C Uyttenhove

Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research Ltd Belgium, Bruxelles, Brussels Capital Region, Belgium

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Publications (44)292.07 Total impact

  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/2009; 106(31):12885-12890. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor cells constitutively express indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), which degrades tryptophan and lowers tryptophan concentration in the local microenvironment. Such altered microenvironment protects tumor cells from rejection by the immune system, as T lymphocytes are exquisitely sensitive to tryptophan shortage. This may explain the low clinical efficacy of cancer immunotherapy based on vaccination. Preclinical studies indicate that this immune resistance mechanism can be blocked by systemic delivery of a pharmacological IDO inhibitor, 1-methyl-l-tryptophan. These results suggest the clinical efficacy of cancer immunotherapy can be boosted by combined treatment of cancer patients with an IDO inhibitor.
    International Congress Series 01/2007; 1304:274-277.
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin 12 (IL-12) has been identified as a key inducer of a type 1 T helper cell cytokine pattern, which is thought to contribute to the development of atherosclerosis. We aimed to study the role of IL-12 in atherosclerosis by inhibition of IL-12 using a newly developed vaccination technique that fully blocks the action of IL-12. LDLr -/- mice were vaccinated against IL-12 by five intra-muscular injections of IL-12-PADRE complex in combination with adjuvant o/w emulsion (low dose)/MPL/QS21 every two weeks. Two weeks thereafter atherogenesis was initiated in the carotid artery by perivascular placement of silastic collars. IL-12 vaccination resulted in the induction of anti-IL-12 antibodies that functionally blocked the action of IL-12 as determined in an IL-12 bioassay. Blockade of IL-12 by vaccination of LDLr -/- mice resulted in significantly reduced (68.5%, p
    Circulation 01/2005; 112(7):1054-1062. · 15.20 Impact Factor
  • Atherosclerosis Supplements - ATHEROSCLER SUPPL. 01/2004; 5(1):41-42.
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    ABSTRACT: Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is characterised by an unbalanced cytokine secretion. Many of these cytokines have been implicated in the regulation of malignant and infiltrating cells. Interleukin-9 (IL-9) has been described to act in an autocrine fashion in HL, stimulating proliferation of the malignant cells. To investigate the potential clinical implication of this observation, a novel ELISA method was used to examine the serum levels of IL-9 in lymphoma patients. High levels of IL-9 were found in the sera from patients with HL (18/44), but not in the sera from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients (3/21) or healthy controls. The highest serum IL-9 levels, up to 3350 pg/ml, were observed in the nodular sclerosis subtype, and there was a correlation between IL-9 levels and the negative prognostic factors advanced stage, B-symptoms, low blood Hb and high erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Furthermore, there was no correlation between serum levels of IL-9 and IL-13, a cytokine where serum levels have been speculated to be of clinical importance. This is the first report showing that IL-9 can be measured in serum samples. A novel correlation between increased serum IL-9 levels, HL and clinical features is shown, suggesting that IL-9 is a candidate factor contributing to the development of HL.
    Leukemia 01/2004; 17(12):2513-6. · 10.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was the analysis of the cytokine response in BALB/c mice infected with the highly virulent RH or the weakly virulent Beverley strains of Toxoplasma gondii. Analysis of cytokine messages showed increased expression of IL12, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha, but not IL4 mRNAs in spleen cells after infection with the T. gondii strains RH and Beverley. High levels of circulating IL12 and IFN-gamma were detected in the serum of mice infected with strain RH, although TNF-alpha levels remained low. In contrast, the same cytokines were detected at only low levels in the serum of mice infected with the Beverley strain. Administration of antibody against IL12 or IFN-gamma significantly delayed time to death of mice infected with strain RH compared to controls. T-Cell-deficient as well as normal mice were equally infected by strain RH, suggesting that T lymphocytes do not contribute to the response. Depletion of natural killer cells from the splenocyte population abolished the in vitro production of IFN-gamma. Together, our data suggest that the virulent strain RH induces in BALB/c mice a type 1 cytokine pattern with T-cell-independent overproduction of IL12 and IFN-gamma that may be involved in the pathogenesis of this micro-organism.
    Journal of Medical Microbiology 11/2003; 52(Pt 10):869-76. · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The outcome of dendritic cell (DC) presentation of tumor and/or self peptides, including P815AB (a tumor peptide of murine mastocytoma cells) and NRP-A7 (a synthetic peptide mimotope recognized by diabetogenic T cells), may depend on a balance between the activities of immunogenic (CD8alpha(-)) and tolerogenic (CD8alpha(+)) DC. By virtue of their respective actions on CD8(-) and CD8(+) DC, IL-12 and IFN-gamma have functionally opposing effects on peptide presentation by the CD8(-) DC subset, and IFN-gamma-activated CD8(+) DC mediate tolerogenic effects that prevail over the adjuvant activity of IL-12 on CD8(-) DC. We have previously shown that CD40 ligation abrogates the tolerogenic potential of CD8(+) DC, an effect associated with an impaired capacity of the CD40-modulated and IFN-gamma-treated DC to degrade tryptophan and initiate T cell apoptosis in vitro. We report here that IL-6 may both replace (upon administration of the recombinant cytokine) and mediate (as assessed by the use of neutralizing Abs) the effect of CD40 ligation in ablating the tolerogenic activity of CD8(+) DC. The activity of IL-6 includes down-regulation of IFN-gammaR expression in the CD8(+) DC subset and correlates to a reduced ability of these cells to metabolize tryptophan and initiate T cell apoptosis in vitro.
    The Journal of Immunology 08/2001; 167(2):708-14. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    T F Gajewski, M A Markiewicz, C Uyttenhove
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    ABSTRACT: This unit presents an experimental tumor model which has led to pivotal advances in tumor immunology culminating in the preclinical development of human cancer vaccines for melanoma. The model employs the use of the P815 mastocytoma cell line. Although the P815 cell line belongs to the mast cell lineage, it offers several advantages for in vivo experimentation of the tumor-host relationship. It grows progressively in the majority of syngeneic DBA/2 mice and can be implanted either intraperitoneally or subcutaneously. Moreover, immunogeneic variants have been created yielding tumors that are spontaneously rejected BB a behavior that has provided a context in which to study the immunologically relevant molecules and cells that dictate a successful anti-tumor response.
    Current protocols in immunology / edited by John E. Coligan ... [et al.] 06/2001; Chapter 20:Unit 20.4.
  • S Silla, F Fallarino, T Boon, C Uyttenhove
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    ABSTRACT: Immunization of cancer patients with tumor-specific antigenic peptides is currently being tested in several clinical studies. We have examined the induction of CTL responses in mice after various modalities of peptide vaccination, to explore protocols that could be applied to humans. Our first model antigen was P198, which results from a point mutation in a normal gene. While two immunizations with peptide P198 in SBAS-1c adjuvant induced measurable CTL responses in less than 10% of DBA/2 mice, the addition of IL-12 to the peptide adjuvant mixture resulted in high CTL responses in nearly all mice. This strong enhancing effect of IL-12 was observed with 1,000 and 300 units and decreased gradually as the doses were reduced to 30 units. When IL-12 was replaced by other cytokines acting on T cells or antigen-presenting cells, such as IFN-gamma, IL-2, IL-6, IL-7, GM-CSF or MCP-3, no significant enhancing effect was observed. The same effect of IL-12 was obtained with peptide P1A, which is a major tumor-specific antigen of mastocytoma P815 and is encoded by a gene that is specifically activated in tumors.
    European cytokine network 07/1999; 10(2):181-90. · 1.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Murine mastocytoma P815 induces CTL responses against at least four distinct Ags (AB, C, D, and E). Recent studies have shown that the main component of the CTL response against the P815 tumor is targeted against Ags P815AB and P815E. The gene P1A has been well characterized. It encodes the P815AB Ag in the form of a nonameric peptide containing two epitopes, P815A and P815B, which are recognized by different CTLs. Here, we report the identification of the P815E Ag. Using a cDNA library derived from tumor P815, we identified the gene coding for P815E. We also characterized the antigenic peptide that anti-P815E CTLs recognize on the MHC class I molecule H-2Kd. The P815E Ag results from a mutation within an ubiquitously expressed gene encoding methionine sulfoxide reductase, an enzyme that is believed to be important in the protection of proteins against the by-products of aerobic metabolism. Surprisingly, immunizing mice i.p. with syngeneic tumor cells (L1210) that were constructed to express B7-1 and P815E did not induce resistance against live P815, even though a strong anti-P815E CTL response was observed with splenocytes from immunized animals.
    The Journal of Immunology 04/1999; 162(6):3534-40. · 5.52 Impact Factor
  • F Fallarino, C Uyttenhove, T Boon, T F Gajewski
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    ABSTRACT: The well-characterized P815 tumor model was used to optimize anti-tumor immunization approaches in mice. Tumor peptides derived from antigens P198 or P1A were targeted to antigen-presenting cells (APC) by ex vivo pulsing. Initial experiments with irradiated pulsed splenic dendritic cells (sDC) injected weekly in the hind footpads for 3 weeks demonstrated cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) generation in 10-20% of mice. Because of the importance of interleukin-12 (IL-12) in tumor rejection responses, pulsed sDCs also were given together with recombinant murine IL-12 (rmIL-12). This strategy induced peptide-specific CTL in 100% of the mice. The IL-12 had to be injected in the footpads on days 0, 1 and 2 of each immunization week to achieve an optimal effect. The improvement seen with the addition of IL-12 prompted examination of other sources of APC. Purified resting B cells, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) blasts and nonfractionated splenocytes or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were pulsed with peptide and administered with the same schedule of rmIL-12. Because these cell types appeared to bind peptides less avidly than did DC, increasing peptide doses were used during pulsing. Interestingly, immunization with each of these APC also induced specific CTL in 100% of mice, provided rmIL-12 was coadministered. CTLs were detected both in the spleen and in the peripheral blood. Immunization with irradiated, P1A-pulsed PBMC plus rmIL-12 resulted in protection against challenge with tumors expressing the specific antigen in all mice. The ease by which human patient PBMCs can be prepared provides a straightforward vaccination approach to be used in clinical trials of peptide-based immunization in melanoma.
    International Journal of Cancer 02/1999; 80(2):324-33. · 6.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A number of human tumor antigens have been characterized recently using cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL) as screening tools. Some of them are encoded by MAGE-type genes, which are silent in normal tissues except in male germ cells, but are activated in a variety of tumors. These tumor-specific shared antigens appear to be promising targets for cancer immunotherapy. However, the choice of these antigens as targets has been questioned because of the lack of direct evidence that in vivo responses against such antigens can lead to tumor rejection. The antigen encoded by the mouse gene P1A represents the only available animal model system for MAGE-type tumor antigens. We show here that mice immunized by injection of L1210 leukemia cells expressing P1A and B7-1 (L1210.P1A.B7-1) are efficiently protected against a challenge with a lethal dose of mastocytoma P815 tumor cells, which express P1A. Mice immunized with L1210 cells expressing B7-1 but not P1A were not protected. Furthermore, we observed that P1A-transgenic mice, which are tolerant to P1A, were not protected after immunization with L1210.P1A.B7-1. These results demonstrate that the immune response to P1A is the major component of the tumor rejection response observed in normal mice, and support the use of tumor-specific shared antigens as targets for the immunotherapy of human cancer.
    European Journal of Immunology 01/1999; 28(12):4010-9. · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor antigen P815AB is recognized by cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL) on mouse mastocytoma P815. This antigen is encoded by P1A, a gene activated in several tumors but silent in normal tissues except for testis and placenta. Notwithstanding the expression of P1A in testis, we found that male mice mounted P815AB-specific CTL responses as efficiently as females. The responding males remained fertile and no autoimmune lesions were observed in their testes. By immunohistochemistry with a rabbit antiserum directed against the P1A protein, we identified spermatogonia as the testicular cells expressing P1A. The absence of MHC class-I molecules on spermatogonia could be one of the mechanisms of protection against testicular autoimmunity, as the antigenic peptide should not be displayed at the cell surface. Human genes MAGE, BAGE and GAGE, which also code for tumor antigens recognized by autologous CTL, are not expressed in normal tissues other than testis. The results obtained in mice with antigen P815AB suggest that immunization of human males with such antigens will not generate autoimmune side-effects. Although P1A is strongly expressed in placenta, we also found that gestation did not prevent generation of CTL responses against antigen P815AB, and that such CTL responses did not affect gestation outcome. We identified labyrinthine trophoblasts as the placental cells expressing P1A. Again, the absence of MHC class-I molecules on these cells provides a plausible explanation for placental protection, although other mechanisms may also play a role.
    International Journal of Cancer 02/1997; 70(3):349-56. · 6.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the efficacy of a recombinant adenovirus in inducing a cytolytic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response in mice against tumor antigen P815A, which is present on mouse mastocytoma P815. The recombinant adenoviral vector (Adeno.PIA) contained the sequence coding for the antigenic nonapeptide which binds to the H-2.Ld molecule to form antigen P815A. We verified that murine cells infected in vitro with Adeno. PIA were lysed by an anti-P815A CTL clone. Mice then received a single intradermal injection of Adeno. PIA, and after a few weeks their spleen cells were stimulated in vitro with tumor cells expressing antigen P815A. An anti-P815A CTL response was observed with the spleen lymphocytes of nearly all the mice, providing the lymphocytes were re-stimulated in vitro with cells expressing both P815A and co-stimulatory molecule B7.1. When the stimulatory cells did not express B7.1, a specific CTL response was observed in only 45% of the mice, and it was less intense. The Adeno. P1A viral vector was unable to raise an anti-P815A response in mice that had been previously infected with a recombinant adenovirus carrying the beta-galactosidase gene or with a defective adenovirus. We conclude that adenoviral vectors may be very useful for the priming of cytolytic T-cell responses directed against human tumor antigens. Other modes of immunization may be necessary to boost the responses induced with adenoviral vectors.
    International Journal of Cancer 08/1996; 67(2):303-10. · 6.20 Impact Factor
  • T F Gajewski, F Fallarino, C Uyttenhove, T Boon
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    ABSTRACT: Although transfection to express any of a multitude of immunomodulatory molecules can lead to the rejection of murine tumors in vivo, it is not clear which of these cofactors are truly important for the induction of tumor-specific CTL. Examination of the costimuli used by the host immune response during the normal rejection of immunogenic tumors should reveal critical cofactors for CTL differentiation in vivo. The involvement of a host B7 family costimulator molecule in the rejection of immunogenic tum- variants of the mastocytoma P815 was explored. Rejection of immunogenic P815 variants was prevented by mCTLA4 gamma 3, a fusion protein between the extracellular domain of murine CTLA4 and the Fc portion of a murine IgG3 Ab, indicating the importance of a CTLA4 ligand provided by the host in the rejection of B7- tumors. Tumor rejection also was prevented by mCTLA4 gamma 3 in the absence of CD4+ cells, suggesting that CD8+ lymphocytes may receive direct costimulation by B7 in vivo. Finally, although living transfectants of poorly immunogenic P1.HTR cells expressing B7-1 or B7-2 were equally rejected by syngeneic mice, if delivered as multiple injections of irradiated cells, only B7-1 transfectants successfully induced CTL activity and protected against living tumor challenge. Our results indicate that a CTLA4 ligand is normally involved in the generation of CD8+ CTL against tumor Ag and suggest that immunization with irradiated B7-1-transfected tumor cells may be superior to immunization with irradiated B7-2 transfectants as an approach to tumor Ag vaccination in patients.
    The Journal of Immunology 05/1996; 156(8):2909-17. · 5.52 Impact Factor
  • F Fallarino, C Uyttenhove, T Boon, T F Gajewski
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    ABSTRACT: Although murine tumor cells have been transfected to express a multitude of different cytokines and shown to be rejected in vivo, it is unclear which of these factors might be useful to facilitate tumor Ag immunization schemes. A study of the normal immune mechanisms involved in tumor rejection when it naturally occurs should reveal critical signals for generation of antitumor CTL in vivo. The highly transfectable variant of P815, P1.HTR, was found to be rejected in the hind footpads by approximately one-third of syngeneic DBA/2 mice. Analysis of draining popliteal lymph nodes revealed a large influx of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in all mice, indicating that a failure to reject was not due to the complete absence of an inflammatory response. However, although IL-2 and IL-3 were produced by lymph node cells from all mice, only approximately one-third generated a high IFN-gamma response. IL-4 was not detected. To explore a role for IL-12 in the induction of the IFN-gamma-producing phenotype, a histidine-tagged IL-12 fusion protein was expressed in mammalian cells and purified by nickel-chelate chromatography, and a rabbit antiserum was produced. Neutralization of IL-12 in vivo eliminated the high IFN-gamma response and prevented rejection of P1.HTR tumors and also of a more immunogenic tum- variant of P815, P198. Conversely, exogenous IL-12 delivered early during challenge with P1.HTR cells induced high IFN-gamma production and resulted in tumor rejection in most mice. Therefore, endogenous IL-12 is vital for the rejection of these tumors when it naturally occurs, supporting a role for exogenous administration of this cytokine to favor a Th1-like phenotype in the immunotherapy of cancer.
    The Journal of Immunology 03/1996; 156(3):1095-100. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses, mediated by CD8+ cells and detected by skin test assay, occur in sensitized mice in response to challenge with class I-restricted antigenic peptides of mutagenized (tum-) P815 mastocytoma cells. In contrast, a nonapeptide related to a tumor rejection antigen, P815AB, failed in this study to elicit DTH after sensitization of mice with irradiated tumor cells or adoptive transfer of P815AB-pulsed dendritic cells. Unresponsiveness, however, could be overcome by immunization with tumor cells co-expressing P815AB and tum- antigens. When used for cell pulsing in vitro, a mixture of P815AB and tum- peptides was also highly effective in inducing anti-P815AB reactivity, as was the combined use of P815AB and class II-restricted peptides of tetanus toxin or Plasmodium berghei circumsporozoite protein. While the effector phase of the CD8+ cell-mediated DTH to P815AB was unaffected by the ablation of CD4+ cells, the same treatment, or neutralization of IFN-gamma, negated the induction of reactivity if it occurred at the time of sensitization. Thus, defective activation of CD4+ cells may contribute to the poor immunogenicity of P815AB. Besides providing an insight into the mechanisms of anti-tumor protection induced by tum- cells, these data offer useful information for the design of vaccination strategies against identified tumor antigens.
    European Journal of Immunology 11/1995; 25(10):2797-802. · 4.97 Impact Factor
  • Immunological Reviews 07/1995; 145:229-50. · 12.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have observed delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions in immunized mice challenged subcutaneously with class I-binding peptides related to rejection antigens recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes on mutagenized (tum-) variants of mastocytoma P815. As observed by skin test in virally infected mice challenged with viral peptides, the intrafootpad injection of tum- peptides resulted in a dose-dependent DTH that peaked at approximately 24 h. The response was mediated by CD8+ cells and could be induced by previous vaccination of mice with live tumor cells, intrasplenic deposition of the eliciting peptide, or adoptive transfer with peptide-pulsed syngeneic dendritic cells. These sensitization procedures resulted in an immunologically specific footpad reaction detectable for up to 2-6 months after priming. The evaluation by DTH in cancer patients of long-lived CD8+ anti-tumor T cell responses following local challenge with tumor-specific peptides may be of great interest in human immunotherapy trials involving immunization against identified tumor antigens.
    European Journal of Immunology 07/1994; 24(6):1446-52. · 4.97 Impact Factor
  • International review of experimental pathology 02/1993; 34 Pt A:99-109.

Publication Stats

3k Citations
292.07 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1985–2004
    • Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research Ltd Belgium
      Bruxelles, Brussels Capital Region, Belgium
  • 2001
    • University of Illinois at Chicago
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 1988–1999
    • Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research
      La Jolla, California, United States
  • 1981–1999
    • Catholic University of Louvain
      • Duve Institute
      Walloon Region, Belgium
  • 1995
    • Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique (FNRS)
      Bruxelles, Brussels Capital Region, Belgium
  • 1992
    • KU Leuven
      • Rega Institute for Medical Research
      Leuven, VLG, Belgium