[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In contrast to the relatively uniform pathology and the unyielding dismal outcome associated with infiltrating ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas, cystic lesions have a broad spectrum of gross and microscopic pathologies, and a range of clinical outcomes. The common cystic lesions of the pancreas are reviewed with emphasis on practical tips for distinguishing between the main entities.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infiltrating adenocarcinoma of the pancreas is thought to develop through well-defined precursor lesions called pancreatic intraductal neoplasia (PanIN). Despite the exponential growth in our understanding of genetic events that characterize the progression of PanINs to invasive carcinoma, little is known about the role of epigenetic alterations in these precursor lesions. To define the timing and prevalence of methylation abnormalities during early pancreatic carcinogenesis, we investigated the CpG island methylation profile in the various grades of PanINs. Using methylation-specific PCR, we analyzed DNA samples from 65 PanIN lesions for methylation status of eight genes recently identified by microarray approach as aberrantly hypermethylated in invasive pancreatic cancer. Aberrant methylation at any of the eight genes was identified in 68% of all the PanIN lesions examined, and, notably, aberrant methylation was identified in more than 70% of the earliest lesions (PanIN-1A). The average number of methylated loci was 1.1 in PanIN-1A, 0.8 in PanIN-1B, 1.1 in PanIN-2, and 2.9 in PanIN-3 lesions (P=0.01 for PanIN -3 vs earlier PanINs). Among the genes analyzed, NPTX2 demonstrated an increase in methylation prevalence from PanIN-1 to PanIN-2 (P=0.0008), and from PanIN-2 to PanIN-3 for SARP2 (P=0.001), Reprimo (P=0.01), and LHX1 (P=0.03). These results suggest that aberrant CpG island hypermethylation begins in early stages of PanINs, and its prevalence progressively increases during neoplastic progression.
Modern Pathology 04/2008; 21(3):238-44. · 5.25 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: KRAS2 gene mutations are found in 75-90% of infiltrating pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas but can also be present with other nonneoplastic pancreatic diseases. We recently developed a novel sensitive assay for point mutation detection, called "LigAmp", which can detect one mutant molecule in the presence of 10,000 wild-type molecules and can quantify mutant DNA over a wide dynamic range. We analyzed KRAS2 mutations in surgically-collected pancreatic duct juice samples from patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma (n = 27) and chronic pancreatitis(n = 9). DNA sequencing demonstrated that 17 of the 27 pancreatic cancers harbored KRAS2 mutations at codon 12, including G12D (GGT-->GAT), G12V (GTT), and G12R (CGT). We determined the relative amounts of each KRAS2 mutant by simultaneously quantifying wild-type and mutant KRAS2 DNA. For all pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients, the dominant KRAS2 mutation detected in the pancreatic juice corresponded to that found in the primary cancer. Mutation levels were substantially higher in patients with pancreatic cancer (0.05 to 82% of total KRAS2 molecules) compared to those with chronic pancreatitis (0 to 0.7%). Among patients with mutant KRAS2 positive cancers, all but one (94%) had mutant KRAS2 DNA concentrations of more than 0.5% in their pancreatic juice samples, whereas only 1 of 9(11%) pancreatic juice samples from patients with chronic pancreatitis had more than 0.5% mutant KRAS2 DNA, corresponding to a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 89%. LigAmp quantification of mutant KRAS2 in pancreatic juice differentiates pancreatic adenocarcinoma from chronic pancreatitis, and may be a useful early detection tool for pancreatic cancer.
Cancer biology & therapy 04/2008; 7(3):353-360. · 3.29 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most pancreatic cancers are not diagnosed until after the cancer has spread to other organs and is no longer curable. As a
result, the death rate for pancreatic cancer in this country (34,290/year) is approximately equal to the incidence rate (37,680/year)
(1). By contrast, many patients survive the diagnosis of breast cancer, and half of the decline in breast cancer mortality in
the last quarter of a century has come from improved early detection (2). We believe that early detection of preinvasive lesions is the greatest hope for curing pancreatic neoplasia. This chapter
discusses pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN), the most common precursor lesion in the pancreas (3).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most familial cancer susceptibility genes are tumor suppressor genes that are biallelically inactivated in familial neoplasms through somatic deletion of the wild-type allele. Identifying the genomic losses that occur in pancreatic neoplasms, particularly those that occur in familial and precursor neoplasms, may help localize the genes responsible for pancreatic cancer susceptibility.
Normal and neoplastic tissue DNA was isolated from fresh-frozen surgically resected tissues from 20 patients with primary familial pancreatic adenocarcinoma (defined as having at least one first-degree relative with pancreatic cancer), 31 with sporadic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN), and 7 with familial IPMNs using laser capture microdissection. Microdissected DNA was whole genome amplified using multiple strand displacement. Genome-wide allelotypes were determined using 391 microsatellite markers. The accuracy of microdissection and fidelity of the whole genome amplification were determined by comparing the genotypes of microdissected primary pancreatic cancers to the genotypes of xenografts derived from these cancers and by comparing the results of amplified to nonamplified specimens.
The concordance of genotypes between LCM whole genome amplified primary pancreatic cancers and their corresponding pancreatic cancer xenograft DNAs was 98%. Among the 20 primary familial pancreatic adenocarcinomas, we found a high prevalence of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) with an average fractional allelic loss (FAL) of 49.9% of an aggregate of 2,378 informative markers. The level of FAL in the IPMNs (10%) was significantly lower than in the pancreatic adenocarcinomas. The most common locus of LOH in the IPMNs was at 19p (LOH at 24% of markers). The regions of frequent allelic loss observed in the familial pancreatic cancers were similar to those found in sporadic pancreatic cancers.
The allelic loss patterns of familial and sporadic pancreatic cancers and IPMNs provide clues as to the genomic locations of tumor suppressor genes inactivated in these neoplasms.
Clinical Cancer Research 11/2007; 13(20):6019-25. · 7.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the US. Most pancreatic cancers are infiltrating ductal adenocarcinomas. The careful application of well-defined morphologic criteria can be used to differentiate between infiltrating ductal adenocarcinoma and reactive glands. While most pancreatic cancers are ductal adenocarcinomas, a number of histologically defined variants have been described. These are important to recognize because they have distinct clinical pathologic features. Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) is the presumed precursor lesion to infiltrating ductal adenocarcinoma, and PanIN lesions can mimic infiltrating cancer.
Modern Pathology 03/2007; 20 Suppl 1:S61-70. · 5.25 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The gene expression profile of pancreatic cancer is significantly different from that of normal pancreas. Differences in gene expression are detectable using microarrays, but microarrays have traditionally been applied to pancreatic cancer tissue obtained from surgical resection. We hypothesized that gene expression alterations indicative of pancreatic cancer can be detected by profiling the RNA of pancreatic juice.
We performed oligonucleotide microarray analysis on RNA isolated from pancreatic juice obtained endoscopically after secretin stimulation from six patients with pancreatic cancer and ten patients with nonneoplastic diseases of the pancreas or upper gastrointestinal tract. Extracted RNA was subjected to two rounds of linear RNA amplification, and then hybridized with U133A or X3P gene chips (Affymetrix).
Using the U133A or X3P chips, 37 and 133 gene fragments respectively, were identified as being at least 3-fold more abundant in the pancreatic juice of patients with pancreatic cancer compared to the noncancer controls (p<0.05, Mann-Whitney test). For example, pancreatic juice from patients with pancreatic cancer contained increased levels of IL8, IFITM1, fibrinogen, osteopontin, CXCR4, DAF and NNMT RNA, genes that have been previously reported as overexpressed in primary pancreatic cancers or pancreatic cancer cell lines relative to control tissues.
These results demonstrate that RNA analysis of pancreatic juice can reveal some of the same RNA alterations found in invasive pancreatic cancers. RNA analysis of pancreatic juice deserves further investigation to determine its utility as a tool for the evaluation of pancreatic lesions.
Cancer biology & therapy 10/2006; 5(10):1383-9. · 3.29 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The p53-dependent G2/M checkpoint plays a key role in the maintenance of genomic integrity, thereby protecting cells from neoplastic progression. Reprimo, a gene involved in the p53-induced G2 cell cycle arrest, has been recently identified as a novel target for aberrant methylation in pancreatic and other cancers. The biological and clinical relevance of Reprimo methylation in pancreatic cancer was investigated.
The methylation status of Reprimo CpG island was analyzed by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction in a large series of pancreatic cancers and was correlated with p53 mutation status, genetic instability (as measured by the fractional allelic loss), and clinicopathologic features.
Aberrant methylation of Reprimo was identified in 60% (75 of 125) of pancreatic cancer xenografts and primary pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Reprimo methylation was also detectable in 30% (19 of 63) of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanIN), known precursors to infiltrating carcinoma. Reprimo methylation was unrelated to the p53 mutation status and associated with the increased degree of genetic instability (P = .04). Furthermore, we found that patients with Reprimo methylation in their primary pancreatic cancers have significantly worse prognosis than those without Reprimo methylation (P = .007). In contrast, other methylation targets in pancreatic cancers (SPARC and CXCR4) did not correlate with prognosis.
These results suggest that aberrant methylation of Reprimo is a common event in pancreatic carcinogenesis and is associated with genetic instability and unfavorable outcome after surgical resection.
Cancer 08/2006; 107(2):251-7. · 5.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently described genome-wide approaches robustly detect many candidate genes that are regulated by DNA methylation, but many of these genes do not represent important targets for functional inactivation. Here we used a microarray-based strategy to identify biologically relevant genes associated with epigenetic silencing in pancreatic cancer.
We compared information from differential gene expression analysis with the transcriptional responses to epigenetic modifiers.
Using this approach, we identified 7 novel targets for aberrant methylation in pancreatic cancer. One of the genes identified, RELN (Reelin), a key regulator of neuronal migration, is frequently silenced in pancreatic cancers, as are several of its downstream mediators. Importantly, small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of RELN in pancreatic cancer cells that retain RELN expression resulted in greatly enhanced cell motility, invasiveness, and colony-forming ability. Increased cell motility was also induced by knockdown of downstream components of the RELN pathway, including ApoER2, VLDLR, and DAB1. Treatment of pancreatic cancer cells with histone deacetylase inhibitors, valproic acid and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, restored the expression of RELN and DAB1 and markedly inhibited their migration.
The high prevalence of the silencing of RELN pathway components and its reversal by histone deacetylase inhibitors suggest the importance of this pathway as a diagnostic and therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Now that more than two decades have passed since the first reports of intraductal papillary-mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs), it has become clear that IPMN consists of a spectrum of neoplasms with both morphological and immunohistochemical variations. At a meeting of international experts on pancreatic precursor lesions held in 2003, it was agreed that a consensus classification of IPMN subtypes should be established to enable a more detailed analysis of the clinicopathological significance of the variations. Based on our experience and on information from the literature, we selected representative histological examples of IPMNs and defined a consensus nomenclature and criteria for classifying variants as distinctive IPMN subtypes including gastric type, intestinal type, pancreatobiliary type, and oncocytic type. These definitions can be used for further analyses of the clinicopathological significance of the variations of IPMN.
Archiv für Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für Klinische Medicin 12/2005; 447(5):794-9. · 2.68 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas is an increasingly identified precursor to infiltrating ductal adenocarcinoma. Although our knowledge of the clinical and pathologic features of IPMNs is increasing, the molecular mechanisms underlying these neoplasms remain poorly understood.
To provide further insight into the molecular pathobiology of IPMNs, global expression profiling was done to determine genes that are inactivated/down-regulated in IPMNs using oligonucleotide microarrays (Affymetrix).
In total, 300 unique transcripts (217 known genes) were identified as highly underexpressed in 12 IPMNs (<10-fold lower and P < 0.05) compared with five normal pancreatic ductal epithelium samples obtained by laser capture microdissection. The differential expression of a selection of genes was confirmed using reverse-transcription PCR. One of the genes underexpressed at both the transcriptional and protein level in a significant proportion of IPMNs was the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, CDKN1C/p57KIP2. CDKN1C expression was also decreased in many pancreatic cancer cell lines and was restored following treatment with a DNA methylation inhibitor (5-aza-2'-deoxycitidine) or, more potently, with a histone deacetylase inhibitor (trichostatin A). Partial methylation of the CDKN1C promoter CpG island was found in most, but not all, pancreatic cancer cell lines with reduced CDKN1C expression, and was also detectable in IPMNs. Furthermore, a subset of pancreatic cancers showed complete hypomethylation of LIT1, an imprinting control region important for the regulation of CDKN1C expression. Complete hypomethylation in these cancers was the result of deletion of the methylated LIT1 allele at 11p15.5 rather than loss of imprinting.
These findings suggest that CDKN1C is commonly down-regulated in pancreatic ductal neoplasms through a combination of promoter hypermethylation, histone deacetylation, and loss of the maternal allele expressing CDKN1C.
Clinical Cancer Research 07/2005; 11(13):4681-8. · 7.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The non-neoplastic pancreatic parenchyma adjacent to infiltrating ductal adenocarcinoma demonstrates inflammation, fibrosis, acinar cell loss and small duct-like metaplasia of acinar cells. Similar morphologic changes are also observed in the setting of chronic pancreatitis. In addition, peritumoral acini have been shown to have alterations in gene expression even in the absence of morphological changes. To better understand the pancreatic acinar responses to infiltrating pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, we characterized gene expression patterns of pancreatic acinar tissue adjacent to infiltrating pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas and compared them to gene expression patterns of acinar tissue affected by chronic pancreatitis as well as to those of normal pancreatic acini. Fresh-frozen pancreatic acinar tissue was microdissected from nine patients (three with pancreatic cancer, three with chronic pancreatitis, three with normal pancreata) using laser capture microdissection, and extracted RNA from each microdissection was subjected to two rounds of linear amplification and hybridized to oligonucleotide microarrays. Gene expression patterns were confirmed using quantitative RT-PCR and/or immunohistochemistry. A total of 20 genes was found to be overexpressed in peritumoral acinar tissue compared to normal acinar tissue and to acini affected by chronic pancreatitis. These 20 genes included pancreatitis-associated protein (HIP/PAP), a gene known to be overexpressed in acini adjacent to infiltrating pancreatic cancer, and the gene cartilage glycoprotein-39 (HC gp-39 or TKL-40). Serum HC gp-39 protein levels were significantly higher in patients with pancreatic cancer and in those with chronic pancreatitis than in controls without pancreatic disease. There was no significant difference in the levels of serum HC gp-39 in patients with pancreatic cancer and those with chronic pancreatitis. Our results demonstrate some of the molecular alterations in acinar cells that occur in response to adjacent infiltrating pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and reveal that such alterations can provide a rich source of markers of pancreatic cancer.
Modern Pathology 07/2005; 18(6):779-87. · 5.25 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aberrant gene expression in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas contributes to the dismal outcome of patients who develop this disease. The 5' region of 14-3-3sigma (stratifin) is hypomethylated in pancreatic adenocarcinomas and is associated with gene overexpression. In multiple experimental systems, ezrin (ERM, Radixin, Moesin) has been identified as being important in the metastatic behavior of pancreatic and other cancers. We investigated the prognostic significance of aberrant expression of 14-3-3sigma and the ERM proteins (Ezrin, radixin, Moesin) in a series of invasive periampullary adenocarcinomas including 300 infiltrating pancreatic adenocarcinomas, 54 ampullary adenocarcinomas, and 33 noninvasive intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms from patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenal resection at The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD, between 1991 and 2003. Two-hundred fourty-four (82%) primary infiltrating adenocarcinomas of the pancreas demonstrated positive expression of the 14-3-3sigma, 45 (15%) showed weak immunolabelling, and 9 (3%) were negative. 201 (68%) showed positive immunolabeling of the ERM proteins, 75 (25%) demonstrated weak expression and 20 (7%) no expression. A similar proportion of ampullary cancers showed 14-3-3sigma and ERM protein expression. Expression of 14-3-3sigma and ERM protein was more likely in poorly differentiated cancers (p = 0.00005), and their expression was associated with poor survival in univariate analysis (p = 0.09). By multivariate analysis, patients whose cancers expressed 14-3-3sigma, but not ERM tended to have a poorer prognosis (Hazard ratio, 1.4; 0.9-2.2, p = 0.14). Aberrant expression of 14-3-3sigma may contribute to the outcome of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
Cancer biology & therapy 06/2005; 4(5):596-601. · 3.29 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cancer, once invasive, is almost uniformly fatal. In order to alleviate the dismal prognosis associated with this disease, it is imperative that pancreatic cancer be recognized and treated prior to invasion. Understanding the morphology and biology of precursor lesions of invasive pancreatic cancer has therefore become an issue of paramount importance. In the last decade, significant progress has been in the recognition and appropriate classification of these precursor lesions, and the current review will focus on our state-of-the-art knowledge on this topic. Mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCNs), intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs), and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) encompass the three known morphologically distinct precursors to invasive pancreatic cancer. In addition to discussion of the "classic" precursor entities, this review will also address some of the recent diagnostic controversies for these lesions, in particular features that distinguish IPMNs from PanIN lesions. Finally, the potential clinical impact of recognizing these precursor lesions in the context of early detection of pancreatic cancer will be discussed.
Advances in Anatomic Pathology 04/2005; 12(2):81-91. · 3.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Invasive pancreatic cancer is thought to develop through a series of noninvasive duct lesions known as pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN). We used cDNA microarrays interrogating 15,000 transcripts to identify 49 genes that were differentially expressed in microdissected early PanIN lesions (PanIN-1B/2) compared with microdissected normal duct epithelium. In this analysis, a cluster of extrapancreatic foregut markers, including pepsinogen C, MUC6, KLF4, and TFF1, was found to be up-regulated in PanIN. Up-regulation of these genes was further validated using combinations of real-time reverse transcription-PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry in a total of 150 early PanIN lesions from 81 patients. Identification of these gastrointestinal transcripts in human PanIN prompted assessment of other foregut markers by both semiquantitative and real-time reverse transcription-PCR, revealing similar up-regulation of Sox-2, Gastrin, HoxA5, GATA4/5/6, Villin and Forkhead 6 (Foxl1). In contrast to frequent expression of multiple gastric epithelial markers, the intestinal markers intestinal fatty acid binding protein, CDX1 and CDX2 were rarely expressed either in PanIN lesions or in invasive pancreatic cancer. Hedgehog pathway activation induced by transfection of immortalized human pancreatic ductal epithelial cells with Gli1 resulted in up-regulation of the majority of foregut markers seen in early PanIN lesions. These data show frequent up-regulation of foregut markers in early PanIN lesions and suggest that PanIN development may involve Hedgehog-mediated conversion to a gastric epithelial differentiation program.
Cancer Research 04/2005; 65(5):1619-26. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using microarrays, we have screened for genes reactivated by drugs that modify epigenetic mechanisms in pancreatic cancer cells. One of the genes identified was tissue factor pathway inhibitor 2 (TFPI-2), which encodes for a broad-spectrum serine proteinase inhibitor that negatively regulates the extracellular matrix degradation, an essential step in tumor invasion and metastasis. We therefore investigated the expression and methylation patterns of the TFPI-2 gene in pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and determined its role in tumor growth and invasion. In contrast to its abundant expression in normal pancreas, TFPI-2 mRNA was undetectable in a high fraction of pancreatic cancer cell lines and in primary pancreatic ductal neoplasms (IPMNs). Loss of TFPI-2 expression was associated with aberrant hypermethylation of its promoter CpG island. Treatment with the phorbol ester (PMA), known to stimulate the TFPI-2 promoter activity, augmented the TFPI-2 expression in cell lines with unmethylated or partially methylated TFPI-2, but failed to induce the expression in cell lines that harbored fully methylated TFPI-2. Aberrant methylation of TFPI-2 was also detected in 73% (102/140) of pancreatic cancer xenografts and primary pancreatic adenocarcinomas, was more likely in older patients with pancreatic cancer, and significantly correlated with progression of IPMNs (P=0.0002). Restored expression of the TFPI-2 gene in nonexpressing pancreatic cancer cells resulted in marked suppression in their proliferation, migration, and invasive potential in vitro. We thus conclude that epigenetic inactivation of TFPI-2 is a common mechanism that contributes to the aggressive phenotype of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the biological and clinical importance of the interaction between the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its ligand CXCL12 (SDF-1alpha) in human cancers, little is known about transcriptional regulation of the CXCR4 gene. Although aberrant hypermethylation in cancer has been described typically in genes with tumor-suppressor properties, this epigenetic alteration has also been observed to affect potential cancer-promoting genes. We now demonstrate that DNA methylation influences CXCR4 expression in human pancreatic cancer. Gene expression profiling and reverse transcription-PCR identified a significant proportion of pancreatic cancer cell lines that displayed little or no CXCR4 mRNA expression. Using methylation-specific PCR, combined bisulfite restriction analysis, and bisulfite sequencing, we found the 5' CpG islands of the CXCR4 gene to be unmethylated in normal pancreas, whereas promoter hypermethylation was detected in 45% (9 of 20) of pancreatic cancer cell lines and in 46% (46 of 100) of primary pancreatic adenocarcinomas. There was a significant inverse correlation between methylation and mRNA expression level of CXCR4 (P=0.008) in a large panel of pancreatic cancer cell lines. Constitutive as well as inducible expression of CXCR4 could be restored in methylated cell lines pharmacologically using epigenetic modifying drugs. These findings demonstrate the first evidence for epigenetic regulation of CXCR4 in human cancers, providing new insights into the role of CXCR4/CXCL12 interactions in tumor progression.
Cancer biology & therapy 02/2005; 4(1):70-6. · 3.29 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) plays an important role in the salvage pathway for the synthesis of adenosine. Novel chemotherapeutic strategies exploiting the selective loss of MTAP function in cancers have been proposed. The MTAP gene, on chromosome 9p21, is frequently included within homozygous deletions of the p16INK4A/ CDKN2A gene. Biallelic deletions of the p16INK4A/CDKN2A gene are found in 40% of pancreatic cancers, suggesting that the MTAP gene may be frequently inactivated in pancreatic cancer and that selected patients with pancreatic cancer may benefit from therapies targeting this loss. We immunolabeled six xenografted pancreatic cancers with known MTAP and p16INK4A/CDKN2A gene status and found that immunolabeling mirrored gene status. Loss of expression of both MTAP and p16 was observed only in those pancreatic cancers with homozygous deletions that encompassed both the MTAP and p16INK4A/CDKN2A genes. We then immunolabeled a series of 320 microarrayed infiltrating pancreatic adenocarcinomas, 35 biliary adenocarcinomas, 54 ampullary cancers, and 35 noninvasive intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms. Immunolabeling for MTAP was lost in 91 of the 300 (30%) evaluable pancreatic cancers, 9 of 54 (17%) ampullary cancers, 4 of 33 (12%) biliary cancers, and in 1 of 35 (3%) IPMNs. All neoplasms with loss of MTAP labeling also demonstrated loss of p16 labeling. These results suggest that MTAP expression is lost in approximately 30% of infiltrating pancreatic cancers and in a lower percentage of other periampullary neoplasms, that this loss is the result of homozygous deletions encompassing both the MTAP and p16INK4A/CDKN2A genes. Thus, pancreatic cancer is a promising cancer type in which to explore novel chemotherapeutic strategies to exploit the selective loss of MTAP function.
Cancer biology & therapy 02/2005; 4(1):83-6. · 3.29 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCNs) of the pancreas are uncommon neoplasms usually located in the body or tail of the pancreas and usually in females (>90% of cases). Clinically, they are often misdiagnosed as non-neoplastic pseudocysts leading to failed opportunities for curative resection. To better understand the biology of MCNs and to identify markers of the disease, we performed global gene expression profiling of MCNs using oligonucleotide microarrays. Using laser capture microdissection applied to frozen sections, RNA was extracted from the neoplastic epithelium of MCNs, from the adjacent 'ovarian-type' stroma of MCNs, from histologically normal pancreatic ductal epithelium, from pancreatic acinar tissue and from fibrous stroma in pancreata affected by chronic pancreatitis. Each RNA sample was subjected to two rounds of linear amplification followed by hybridization with U133A gene chips (Affymetrix). The expression patterns of selected genes were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR and by immunohistochemistry using tissue microarrays containing 19 resected MCNs. A total of 114 known genes were overexpressed in the neoplastic epithelium compared to normal pancreatic ductal epithelium (>3-fold) including S100P, PSCA, c-myc, STK6/STK15, cathepsin E and pepsinogen C. Activation of the Notch pathway in the epithelial component of MCNs was evident by the demonstration of overexpression of Jagged1 and the downstream Notch pathway member Hes1. In the 'ovarian-type' stroma, several genes involved in estrogen metabolism were overexpressed including STAR and ESR1 genes. Some of the genes identified as overexpressed in these neoplasms may be useful as markers that can distinguish MCNs from non-neoplastic pancreatic cystic lesions.