A Kimchi

Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel

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Publications (153)1332.81 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Autophagy is a tightly regulated catabolic process, which is upregulated in cells in response to many different stress signals. Inhibition of mammalian target of rapmaycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a crucial step in induction of autophagy, yet the mechanisms regulating the fine tuning of its activity are not fully understood. Here we show that death-associated protein kinase 2 (DAPK2), a Ca(2+)-regulated serine/threonine kinase, directly interacts with and phosphorylates mTORC1, and has a part in suppressing mTOR activity to promote autophagy induction. DAPK2 knockdown reduced autophagy triggered either by amino acid deprivation or by increases in intracellular Ca(2+) levels. At the molecular level, DAPK2 depletion interfered with mTORC1 inhibition caused by these two stresses, as reflected by the phosphorylation status of mTORC1 substrates, ULK1 (unc-51-like kinase 1), p70 ribosomal S6 kinase and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1. An increase in mTORC1 kinase activity was also apparent in unstressed cells that were depleted of DAPK2. Immunoprecipitated mTORC1 from DAPK2-depleted cells showed increased kinase activity in vitro, an indication that DAPK2 regulation of mTORC1 is inherent to the complex itself. Indeed, we found that DAPK2 associates with components of mTORC1, as demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation with mTOR and its complex partners, raptor (regulatory-associated protein of mTOR) and ULK1. DAPK2 was also able to interact directly with raptor, as shown by recombinant protein-binding assay. Finally, DAPK2 was shown to phosphorylate raptor in vitro. This phosphorylation was mapped to Ser721, a site located within a highly phosphorylated region of raptor that has previously been shown to regulate mTORC1 activity. Thus, DAPK2 is a novel kinase of mTORC1 and is a potential new member of this multiprotein complex, modulating mTORC1 activity and autophagy levels under stress and steady-state conditions.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 31 October 2014; doi:10.1038/cdd.2014.177.
    Cell death and differentiation. 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Apoptosis and autophagy are distinct biological processes, each driven by a different set of protein-protein interactions, with significant crosstalk via direct interactions among apoptotic and autophagic proteins. To measure the global profile of these interactions, we adapted the Gaussia luciferase protein-fragment complementation assay (GLuc PCA), which monitors binding between proteins fused to complementary fragments of a luciferase reporter. A library encompassing 63 apoptotic and autophagic proteins was constructed for the analysis of ∼3,600 protein-pair combinations. This generated a detailed landscape of the apoptotic and autophagic modules and points of interface between them, identifying 46 previously unknown interactions. One of these interactions, between DAPK2, a Ser/Thr kinase that promotes autophagy, and 14-3-3τ, was further investigated. We mapped the region responsible for 14-3-3τ binding and proved that this interaction inhibits DAPK2 dimerization and activity. This proof of concept underscores the power of the GLuc PCA platform for the discovery of biochemical pathways within the cell death network.
    Cell reports. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: DAP-kinase (DAPK) is a Ca(2+)-calmodulin regulated kinase with various, diverse cellular activities, including regulation of apoptosis and caspase-independent death programs, cytoskeletal dynamics, and immune functions. Recently, DAPK has also been shown to be a critical regulator of autophagy, a catabolic process whereby the cell consumes cytoplasmic contents and organelles within specialized vesicles, called autophagosomes. Here we present the latest findings demonstrating how DAPK modulates autophagy. DAPK positively contributes to the induction stage of autophagosome nucleation by modulating the Vps34 class III phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase complex by two independent mechanisms. The first involves a kinase cascade in which DAPK phosphorylates protein kinase D, which then phosphorylates and activates Vps34. In the second mechanism, DAPK directly phosphorylates Beclin 1, a necessary component of the Vps34 complex, thereby releasing it from its inhibitor, Bcl-2. In addition to these established pathways, we will discuss additional connections between DAPK and autophagy and potential mechanisms that still remain to be fully validated. These include myosin-dependent trafficking of Atg9-containing vesicles to the sites of autophagosome formation, membrane fusion events that contribute to expansion of the autophagosome membrane and maturation through the endocytic pathway, and trafficking to the lysosome on microtubules. Finally, we discuss how DAPK's participation in the autophagic process may be related to its function as a tumor suppressor protein, and its role in neurodegenerative diseases.
    Apoptosis 11/2013; · 4.07 Impact Factor
  • Shani Bialik, Adi Kimchi
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    ABSTRACT: DAP-kinase (DAPK) is a Ca(2+)/calmodulin regulated Ser/Thr kinase that activates a diverse range of cellular activities. It is subject to multiple layers of regulation involving both intramolecular signaling, and interactions with additional proteins, including other kinases and phosphatases. Its protein stability is modulated by at least three distinct ubiquitin-dependent systems. Like many kinases, DAPK participates in several signaling cascades, by phosphorylating additional kinases such as ZIP-kinase and protein kinase D (PKD), or Pin1, a phospho-directed peptidyl-prolyl isomerase that regulates the function of many phosphorylated proteins. Other substrate targets have more direct cellular effects; for example, phosphorylation of the myosin II regulatory chain and tropomyosin mediate some of DAPK's cytoskeletal functions, including membrane blebbing during cell death and cell motility. DAPK induces distinct death pathways of apoptosis, autophagy and programmed necrosis. Among the substrates implicated in these processes, phosphorylation of PKD, Beclin 1, and the NMDA receptor has been reported. Interestingly, not all cellular effects are mediated by DAPK's catalytic activity. For example, by virtue of protein-protein interactions alone, DAPK activates pyruvate kinase isoform M2, the microtubule affinity regulating kinases and inflammasome protein NLRP3, to promote glycolysis, influence microtubule dynamics, and enhance interleukin-1β production, respectively. In addition, a number of other substrates and interacting proteins have been identified, the physiological significance of which has not yet been established. All of these substrates, effectors and regulators together comprise the DAPK interactome. By presenting the components of the interactome network, this review will clarify both the mechanisms by which DAPK function is regulated, and by which it mediates its various cellular effects.
    Apoptosis 11/2013; · 4.07 Impact Factor
  • Ruth Shiloh, Shani Bialik, Adi Kimchi
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    ABSTRACT: DAP-kinase (DAPK) is the founding member of a family of highly related, death associated Ser/Thr kinases that belongs to the calmodulin (CaM)-regulated kinase superfamily. The family includes DRP-1 and ZIP-kinase (ZIPK), both of which share significant homology within the common N-terminal kinase domain, but differ in their extra-catalytic domains. Both DAPK and DRP-1 possess a conserved CaM autoregulatory domain, and are regulated by calcium-activated CaM and by an inhibitory auto-phosphorylation within the domain. ZIPK's activity is independent of CaM but can be activated by DAPK. The three kinases share some common functions and substrates, such as induction of autophagy and phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain leading to membrane blebbing. Furthermore, all can function as tumor suppressors. However, they also each possess unique functions and intracellular localizations, which may arise from the divergence in structure in their respective C-termini. In this review we will introduce the DAPK family, and present a structure/function analysis for each individual member, and for the family as a whole. Emphasis will be placed on the various domains, and how they mediate interactions with additional proteins and/or regulation of kinase function.
    Apoptosis 11/2013; · 4.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Translational regulation of the p53 mRNA can determine the ratio between p53 and its N-terminal truncated isoforms and therefore has a significant role in determining p53-regulated signaling pathways. Although its importance in cell fate decisions has been demonstrated repeatedly, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms that determine this ratio. Two internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) residing within the 5'UTR and the coding sequence of p53 mRNA drive the translation of full-length p53 and Δ40p53 isoform, respectively. Here, we report that DAP5, a translation initiation factor shown to positively regulate the translation of various IRES containing mRNAs, promotes IRES-driven translation of p53 mRNA. Upon DAP5 depletion, p53 and Δ40p53 protein levels were decreased, with a greater effect on the N-terminal truncated isoform. Functional analysis using bicistronic vectors driving the expression of a reporter gene from each of these two IRESs indicated that DAP5 preferentially promotes translation from the second IRES residing in the coding sequence. Furthermore, p53 mRNA expressed from a plasmid carrying this second IRES was selectively shifted to lighter polysomes upon DAP5 knockdown. Consequently, Δ40p53 protein levels and the subsequent transcriptional activation of the 14-3-3σ gene, a known target of Δ40p53, were strongly reduced. In addition, we show here that DAP5 interacts with p53 IRES elements in in vitro and in vivo binding studies, proving for the first time that DAP5 directly binds a target mRNA. Thus, through its ability to regulate IRES-dependent translation of the p53 mRNA, DAP5 may control the ratio between different p53 isoforms encoded by a single mRNA.Oncogene advance online publication, 14 January 2013; doi:10.1038/onc.2012.626.
    Oncogene 01/2013; · 8.56 Impact Factor
  • Itay Koren, Adi Kimchi
    Science 11/2012; 338(6109):889-90. · 31.20 Impact Factor
  • Assaf D Rubinstein, Adi Kimchi
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    ABSTRACT: Cellular stress triggers a fascinating decision-making process in cells; they can either attempt to survive until the stress is resolved through the activation of cytoprotective pathways, such as autophagy, or can commit suicide by apoptosis in order to prevent further damage to surrounding healthy cells. Although autophagy and apoptosis constitute distinct cellular processes with often opposing outcomes, their signalling pathways are extensively interconnected through various mechanisms of crosstalk. The physiological relevance of the autophagy-apoptosis crosstalk is not well understood, but it is presumed to facilitate a controlled and well-balanced cellular response to a given stress signal. In this Commentary, we explore the various mechanisms by which autophagy and apoptosis regulate each other, and define general paradigms of crosstalk on the basis of mechanistic features. One paradigm relates to physical and functional interactions between pairs of specific apoptotic and autophagic proteins. In a second mechanistic paradigm, the apoptosis or autophagy processes (as opposed to individual proteins) regulate each other through induced caspase and autolysosomal activity, respectively. In a third paradigm unique to autophagy, caspases are recruited and activated on autophagosomal membranes. These mechanistic paradigms are discernible experimentally, and can therefore be used as a practical guide for the interpretation of experimental data.
    Journal of Cell Science 11/2012; 125(Pt 22):5259-68. · 5.88 Impact Factor
  • Shani Bialik, Adi Kimchi
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    ABSTRACT: DAPK (death-associated protein kinase) is a newly recognized member of the mammalian family of ROCO proteins, characterized by common ROC (Ras of complex proteins) and COR (C-terminal of ROC) domains. In the present paper, we review our recent work showing that DAPK is functionally a ROCO protein; its ROC domain binds and hydrolyses GTP. Furthermore, GTP binding regulates DAPK catalytic activity in a novel manner by enhancing autophosphorylation on inhibitory Ser308, thereby promoting the kinase 'off' state. This is a novel mechanism for in cis regulation of kinase activity by the distal ROC domain. The functional similarities between DAPK and the Parkinson's disease-associated protein LRRK2 (leucine-rich repeat protein kinase 2), another member of the ROCO family, are also discussed.
    Biochemical Society Transactions 10/2012; 40(5):1052-7. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Comment on: Ogawa T, et al. Cell Cycle 2012; 11:1656-63.
    Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 06/2012; 11(11):2051. · 5.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
    Autophagy 04/2012; 8(4):445. · 12.04 Impact Factor
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    Autophagy 04/2012; 8(4):1-100. · 12.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process versus those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process);5,6 thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
    Autophagy 04/2012; 8(4). · 12.04 Impact Factor
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
    Autophagy 04/2012; 8(4):445-544. · 12.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Death-associated protein kinase (DAPk) is a tumor suppressor thought to inhibit cancer by promoting apoptosis and autophagy. Because cancer progression is linked to inflammation, we investigated the in vivo functions of DAPk in lung responses to various acute and chronic inflammatory stimuli. Lungs of DAPk knockout (KO) mice secreted higher concentrations of IL-6 and keratinocyte chemoattractant (or chemokine [C-X-C motif] ligand 1) in response to transient intranasal administrations of the Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) agonist LPS. In addition, DAPk-null macrophages and neutrophils were hyperresponsive to ex vivo stimulation with LPS. DAPk-null neutrophils were also hyperresponsive to activation via Fc receptor and Toll-like receptor-3, indicating that the suppressive functions of this kinase are not restricted to TLR4 pathways. Even after the reconstitution of DAPk-null lungs with DAPk-expressing leukocytes by transplanting wild-type (WT) bone marrow into lethally irradiated DAPk KO mice, the chimeric mice remained hypersensitive to both acute and chronic LPS challenges, as well as to tobacco smoke exposure. DAPk-null lungs reconstituted with WT leukocytes exhibited elevated neutrophil content and augmented cytokine secretion in the bronchoalveolar space, as well as enhanced epithelial cell injury in response to both acute and chronic inflammatory conditions. These results suggest that DAPk attenuates a variety of inflammatory responses, both in lung leukocytes and in lung epithelial cells. The DAPk-mediated suppression of lung inflammation and airway injury may contribute to the tumor-suppressor functions of this kinase in epithelial carcinogenesis.
    American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 03/2012; 46(3):313-22. · 4.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) that accumulate under oxidative pressure cause severe damage to cellular components, and induce various cellular responses, including apoptosis, programmed necrosis and autophagy, depending on the cellular setting. Various studies have described ROS-induced autophagy, but only a few direct factors that regulate autophagy under oxidative stress are known to date. We have identified DAPK and PKD as such regulators by demonstrating their role in the process of autophagy in general, and specifically during oxidative stress. PKD acts as a downstream effector of DAPk in the regulation of autophagy. Furthermore, PKD functions within the autophagic network as an activator of VPS34, by associating with and phosphorylating VPS34, leading to its activation. Significantly, PKD is recruited to the autophagosomal membranes, placing it within proximity of its autophagic target.
    Autophagy 03/2012; 8(3):433-4. · 12.04 Impact Factor
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    Inbal Mor, Shani Bialik, Adi Kimchi
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    ABSTRACT: Comment on: Mor I, et al. Oncogene. 2011; In press; doi: 10.1038/onc.2011.264.
    Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 01/2012; 11(1):3-4. · 5.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Autophagy and apoptosis constitute important determinants of cell fate and engage in a complex interplay in both physiological and pathological settings. The molecular basis of this crosstalk is poorly understood and relies, in part, on "dual-function" proteins that operate in both processes. Here, we identify the essential autophagy protein Atg12 as a positive mediator of mitochondrial apoptosis and show that Atg12 directly regulates the apoptotic pathway by binding and inactivating prosurvival Bcl-2 family members, including Bcl-2 and Mcl-1. The binding occurs independently of Atg5 or Atg3 and requires a unique BH3-like motif in Atg12, characterized by interaction studies and computational docking. In apoptotic cells, knockdown of Atg12 inhibited Bax activation and cytochrome c release, while ectopic expression of Atg12 antagonized the antiapoptotic activity of Mcl-1. The interaction between Atg12 and Bcl-2 family members may thus constitute an important point of convergence between autophagy and apoptosis in response to specific signals.
    Molecular cell 12/2011; 44(5):698-709. · 14.61 Impact Factor