" or "deep remission" as endpoints in clinical trials or treatment goals in daily patient care may contribute to misconceptions if meanings change over time or definitions are altered. It appears to be useful to first have a look at the development of terms and their definitions, to assess their intrinsic and context-independent problems and then to analyze the different relevance in present-day clinical studies and trials. The purpose of such an attempt would be to gain clearer insights into the true impact of the clinical findings behind the terms. It may also lead to a better defined use of those terms for future studies. The terms "mucosal healing" and "deep remission" have been introduced in recent years as new therapeutic targets in the treatment of IBD patients. Several clinical trials, cohort studies or inception cohorts provided data that the long term disease course is better, when mucosal healing is achieved. However, it is still unclear whether continued or increased therapeutic measures will aid or improve mucosal healing for patients in clinical remission. Clinical trials are under way to answer this question. Attention should be paid to clearly address what levels of IBD activity are looked at. In the present review article authors aim to summarize the current evidence available on mucosal healing and deep remission and try to highlight their value and position in the everyday decision making for gastroenterologists.
    World Journal of Gastroenterology 11/2013; 19(43):7552-60. · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Subjects maintained on infliximab scheduled therapy for inflammatory bowel disease may require dose optimization due to secondary loss of response. There are limited data on infliximab dose optimization for ulcerative colitis. To investigate dose optimization in ulcerative colitis patients with secondary loss of response. This was a retrospective multicentre study. Primary outcome was rapid clinical response assessed at the next administration of infliximab after dose intensification. Secondary outcomes were rapid clinical remission, and clinical response, remission and colectomy rate by week 52. Doubling the dose (10mg/kg q8 weeks) vs. shortening the dose interval (5mg/kg every 6 or 4 weeks) were compared. Forty-one patients from eight centres were enrolled (15 for double dose and 26 for interval shortening). Rapid response was achieved in 37/41 patients (90.2%), while 19/41 (46.3%) achieved rapid clinical remission. At week 52, 28/41 patients were maintained in clinical remission, but 4 (9.8%) underwent colectomy. No difference was found between the two optimization strategies. Subjects achieving rapid clinical response had a significantly higher colectomy-free rate at week 52 (p=0.002). Dose optimization of infliximab was effective to restore clinical response or remission and to prevent colectomy in ulcerative colitis patients with secondary loss of response.
    Digestive and Liver Disease 11/2013; · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Iron deficiency is a common and undertreated problem in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To develop an online tool to support treatment choice at the patient-specific level. Using the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method (RUAM), a European expert panel assessed the appropriateness of treatment regimens for a variety of clinical scenarios in patients with non-anaemic iron deficiency (NAID) and iron deficiency anaemia (IDA). Treatment options included adjustment of IBD medication only, oral iron supplementation, high-/low-dose intravenous (IV) regimens, IV iron plus erythropoietin-stimulating agent (ESA), and blood transfusion. The panel process consisted of two individual rating rounds (1148 treatment indications; 9-point scale) and three plenary discussion meetings. The panel reached agreement on 71% of treatment indications. 'No treatment' was never considered appropriate, and repeat treatment after previous failure was generally discouraged. For 98% of scenarios, at least one treatment was appropriate. Adjustment of IBD medication was deemed appropriate in all patients with active disease. Use of oral iron was mainly considered an option in NAID and mildly anaemic patients without disease activity. IV regimens were often judged appropriate, with high-dose IV iron being the preferred option in 77% of IDA scenarios. Blood transfusion and IV+ESA were indicated in exceptional cases only. The RUAM revealed high agreement amongst experts on the management of iron deficiency in patients with IBD. High-dose IV iron was more often considered appropriate than other options. To facilitate dissemination of the recommendations, panel outcomes were embedded in an online tool, accessible via http://ferroscope.com/.
    Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 11/2013; 38(9):1109-1118. · 4.55 Impact Factor
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    András Holló, Zsófia Clemens, Péter Lakatos
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    ABSTRACT: Summary Several disorders, both systemic and those of the nervous system, have been linked with vitamin D deficiency. Neurological disorders with a vitamin D link include but are not limited to multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer and Parkinson disease as well as cerebrovascular disorders. Epilepsy which is the second leading neurological disorder received much less attention. We review evidence supporting a link between vitamin D and epilepsy including those coming from ecological as well as interventional and animal studies. We also assess the literature on the interaction between antiepileptic drugs and vitamin D. Converging evidence indicates a role for vitamin D deficiency in the pathophysiology of epilepsy.
    The International journal of neuroscience 09/2013; · 0.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Since data is limited regarding the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in Crohn's disease (CD) patients who present with stenosing disease in the colon, this study was undertaken to assess CRC risk in such patients, using a population-based, Veszprem province database, which includes incidental patients diagnosed between January 1, 1977 and December 31, 2011. Data from 640 incidental CD patients were analyzed (M/F ratio: 321/319, age-at-diagnosis: 28 years (IQR: 22-38)). Both hospital and outpatient records were collected and comprehensively reviewed. CRC was diagnosed in six CD patients during a follow-up of 7759 person-years. Sixty-two patients presented with colonic/ileocolonic disease and a stenotic lesion in the colon with a follow-up of 702 person-years (median: 10.5, IQR: 5-16years). Colorectal cancer developed in 6.5% (equalling 0.57/100 person-years), the SIR (6.53, 95% CI: 2.45-17.4) was increased with four patients observed versus 0.61 expected. In a Kaplan-Meier analysis, the probability of developing CRC was 5.5% and 7.5% after 5- and 10 years, respectively, versus 0.4% in patients with other phenotypes (HR: 18.8, p<0.001). A sensitivity analysis included patients with stenosing colonic lesion at diagnosis or during follow-up (n=91, follow-up: 1180 person-years, median: 12, IQR: 6-17years). The probability of developing CRC was 3.6% and 4.9% after 5- and 10 years, respectively. The risk of CRC in CD patients presenting with or developing a stenotic lesion in the colon is high even after a short disease duration, suggesting the need for careful surveillance.
    Journal of gastrointestinal and liver diseases: JGLD 09/2013; 22(3):265-8. · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The course of inflammatory bowel diseases is heterogeneous and varies over time. Therefore, the search for predictive factors has increasingly become the focus of research. Mucosal healing has emerged as an important objective, as evidence indicates that it is associated with improved disease outcome. Nevertheless, many unsolved questions remain, including the definition of complete or partial healing as well as the best assessment method using endoscopic or imaging techniques, most of which are relatively invasive and expensive procedures, which therefore are not ideal for frequent monitoring and it is not clear. This review summarizes the available evidence in order to assist clinicians when assessing the mucosal status in the everyday practice.
    Expert Review of Clinical Immunology 09/2013; 9(9):871-82. · 2.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Radioiodine is the mainstay of the treatment of thyroid hyperfunction. However, it is difficult to apply the appropriate amount of radioidone to achieve optimal efficacy with the least possible adverse effects. Results of the investigation on the efficacy of a relatively new protocol for radioiodine treatment of hyperthyroidism are reported.A retrospective evaluation of data from 326 patients with a mean average follow-up of 5.7 (1.0-11.7) years was performed. 64% of these patients suffered from Graves' disease and 36% had uni- or multinodular toxic goitre.In Graves' disease, the recurrence rate was 5% 1 year after the treatment, and that remained the same after 5 years. In toxic goitre, these rates were 6 and 7%, respectively. After 5 years 70% of the patients with autonomous adenomas were euthyroid, while 78% of the Graves patients developed hypothyroidism and 17% showed euthyroid state. A relationship between the lack of normalisation of thyroid-stimulating hormone levels after radioiodine treatment and the increased recurrence of late hyperthyroidism has also been established in patients with Graves's disease.Compared to the available data published in the literature, the success rate of the treatment is fairly high confirming the effectiveness of our protocol.
    Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes 08/2013; · 1.56 Impact Factor
  • Article: Reply.
    Peter L Lakatos, Laszlo Lakatos
    Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 08/2013; · 5.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Treatment of Crohn's disease (CD) by infliximab (IFX) has been associated with the induction of antinuclear (ANA) and anti-double strand DNA (dsDNA) autoantibodies and in some studies the formation of dsDNA antibodies was associated with lupus-like syndromes. The aims of this study were to analyse the relationship between the development of ANA and dsDNA antibodies during anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α therapy and the clinical efficacy or adverse outcome in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Data of 96 CD patients (age at presentation: 25.1 years, folow-up: 5 years, males/females 43/53) treated with anti-TNFα for at least one-year were analyzed. Records of a total of 198 one-year treatment cycles were collected and levels of autoantibodies were determined at induction and after one-year treatment periods. The majority of CD patients had ileocolonic (67.4%) and complicated disease (B2-B3: 72.6%) with perianal lesions (63.2%). At any time ANA or dsDNA positivity was 28.6% and 18%. Elevated level of ANA at induction or during anti-TNFα therapy was not associated with treatment efficacy or development of adverse outcomes. In contrast, treatment efficacy (dsDNA positivity no/partial response vs. remission: 68.5% vs. 31.5%, P=0.003) was inferior and adverse outcomes were more frequent in patients with dsDNA positivity during the anti-TNFα therapy in both univariate analysis and in logistic regression models (OR efficacy: 4.91, 95%CI: 1.15-20.8; OR adverse outcome: 3.81,95%CI 1.04-13.9). Our data suggest that development of dsDNA during biological therapy may be associated with suboptimal treatment efficacy and adverse outcomes in CD patients.
    Journal of gastrointestinal and liver diseases: JGLD 06/2013; 22(2):135-140. · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Therapeutic approaches in inflammatory bowel disease have changed significantly in the past decade. Early aggressive immunosuppression has become the mainstay of therapy for patients at risk for complicated disease. Azathioprine is the most widely used immunosuppressant; however, a subgroup of patients is intolerant or refractory. Since the late 1990s, methotrexate (MTX) has become more widely used as an immunomodulator in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis. Yet according to recent clinical data, methotrexate remained the second most commonly used immunosuppressive in inflammatory bowel diseases. Two landmark trials and subsequent studies provided evidence for the use of methotrexate in Crohn's disease, both for induction and maintenance of remission. The evidence is less solid in ulcerative colitis, for which results of further randomized controlled trials are pending (e.g. Meteor, Merit). A potential new indication of MTX could be combination therapy with biologicals. While this is state of the art therapy in rheumatoid arthritis, data in inflammatory bowel diseases are less clear. Some studies suggest that combination with immunosuppressants could prevent the development of anti-drug antibodies, while others suggested anti-TNF induced autoimmune disorders as a potential indication. In contrast, improved efficacy was not reported by one study (COMMIT). Limitations include frequent side effects, route of administration, pregnancy and concerns about long-term safety. This review summarizes current knowledge on the efficacy and side effects of methotrexate, and tries to reevaluate the drug in the current IBD armamentarium.
    Current drug targets 05/2013; · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND&AIMS: Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies(ANCA) are a non-uniform family of antibodies recognizing diverse components of neutrophil granulocytes. ANCA formation might be induced by protracted bacterial infections or probably reflect an abnormal immune response to commensal microorganisms. Bacterial infections are common complications in cirrhosis with high incidence of episodes caused by enteric organisms, therefore, we sought to study the presence and clinical importance of ANCA in cirrhosis. METHODS: Sera of 385 patients with cirrhosis of different etiologies were assayed for ANCA of IgG, IgA, IgA1, IgA2 and secretory IgA subtypes by indirect immunofluorescence and ELISAs. Control group comprised of 202 patients with chronic liver diseases without cirrhosis and 100 healthy subjects. In cirrhosis, a 2-year follow-up, observational study was conducted to assess possible association between presence of ANCA and clinically significant bacterial infections. RESULTS: Prevalence of ANCA IgA was significantly higher in cirrhosis(52.2%) compared to chronic liver diseases(18.6%) or healthy controls (0%, p<0.001 for both). ANCA IgA subtyping assays revealed marked increase in the proportion of IgA2 subtype (46% of total ANCA IgA) and presence of the secretory component concurrently. Presence of ANCA IgA was associated to disease-specific clinical characteristics (Child-Pugh stage and presence of ascites, p<0.001). During a 2-year follow-up period, risk of infections was higher among patients with ANCA IgA compared to those without (41.8% vs. 23.4%, p<0.001). ANCA IgA positivity was associated with a shorter time to the first infectious complication (pLogRank<0.001) in Kaplan-Meier analysis and was identified as an independent predictor in multivariate Cox-regression analysis (HR:1.74, 95%CI:1.18-2.56, p=0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Presence of IgA type ANCA is common in cirrhosis. Involvement of gut mucosal immune system is in center of the formation and probably reflects sustained exposure to bacterial constituents.
    Journal of Hepatology 04/2013; · 9.86 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
906.42 Total Impact Points


  • 1987–2014
    • Semmelweis University
      • • First Department of Internal Medicine
      • • Second Department of Internal Medicine
      Budapeŝto, Budapest, Hungary
  • 2013
    • University of Zurich
      • Internal Medicine Unit
      Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
    • University of Copenhagen Herlev Hospital
      Herlev, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2012
    • Aladar Petz County Teaching Hospital
      Pinnyéd, Győr-Moson-Sopron, Hungary
  • 2011
    • University of Miami
      • Miller School of Medicine
      Coral Gables, FL, United States
    • National Research Center (CO, USA)
      Boulder, Colorado, United States
  • 2007–2011
    • University of Debrecen
      • • Second Department of Internal Medicine
      • • Clinical Research Centre
      Debrecen, Hajdu-Bihar, Hungary
  • 2010
    • Szent László Hospital, Budapest
      Budapeŝto, Budapest, Hungary
    • Péterfy Hospital
      Budapeŝto, Budapest, Hungary
    • U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
    • The Hungarian National Blood Transfusion Service
      Budapeŝto, Budapest, Hungary
    • Acheuron Hungary Ltd.
      Algyő, Csongrád, Hungary
  • 2009
    • VU University Medical Center
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2004
    • National Institute Of Rheumatology And Physiotherapy
      Budapeŝto, Budapest, Hungary
    • Charles University in Prague
      Praha, Praha, Czech Republic
  • 2000
    • St. John Hospital, Budapest
      Budapeŝto, Budapest, Hungary
  • 1999
    • Universitätsklinikum Erlangen
      Erlangen, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1994–1995
    • University of Illinois at Chicago
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 1991–1993
    • Northwestern University
      • Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Biological Chemistry
      Evanston, Illinois, United States