[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, there has been a renewed interest in the development of new drugs for the treatment of leishmaniasis. This has spurred
the need for pharmacodynamic markers to monitor and compare therapies specifically for visceral leishmaniasis, in which the
primary recrudescence of parasites is a particularly long-term event that remains difficult to predict. We performed a systematic
review of studies evaluating biomarkers in human patients with visceral, cutaneous, and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis,
which yielded a total of 170 studies in which 53 potential pharmacodynamic biomarkers were identified. In conclusion, the
large majority of these biomarkers constituted universal indirect markers of activation and subsequent waning of cellular
immunity and therefore lacked specificity. Macrophage-related markers demonstrate favorable sensitivity and times to normalcy,
but more evidence is required to establish a link between these markers and clinical outcome. Most promising are the markers
directly related to the parasite burden, but future effort should be focused on optimization of molecular or antigenic targets
to increase the sensitivity of these markers. In general, future research should focus on the longitudinal evaluation of the
pharmacodynamic biomarkers during treatment, with an emphasis on the correlation of studied biomarkers and clinical parameters.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women worldwide. In low and middle-income countries (LMICs), appropriate selection of medicines on national essential medicines lists (NEMLs) is a first step towards adequate access to treatment. We studied selection of systemic treatments for breast cancer on NEMLs and assessed its alignment with treatment guidelines for different types of early and advanced breast cancer. Furthermore, influence of country characteristics on the selection was investigated.
NEMLs from 75 LMICs were studied for inclusion of all components of therapy in each stage of breast cancer according to international consensus guidelines. The results were then grouped by income level, WHO region and the NEMLs' release date. Non parametric tests were used for statistical analysis.
Unlike HER2-targeted therapies (<10 %), aromatase inhibitors (12 %) and taxanes (28 %); tamoxifen and first generation chemotherapeutic regimens (e.g., anthracycline-based regimens) were frequently found in the NEMLs (71-78 %). Consequently, all components of treatment for "Luminal A" early breast cancer and non HER2 overexpressed advanced breast cancer were found on the NEMLs of over 70 % of countries. However, 40 % of the low income countries did not have all the components of therapy for any type of early breast cancer in their NEMLs, and adequate treatment of HER2 overexpressed breast cancer was hardly possible with the current selections. Recent NEMLs were more aligned with the guidelines (p < 0.05). Eastern Mediterranean and African regions less frequently incorporated all components of breast cancer treatment in their NEMLs.
Alignment of selection with guidelines' recommendations was inconsistent for different types of early and advanced breast cancer in NEMLs. Regular updates and more attention to clinical guidelines is therefore recommended.
BMC Cancer 12/2015; 15(1):591. DOI:10.1186/s12885-015-1583-4 · 3.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
GSK2126458 (GSK458) is a potent inhibitor of PI3K (α, β, γ, δ), with pre-clinical studies demonstrating broad anti-tumor activity. We performed a first-in-human phase 1 study in patients with advanced solid tumors.
Patients received oral GSK458 once or twice daily in a dose escalation design to define the maximally tolerated dose (MTD). Expansion cohorts evaluated pharmacodynamics (PD), pharmacokinetics (PK), and clinical activity in histologically- and molecularly-defined cohorts.
170 patients received doses ranging from 0.1 to 3 mg once or twice daily. Dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) (grade 3 diarrhea, n=4; fatigue and rash, n=1) occurred in 5 patients (n=3 at 3 mg/day). The MTD was 2.5 mg/day (MTD with twice daily dosing undefined). The most common grade ≥3 treatment-related adverse events included diarrhea (8%) and skin rash (5%). PK analyses demonstrated increased duration of drug exposure above target level with twice daily dosing. Fasting insulin and glucose levels increased with dose and exposure of GSK458. Durable objective responses (OR) were observed across multiple tumor types (sarcoma, kidney, breast, endometrial, oropharyngeal, and bladder cancer). Responses were not associated with PIK3CA mutations (OR rate: 5% wild-type versus 6% mutant).
Although the MTD of GSK458 was 2.5 mg once daily, twice daily dosing may increase duration of target inhibition. Fasting insulin and glucose levels served as PD markers of drug exposure. Select patients achieved durable responses however PIK3CA mutations were neither necessary nor predictive of response. Combination treatment strategies and novel biomarkers may be needed to optimally target PI3K.
Clinical Cancer Research 11/2015; DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-15-1665 · 8.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Moderate diagnostic accuracy of MRI and initial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology analysis results in at least 10%-15% false negative diagnoses of leptomeningeal metastases (LM) of solid tumors, thus postponing start of therapy. The aim of this prospective clinical study was to determine the diagnostic value of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM)-based flow cytometry versus cytology in CSF for the diagnosis of LM in patients with epithelial tumors.
Patients with a clinical suspicion of LM but a negative or inconclusive MRI in whom a diagnostic lumbar puncture has to be performed were included. At least 5 mL of CSF for cytology, 5 mL for flow cytometry, 2 mL for cell count and biochemistry, and 8 mL whole blood samples for circulating tumor cells measurements and biochemistry were drawn. Tumor cells in CSF and whole blood were detected by multiparameter flow cytometry using EpCAM antibody.
In total 29 eligible patients were enrolled in the study. Thirteen patients were ultimately diagnosed with LM. The flow cytometry assay showed 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity for diagnosing LM, while sensitivity of CSF cytology was only 61.5%. Cell count or biochemical parameters in CSF were abnormal in 100% of patients with LM.
Our results suggest that the EpCAM-based flow cytometry assay is superior to CSF cytology for the diagnosis of LM in patients with an epithelial tumor, a clinical suspicion of LM, and a nonconclusive MRI. Confirmation of these data is needed in a larger dataset to recommend dual CSF diagnostics for LM.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
The prognosis of gastroesophageal cancer is poor, and current regimens are associated with limited efficacy. The purpose of this study was to explore the safety and preliminary efficacy of docetaxel, oxaliplatin plus capecitabine for advanced cancer of the stomach or the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ). Secondary objectives included pharmacokinetic and pharmacogenetic analyses.
Patients were treated in escalating dose levels with docetaxel and oxaliplatin (both on day 1), plus capecitabine b.i.d. on days 1-14 every 3 weeks, to determine the dose-limiting toxicity and maximum tolerated dose (MTD). An expansion cohort was treated at the MTD. A total of ten polymorphisms in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic candidate genes were analyzed and tested for association with treatment outcome.
A total of 34 evaluable patients were enrolled. The MTD was docetaxel 50 mg/m(2), oxaliplatin 100 mg/m(2) plus capecitabine 850 mg/m(2) b.i.d. The median number of treatment cycles was 6 (range 2-8). Grade ≥ 3 toxicities included neutropenia (24 %), leukocytopenia (15 %), febrile neutropenia (12 %), fatigue (9 %) and diarrhea (6 %). The overall response rate was 45 %; two patients achieved a complete response. Median progression-free survival and overall survival were 6.5 months (95 % CI 5.4-7.6) and 11.0 months (95 % CI 7.9-14.1), respectively. The polymorphisms ERCC1 354C>T, TYMS 1053C>T and rs2612091 in ENOSF1 were associated with severe toxicity; ERCC1 354C>T and ERCC2 2251A>C were associated with poor progression-free survival.
Docetaxel, oxaliplatin plus capecitabine are a well-tolerable, safe and effective treatment regimen for patients with advanced cancer of the stomach or GEJ. Pharmacogenetic markers in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic candidate genes may be predictive for treatment outcome.
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 10/2015; 76(6). DOI:10.1007/s00280-015-2872-y · 2.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The treatment for central nervous system metastases of solid tumors and gliomas is limited as the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is an obstacle to systemic therapy. Here, we review the physiochemical properties of the BBB and both current and new drug strategies to penetrate brain tumors. We focus on targeting receptor- or carrier-mediated transport mechanisms over the BBB used by drug conjugates, nanoparticles, polymer-based nanocarriers, siRNA, and antibodies.
Journal of Neurology 10/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00415-015-7919-9 · 3.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
A first-in-human phase I study was conducted to characterize safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) properties of lumretuzumab, a humanized and glycoengineered anti-HER3 monoclonal antibody, in advanced cancer patients.
Twenty-five patients with histologically confirmed HER3-expressing tumors received lumretuzumab (100, 200, 400, 800, 1600 and 2000 mg) q2w in 3+3 dose escalation phase. Additionally, 22 patients were enrolled into an extension cohort at 2000 mg q2w.
There were no dose-limiting toxicities. Common adverse events (any grade) included diarrhea (22 patients [46.8%]), fatigue (21 patients [44.7%]), decreased appetite (15 patients [31.9%]), infusion-related reactions (13 patients [27.7%]) and constipation (10 patients [21.3%]). The peak concentration (Cmax) and area under the concentration - time curve up to the last measurable concentration (AUClast) of lumretuzumab increased more than dose proportionally from 100 mg up to 400 mg. Linear PK was observed with doses ≥400 mg q2w indicating target-mediated drug disposition saturation. Down-regulation of HER3 membranous protein was observed in on-treatment tumor biopsies from 200 mg, and was maximal at and above 400 mg. An ex-vivo assay demonstrated increased activation potential of peripheral NK lymphocytes with lumretuzumab compared to a non-glycoengineered anti-HER3 antibody. Ten patients (21.3%) had stable disease and remained on study at a median of 111 days (range: 80 to 225 days).
Lumretuzumab was well tolerated and showed evidence of clinical activity. Linear serum PK properties and plateauing of PD effects in serial tumor biopsies indicate optimal biologically active doses of lumretuzumab from 400 mg onwards.
Clinical Cancer Research 10/2015; DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-15-1683 · 8.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
The TWEAK-Fn14 pathway represents a novel anticancer target that is being actively investigated. Understanding the relationship between pharmacokinetics of anti-TWEAK therapeutics and tumor pharmacodynamics is critical. We investigated exposure-response relationships of RG7212, an anti-TWEAK mAb, in patients with Fn14-expressing tumors.
Patients with Fn14-positive tumors (IHC≥1+) treated in a phase I first-in-human study with ascending doses of RG7212 were the basis for this analysis. Pharmacokinetics of RG7212 and dynamics of TWEAK were determined, as were changes in tumor TWEAK-Fn14 signaling in paired pre- and post-treatment tumor biopsies. The objectives of the analysis were to define exposure-response relationships and the relationship between pretreatment tumor Fn14 expression and pharmacodynamic effect. Associations between changes in TWEAK-Fn14 signaling and clinical outcome were explored.
Thirty-six patients were included in the analysis. RG7212 reduced plasma TWEAK to undetectable levels at all observed RG7212 exposures. In contrast, reductions in tumor Fn14 and TRAF1 protein expression were observed only at higher exposure (≥300 mg*h/ml). Significant reductions in tumor Ki67 expression and early changes in serum concentrations of CCL-2 and MMP-9 were observed exclusively in patients with higher drug exposure who had high pretreatment tumor Fn14 expression. Pretreatment tumor Fn14 expression was not associated with outcome, but a trend towards longer time on study was observed with high versus low RG7212 exposure.
RG7212 reduced tumor TWEAK-Fn14 signaling in a systemic exposure-dependent manner. In addition to higher exposure, relatively high Fn14 expression might be required for pharmacodynamic effect of anti-TWEAK monoclonal antibodies.
Clinical Cancer Research 10/2015; DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-15-1506 · 8.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A validated simple, fast and sensitive bio-analytical assay for ibrutinib and its dihydrodiol metabolite in human and mouse plasma was set up. Sample preparation was performed by protein precipitation, and addition of the respective deuterated internal standards, followed by LC-MS/MS analysis. Separation was performed on a 3.5μm particle-size, bridged ethylene hybrid column with gradient elution by 0.1% v/v formic acid and acetonitrile. The full eluate was transferred to an electrospray interface in positive ionization mode, and subsequently analyzed by a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer by selected reaction monitoring. The assay was validated in a 5-5000 ng/ml calibration range. Both ibrutinib and dihydrodiol-ibrutinib were deemed stable under refrigerated or frozen storage conditions. At room temperature, ibrutinib showed a not earlier described instability, and revealed rapid degradation at 37°C. Finally, the assay was used for a pharmacokinetic study of plasma levels in treated FVB mice.
Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis 10/2015; 118. DOI:10.1016/j.jpba.2015.10.033 · 2.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Lapatinib has proven efficacy as monotherapy and in combination with capecitabine in patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) overexpressing HER2 and/or EGFR. Gemcitabine also has anti-tumor activity in MBC and a favourable toxicity profile. In this phase I study lapatinib and gemcitabine were combined. Methods Female patients with advanced BC were given lapatinib once daily (QD) in 28-day cycles with gemcitabine administered on day 1, 8 and 15. Physical examinations, vital signs and blood sampling for hematology, clinical chemistry and pharmacokinetics (PK) and radiological assessments of disease were performed at regular intervals. Results In total, 33 patients were included. Six dose-limiting toxicities were observed, mostly grade 3 increases in liver function tests. Most common toxicities were fatigue (73 %), nausea (70 %), diarrhea (58 %), increases in ALAT and ASAT (55 and 52 %, respectively) and rash (46 %). The maximum tolerated dose was lapatinib 1250 mg QD with gemcitabine 1000 mg/m(2). Lapatinib and gemcitabine PK did not appear to be influenced by each other. Anti-tumor activity was observed with one patient (4 %) showing complete response and six (23 %) partial response. Conclusion Despite a slightly increased toxicity profile compared to their respective monotherapies, lapatinib and gemcitabine can be safely combined while showing signs of anti-tumor activity.
Investigational New Drugs 09/2015; 33(6). DOI:10.1007/s10637-015-0281-z · 2.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer has been characterized as a genetically heterogeneous disease, with a large diversity in molecular pathogenesis resulting in differential responses to therapy. However, the currently available validated biomarkers KRAS, BRAF, and microsatellite instability do not sufficiently cover this extensive heterogeneity and are therefore not suitable to successfully guide personalized treatment. Recent studies have focused on novel targets and rationally designed combination strategies. Furthermore, a more comprehensive analysis of the underlying biology of the disease revealed distinct phenotypic differences within subgroups of patients harboring the same genetic driver mutation with both prognostic and predictive relevance. Accordingly, patient stratification based on molecular intrinsic subtypes rather than on single gene aberrations holds promise to improve the clinical outcome of patients with colorectal cancer.
Current Colorectal Cancer Reports 08/2015; 11(6). DOI:10.1007/s11888-015-0288-z
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This phase I study evaluated the safety, tolerability, maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and pharmacokinetics of two dosing schedules of oral topotecan in combination with pazopanib in patients with advanced solid tumours.
Stage I of this study was to determine whether there was an impact of pazopanib on topotecan exposure. In stage II, the MTD and safety profile of oral topotecan given weekly on days 1, 8 and 15 in a 28-day cycle; or daily-times-five on days 1-5 in a 21-day cycle, both in combination with daily pazopanib, were explored.
In total, 67 patients were enroled. Pazopanib co-administration caused a substantial increase in exposure to total topotecan (1.7-fold) compared with topotecan alone, which is considered clinically relevant. Topotecan had no effect on pazopanib concentrations. Safety findings were consistent with the known profile of both agents. There were three drug-related deaths, liver failure, tumour haemorrhage and myelosuppression. Two patients experienced dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs; hand-foot syndrome, myelosuppression and diarrhoea) on the weekly topotecan schedule and four patients experienced DLTs (myelosuppression) on the daily-times-five topotecan schedule. When combined with pazopanib, 800 mg daily, the recommended doses for oral topotecan are: 8 mg weekly and 2.5 mg daily-times-five. Seven of eight patients with partial response had platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. In addition, 54% of patients had stable disease with 22% stable for 6 months.
Total topotecan exposure is 1.7-fold higher when co-administered with pazopanib. Both schedules of administration were tolerated and would permit further evaluation, especially the weekly schedule.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 20 August 2015; doi:10.1038/bjc.2015.257 www.bjcancer.com.
British Journal of Cancer 08/2015; 113(5). DOI:10.1038/bjc.2015.257 · 4.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Olaparib (AZD2281), a PARP-1/2 inhibitor, has been extensively investigated in clinical trials. However, limited clinical data are available about its long-term safety and anti-tumour activity.
Patients had first participated in a phase I study of olaparib combined with carboplatin and/or paclitaxel. They continued with olaparib monotherapy in their best interest if they failed to tolerate the combination due to the treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs). Safety data were collected by physical examination and regular laboratory evaluations. Disease evaluations were performed by CT scan.
At data cutoff, 21 patients were included; 10 with breast, 9 with ovarian and 2 with fallopian tube cancer of whom 16 patients had a BRCA mutation (13 BRCA1; 3 BRCA2). TRAEs were mostly haematological and most prominent shortly after switching from combination to monotherapy, probably due to carry-over effects of chemotherapy. Over time, both severity and frequency of TRAEs decreased. Responses to olaparib were durable with a median treatment duration of 52 (range 7-183) weeks. In total, nine (43%) patients were still on study at data cutoff.
Continued long-term daily olaparib was found to be safe and tolerable. Encouragingly, patients who showed a favourable response on earlier combination therapy maintained this response on olaparib monotherapy.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 16 July 2015; doi:10.1038/bjc.2015.256 www.bjcancer.com.
British Journal of Cancer 07/2015; 113(3). DOI:10.1038/bjc.2015.256 · 4.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Annexin A1 (ANXA1) is a protein related with the carcinogenesis process and metastasis formation in many tumors. However, little is known about the prognostic value of ANXA1 in breast cancer. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association between ANXA1 expression, BRCA1/2 germline carriership, specific tumor subtypes and survival in breast cancer patients.
Clinical-pathological information and follow-up data were collected from nine breast cancer studies from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) (n = 5,752) and from one study of familial breast cancer patients with BRCA1/2 mutations (n = 107). ANXA1 expression was scored based on the percentage of immunohistochemical staining in tumor cells. Survival analyses were performed using a multivariable Cox model.
The frequency of ANXA1 positive tumors was higher in familial breast cancer patients with BRCA1/2 mutations than in BCAC patients, with 48.6 % versus 12.4 %, respectively; P <0.0001. ANXA1 was also highly expressed in BCAC tumors that were poorly differentiated, triple negative, EGFR-CK5/6 positive or had developed in patients at a young age. In the first 5 years of follow-up, patients with ANXA1 positive tumors had a worse breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) than ANXA1 negative (HRadj = 1.35; 95 % CI = 1.05-1.73), but the association weakened after 10 years (HRadj = 1.13; 95 % CI = 0.91-1.40). ANXA1 was a significant independent predictor of survival in HER2+ patients (10-years BCSS: HRadj = 1.70; 95 % CI = 1.17-2.45).
ANXA1 is overexpressed in familial breast cancer patients with BRCA1/2 mutations and correlated with poor prognosis features: triple negative and poorly differentiated tumors. ANXA1 might be a biomarker candidate for breast cancer survival prediction in high risk groups such as HER2+ cases.
BMC Medicine 07/2015; 13(1):156. DOI:10.1186/s12916-015-0392-6 · 7.25 Impact Factor