F Quarello

Ospedale San Giovanni Bosco, Torino, Piedmont, Italy

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Publications (169)406.7 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Demographic analysis shows the ageing of the global population and the consequent increase in the age of hospitalized subjects and of patients starting dialysis. Hence, interest in the feasibility, safety, and usefulness of renal biopsy in elderly patients is growing. We examined the data of 131 patients over the age of 75 who underwent renal biopsy. We analyzed the safety of the procedure, treatment, and outcomes. Results: Histological diagnoses included: membranous glomerulonephritis (GN) 20.6%, crescentic GN 12.9%, IgAGN 10.6%, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis 9.1%, acute GN 4.5%, amyloidosis 9.1%, and acute tubular necrosis 3.8%. Mean glomerular obsolescence was 28.9 ± 27.9%. Mean age of the patients was 78.7 ± 5.73 years. At the time of biopsy, serum creatinine (SCr) was 4.47 ± 2.56 mg/dL and proteinuria was 4.82 ± 6.78 g/day. Targeted treatment was given to 51.9% of patients, 52.9% of whom had a good clinical response. Eight patients had clinically non-relevant side effects (11.7%). A positive response (defined as a more than 50% reduction of SCr, or by partial or complete remission of proteinuria) was observed in 36 patients (52.9%). 76 patients were monitored for 57 ± 9.89 months: 18 patients were on dialysis (follow-up 2.56 ± 3.61 months), 15 died (follow-up 58.5 ± 13.43 months), and 52 remained under nephrologic observation for 36 ± 31 months (SCr was 2.56 ± 0.75 mg/dL and proteinuria was 4.82 ± 6.78 g/day). Conclusion: In our experience, renal biopsy is safe even in very elderly patients; it allowed targeted treatment in 51.9% of patients, 52.9% of whom had a good clinical response, possibly contributing to prolonged patient survival and improved quality of life.
    Clinical nephrology 08/2014; 82 (2014)(10). DOI:10.5414/CN108258 · 1.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Volume overload is typical of haemodialysis patients; correct volume status evaluation is crucial in achieving blood pressure homeostasis, hypertension management and good treatment planning. This study evaluates the effect of acute volume depletion on ultrasonographic parameters and suggests two of them as able to predict patients volume overload. 27 patients with end stage renal disease treated with haemodialysis underwent a complete echocardiographic exam before, after 90 min and at the end of the dialysis. Blood pressure levels significantly drop during the first 90 min of dialysis (139 ± 20 vs 126 ± 18; p < 0.0001), reaching a steady state with significantly lower values compared to baseline (130 ± 28; p = 0.02). LV and left atrial volume significantly decreased (baseline vs end dialysis 98 ± 32 vs 82 ± 31 p = 0.003 and 28 ± 10 vs. 21 ± 9 cc/m(2) p < 0.001). A significant reduction of systolic function (EF 61.6 % ± 9 vs 58.7 % ± 9 p = 0.04), of diastolic flow velocities (E/A 1.13 ± 0.37 vs. 0.87 ± 0.38 p < 0.001) and mitral annulus TDI tissue velocity (i.e. E' lat 10.6 ± 3 vs. 9.4 ± 3 cm/s; p 0.0001) were observed. Stroke work (SW) and LV end-diastolic diameter (LVEDd) indexed to height 2.7(LVEDdi) were able to predict volume overload: cut off values of respectively 13.5 mm/m(2.7) for LVEDdi and 173 cJ for SW were able to predict with a specificity of 100 % the presence of a volemic overload of at least 4 %. Blood pressure, cardiac morphology and function are significantly modified by acute volume depletion and such variations are strictly interrelated. SW and LVEDd/height(2.7) may identify ESRD patients carrying an higher volume load.
    High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention 02/2014; 21(4). DOI:10.1007/s40292-014-0045-4
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Anaemia is a risk factor for death, adverse cardiovascular outcomes and poor quality of life in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Erythropoietin Stimulating Agents (ESA) are the most used treatment option. In observational studies, higher haemoglobin (Hb) levels (around 11-13 g/dL) are associated with improved survival and quality of life compared to Hb levels around 9-10 g/dL. Randomized studies found that targeting higher Hb levels with ESA causes an increased risk of death, mainly due to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. It is possible that this is mediated by ESA dose rather than haemoglobin concentration, although this hypothesis has never been formally tested. Methods: We present the protocol of the Clinical Evaluation of the Dose of Erythropoietins (C.E. DOSE) trial, which will assess the benefits and harms of a high versus a low ESA dose therapeutic strategy for the management of anaemia of end stage kidney disease (ESKD). This is a randomized, prospective open label blinded end-point (PROBE) design trial due to enroll 900 haemodialysis patients. Patients will be randomized 1:1 to 4000 UI/week i. v. versus 18000 UI/week i. v. of epoetin alfa, beta or any other epoetin in equivalent doses. The primary outcome of the trial is a composite of cardiovascular events. In addition, quality of life and costs of these two strategies will be assessed. The study has been approved and funded by the Italian Agency of Drugs (Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco (AIFA)) within the 2006 funding plan for independent research on drugs (registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00827021)).
    Giornale italiano di nefrologia: organo ufficiale della Societa italiana di nefrologia 07/2013; 30(2).
  • Marco Pozzato · Fiorenza Ferrari · Sergio Livigni · Francesco Quarello ·
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    ABSTRACT: Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs in 5-45% of critically ill patients, and renal replacement therapy (RRT) is required in 4-10% of patients with AKI. AKI has long been considered to be hemodynamic damage from low blood flow resulting in shock, and efforts have been made to prevent and cure it by increasing the renal blood flow and improving the cardiac output and perfusion pressure. In recent years, new experimental studies on patients with septic AKI have shown that the renal blood flow remains unaltered or even increases in septic shock. An important mechanism in the pathophysiology of sepsis and septic shock appears to be apoptosis rather than ischemic necrosis. The type of treatment as well as the dose and timing of initiation of RRT seem to have strategic importance in the recovery of AKI in patients admitted to the ICU. In critically ill (often postsurgical and septic) patients with acute renal failure the use of new anticoagulation strategies has permitted to perform treatments for a sufficient number of hours to achieve the correct level of purification by minimizing the downtime and the bleeding risk. In our center the use of protocols for different methods and different types of anticoagulants has simplified the treatment of all patients with AKI and septic shock admitted to the ICU.
    12/2012; 29 Suppl 58:S77-82.
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    Critical Care 11/2012; 16(3). DOI:10.1186/cc11752 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acute pyelonephritis (APN) is a frequent pathological condition. Its etiology is prevalently due to E. coli and risk factors include sexual activity, genetic predisposition, old age and urinary instrumentation. No correlation between APN and vesicoureteral reflux has been established in adults. The diagnosis of APN is usually clinical, but computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allow a more precise definition and can document evidence of abscesses. Severe cases should be treated with a fluoroquinolone or an extended-spectrum cephalosporin. Treatment should last 10-14 days. The long-term evolution of APN is prevalently favorable in adults, even though formation of cortical scars and development of macroalbuminuria and renal failure have been described. The formation of renal abscesses is underestimated and must be evaluated by CT or MRI. Abscesses need to be drained only when they are large, and medical treatment is successful in the majority of cases.
    Giornale italiano di nefrologia: organo ufficiale della Societa italiana di nefrologia 09/2012; 29(S56):21-27.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Intradialytic hypotension (IDH) is still a major clinical problem for haemodialysis (HD) patients. Haemodiafiltration (HDF) has been shown to be able to reduce the incidence of IDH. Methods Fifty patients were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, crossover international study focussed on a variant of traditional HDF, haemofiltration with endogenous reinfusion (HFR). After a 1-month run-in period on HFR, the patients were randomized to two treatments of 2 months duration: HFR (Period A) or HFR-Aequilibrium (Period B), followed by a 1-month HFR wash-out period and then switched to the other treatment. HFR-Aequilibrium (HFR-Aeq) is an evolution of the haemofiltration with endogenous reinfusion (HFR) dialysis therapy, with dialysate sodium concentration and ultrafiltration rate profiles elaborated by an automated procedure. The primary end point was the frequency of IDH. Results Symptomatic hypotension episodes were significantly lower on HFR-Aeq versus HFR (23 ± 3 versus 31 ± 4% of sessions, respectively, P l= l0.03), as was the per cent of clinical interventions (17 ± 3% of sessions with almost one intervention on HFR-Aeq versus 22 ± 2% on HFR, P <0.01). In a post-hoc analysis, the effect of HFR-Aeq was greater on more unstable patients (35 ± 3% of sessions with hypotension on HFR-Aeq versus 71 ± 3% on HFR, P <0.001). No clinical or biochemical signs of Na/water overload were registered during the treatment with HFR-Aeq. Conclusions HFR-Aeq, a profiled dialysis supported by the Natrium sensor for the pre-dialysis Na+ measure, can significantly reduce the burden of IDH. This could have an important impact in every day dialysis practice.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 05/2012; 27(10). DOI:10.1093/ndt/gfs091 · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The evolution of home dialysis marked the main steps in the progress of renal replacement therapy. From the origins when home hemodialysis was often the only alternative to death, to the advent and widespread use of peritoneal dialysis, the dream of kidney transplant as a solution to all problems (at least in the young), and ultimately the profound social and organizational changes that have led to a drastic reduction of home hemodialysis, we arrive at the present with the rediscovery of the clinical, rehabilitative and economic advantages of home dialysis. Seven experts from five different centers with different expertise in home dialysis report their opinions on the future of home dialysis in a ''noncontroversial controversy''. Beyond the sterile competition between peritoneal dialysis and home hemodialysis, the shared opinion is that the two methods may complement each other, allowing a tailored treatment for each patient and a tailored organization in each setting. The organizational solutions are many; the authors underline the importance of longer survival and better rehabilitation, and the ethical need of offering each patient a choice among all available treatments. Add to this the importance of dedicated educational programs targeted to physicians, nurses and patients alike and focused on self-care and patient empowerment. A new generation of dialysis machines, easier technical solutions, and financial incentives may strengthen motivations and simplify problems; all these elements may in the near future be combined in a joint effort to increase peritoneal dialysis and revive home hemodialysis in Italy.
    Giornale italiano di nefrologia: organo ufficiale della Societa italiana di nefrologia 03/2012; 29(2):148-59.
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    ABSTRACT: Acute pyelonephritis (APN) is a common disease which rarely evolves into abscesses. We prospectively collected clinical, biochemical and radiological data of patients hospitalized with a diagnosis of APN from 2000 to 2008. Urinary culture was positive in 64/208 patients (30.7%) and blood cultures in 39/182 cases (21.4%). Two hundred and thirteen patients were submitted to computed tomography (CT) or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR): confirmation of APN was obtained in 196 patients (92%). Among these, 46 (23.5%) had positive urine culture, 31 (15.8%) had positive blood culture and 15 (7.6%) had positive cultures of both urine and blood. In 98 patients, either urine or blood cultures were negative, but CT/NMR were positive for APN. Fifty of the 213 patients submitted to CT/NMR (23.5%) had intrarenal abscesses: only 2 were evidenced by ultrasound examination. No differences were found between patients with positive or negative CT with regards to fever, leucocytosis, C-reactive protein, pyuria, urine cultures and duration of symptoms before hospitalization. No differences were found between patients with or without abscesses with regards to these parameters and risk factors. Patients with abscesses had a longer duration of treatment and hospitalization. Our data suggest that in APN it is not always possible to routinely document urinary infection in a clinical setting. This finding could be explained by previous antibiotic treatment, low bacterial growth or atypical pathogens. Systematic CT or NMR is necessary to exclude evolution into abscesses, which cannot be suspected on clinical grounds or by ultrasound examination and may also develop in the absence of risk factors.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 02/2012; 27(9):3488-93. DOI:10.1093/ndt/gfr810 · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hemodialysis is complicated by a high incidence of intradialytic hypotension and disequilibrium symptoms caused by hypovolemia and a decrease in extracellular osmolarity. Automatic adaptive system dialysis (AASD) is a proprietary dialysis system that provides automated elaboration of dialysate and ultrafiltration profiles based on the prescribed decrease in body weight and sodium content. A noncontrolled (single arm), multicenter, prospective, clinical trial. 55 patients with intradialytic hypotension or disequilibrium syndrome in 15 dialysis units were studied over a 1-month interval using standard treatment (642 sessions) followed by 6 months using AASD (2,376 sessions). AASD (bicarbonate dialysis with dialysate sodium concentration and ultrafiltration rate profiles determined by the automated procedure). Primary and major secondary outcomes were the frequency of intradialytic hypotension and symptoms (hypotensive events, headache, nausea, vomiting, and cramps), respectively. More stable intradialytic systolic and diastolic blood pressures with lower heart rate were found using AASD compared with standard treatment. Sessions complicated by hypotension decreased from 58.7% ± 7.3% to 0.9% ± 0.6% (P < 0.001). The incidence of other disequilibrium syndrome symptoms was lower in patients receiving AASD. There were no differences in end-session body weight, interdialytic weight gain, or presession natremia between the standard and AASD treatment periods. A noncontrolled (single arm) study, no crossover from AASD to standard treatment. This study shows the long-term clinical efficacy of AASD for intradialytic hypotension and disequilibrium symptoms in a large number of patients and dialysis sessions.
    American Journal of Kidney Diseases 07/2011; 58(1):93-100. DOI:10.1053/j.ajkd.2011.01.030 · 5.90 Impact Factor
  • Giacomo Forneris · Roberto Boero · Carlo Massara · Francesco Quarello ·
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    ABSTRACT: The number of immigrants has been rapidly increasing in Italy in the last decade, with potentially profound effects on the national health care system. Yet, few data are available on the clinical and demographic features of these subjects, or on their need for nephrological care and dialysis treatment. A survey was conducted in 19 dialysis facilities of Piedmont (a northwestern Italian region) about immigrants on chronic dialysis treatment. Data on native country, administrative position, clinical and dialysis aspects were anonymously collected. Overall, 93 immigrant dialysis patients coming from 24 foreign countries were registered. Most of them were young (mean age 46∓14 years) and on extracorporeal treatment (87%); late referral (38%) or starting dialysis in emergency (17%) were common modalities of presentation. Glomerular (33%) or unknown (31%) nephropathies were the most representative causes of end stage renal disease. No difference in incidence of HCV, HBV and HIV compared with native Italian patients was observed. Notably, more than 50% of the immigrant patients had low-level knowledge of Italian. As regards administrative position, 69% were regular foreign citizens, 19% were temporary foreign workers, and 9% had a residence permit. Our survey confirms the existence of a young immigrant population on dialysis in Piedmont, whose social and relational problems are more challenging than clinical aspects and call for new organizational models to manage this growing population on dialysis.
    Giornale italiano di nefrologia: organo ufficiale della Societa italiana di nefrologia 01/2011; 28(3):314-8.
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    ABSTRACT: The nephrotoxicity of some cancer drugs is well known. Given the rapid development of cancer research, careful assessment of patients treated with new drugs, which may have new toxicity profiles, is mandatory. The nephrotoxicity of cisplatin is likely due to inhibition of autophagy priming, while that of methotrexate is related to direct tubular toxicity and intratubular precipitation. Both can be prevented by adequate hydration. The mechanism of radiation nephropathy development is unclear, but chronic oxidative stress and inflammation seem to play a key role. Mesangiolysis is a characteristic feature, followed by vascular alterations, atrophy, fibrosis, and necrosis. Inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), such as bevacizumab, sunitinib, and sorafenib, interfere with angiogenesis. Bevacizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody which binds to circulating VEGF. Sunitinib and sorafenib are small molecules inhibiting tyrosine kinase of the intracellular domain of the VEGF receptor. Treatment with anti-VEGF drugs is frequently complicated by proteinuria, acute renal failure, and hypertension. The most frequent histological lesion is thrombotic microangiopathy. Inhibitors of the BCR-Abl tyrosine kinase domain on the Philadelphia chromosome (imatinib, nilotinib and dasatinib) may cause acute renal failure.
    Giornale italiano di nefrologia: organo ufficiale della Societa italiana di nefrologia 01/2010; 27 Suppl 50:S70-4.
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    New England Journal of Medicine 09/2009; 361(21):2019-32. · 55.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF) is characterized by replacement of the normal tissue of the retroperitoneum with fibrosis and/or chronic inflammation. About two-thirds of cases of RPF are idiopathic and one-third is secondary to drugs, infections (tuberculosis, syphilis, actinomycosis, fungal infections), retroperitoneal hemorrhage, or malignancy. We report the case of a patient who was diagnosed as having RPF and schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma haematobium with histological documentation. He was treated with praziquantel and afterwards with corticosteroids with remission of RPF. To our knowledge, the association between schistosomiasis and RPF has not been described in the literature. We postulate that there is a causal relationship between these two conditions.
    European Journal of Internal Medicine 07/2008; 19(4):297-9. DOI:10.1016/j.ejim.2007.06.021 · 2.89 Impact Factor

  • Journal of Biomechanics 12/2006; 39. DOI:10.1016/S0021-9290(06)83937-0 · 2.75 Impact Factor

  • Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 05/2006; 63(4):730-2. DOI:10.1016/j.gie.2005.11.017 · 5.37 Impact Factor
  • Francesco Quarello · Giacomo Forneris · Marco Borca · Marco Pozzato ·
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    ABSTRACT: Central venous accesses have become an integral component of vascular access procedures for hemodialysis. Although the DOQI guidelines recommend that less than 10% of chronic hemodialysis patients should be maintained on catheters, in some countries higher prevalences are reported, as in the United States and the United Kingdom (18% and 24%, respectively, according to the DOPPS). The native arteriovenous fistulas are still the best suited accesses for hemodialysis. However, this option is impractical in many situations, so that several justifiable reasons exist for protracted dialysis catheter use; these include the catheter as a bridge angioaccess device, while the patient is awaiting living-related kidney donor transplantation or maturation of an autologous fistula or graft or, increasingly, as the permanent vascular access for patients with unsuitable vascular anatomy who have exhausted all other options. Moreover, the surgical creation of an AVF is felt to be impossible or at least seems to entail significant risks in situations of high output cardiac failure, myocardial ischaemic events and steal syndrome. In these cases, the dialysis access catheter brings considerable advantages, but it also carries tremendous drawbacks. In addition to the increased risk of luminal thrombosis, infection, unreliable blood flows, central venous stenosis, shorter use life and patient cosmetic concern, tunneled catheters are associated with an increased risk of death. Tunnellization, exit site protection, antibiotic-coated or antiseptic-impregnated hemodialysis catheters, antibiotic lock solutions could be helpful in preventing and treating catheter-related bacteremias. Moreover, the development of a subcutaneous port, that is durable, offers a high blood flow and is fully implantable subcutaneously, may become an alternative for chronic use. In our 10-year experience we implanted in our center over 450 central venous catheters with a satisfactory survival (86% at 1 year and 79% at 2 years for the subcutaneous port). In a matched comparison between Tesio twin catheters and Dialock ports (37 vs. 35, respectively), followed for a 2 year period, no significant differences emerged as regards bacteremia incidence, 0.58/1,000 catheter-days in the Tesio catheter group vs. 0.9/1000 catheter-days in the subcutaneous port group, p=0.12; thrombolytic agents needed, 4.5% vs 4.3% of dialysis sessions; or access failure with removal of the device, 8.1% vs 14.2%, p=0.4. The longer duration of antibiotic therapy in the Tesio group (24.6 vs 14.3 days, p=0.006) was due to the higher incidence of cutaneous infectious episodes (3.8 vs 0.16/1,000 catheter-days). In conclusion, although central venous catheter is the vascular access of last choice, in particular cases it can be a useful alternative, provided that strict protocols for nursing care and proper catheter management are implemented in every center.
    Journal of nephrology 05/2006; 19(3):265-79. · 1.45 Impact Factor
  • G Quattrocchio · C Rollino · G Beltrame · M Ferro · G Fornari · F Quarello ·
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    ABSTRACT: An 84 year-old woman was admitted because of sepsis, thrombocytopenia, anaemia and acute renal failure that required hemodialysis. The diagnostic tests performed during hospitalization showed a severe urinary tract infection due to Enterococcus faecalis, resulting in mild sepsis. This infection was responsible for acute tubular necrosis and thrombotic microangiopathy, in a clinical context of difficult differential diagnosis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome.
    Giornale italiano di nefrologia: organo ufficiale della Societa italiana di nefrologia 01/2006; 23(3):366-9.
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    ABSTRACT: La mortalité cardiovasculaire reste très importante chez l’insuffisant rénal dialyse. Diamant alpin est une étude de cohorte, prospective et multicentrique (CHU, CHG et centres privés, n = 8) menée en France, Italie et Suisse incluant 279 patients au moment de la prise en charge en dialyse. Les objectifs de l’étude'sont la recherche de FDR cliniques ou biologiques (phénotype et génotype), en particulier l’hyperho-mocystinémie. Critère de jugement La mortalité et la morbidité cardiovasculaires (coronaire, AOMI, AVC) survenant lors du suivi systématique dans les deux ans. Population Cent soixante dix-sept hommes et 102 femmes âgés en médiane de 66 ans (de 22 à 92 ans). Quatre-vingt-dix pour cent de ces patients étaient hypertendus, 29 % présentaient une dyslipidémie traitée, 29 % un diabète et 18 % fumaient au moment de la prise en charge en dialyse. En conséquence, 26 % des patients avaient une localisation de maladie athéromateuse à expression clinique (essentiellement coronaire) et 16 % avaient 2 localisations de maladie athéromateuse. Une néphropathie vasculaire était en cause pour 30 % des patients. Méthode statistique Kaplan meyer, test du Log rank et modèle de Cox ; p < 0,05. Résultats La probabilité de survenue d’un événement cardiovasculaire est de 24 % à un an et de 35 % à deux ans. En analyse multivariée, les facteurs de risque cliniques de survenue d’un événement cardiovasculaire sont les antécédents connus d’atteinte athéromateuse (OR = 5 si deux localisations connues et OR = 2 si une seule localisation connue) et l’âge supérieur à 75 ans (OR = 1,7). Sur le plan biologique, une CRP > 10 mg/1 et un taux de Lp(a) > 300 mg/1 sont associés à un OR de 1,7. Un taux d’homocystinémie > à 30 μmoles/1 est associé à un OR de 2,5. Les patients homozygotes pour la MTHFR ont un OR de 1,7. Cette caractéristique génétique est particulièrement informative si le taux d’homocystinémie est < à 30 μ/1 (OR pour les homozygotes = 1,75 ; p<0,05) alors qu’elle semble moins informative si le taux d’homocystine est > à 30 μg/1 (OR = 0,9 NS). Les autres génotypes étudiés (enzyme de conversion de l’angiotensine, PAI, ApoE) ne sont pas significatifs. Conclusion Cette étude confirme le haut niveau de risque cardiovasculaire des patients pris en charge en dialyse. Parmi les FDR identifiés, un taux d’homocystinémie supérieur à 30 mg/1 est un FDR indépendant. Compte tenu du contexte d’insuffisance rénale, le seuil usuel de 14 μ/1 doit donc être modifié pour l’homocystine.
    Journal des Maladies Vasculaires 03/2005; 30:31-31. DOI:10.1016/S0398-0499(05)74844-7 · 0.24 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

904 Citations
406.70 Total Impact Points


  • 1990-2012
    • Ospedale San Giovanni Bosco
      Torino, Piedmont, Italy
  • 1977-2000
    • Università degli Studi di Torino
      • Department of Medical Science
      Torino, Piedmont, Italy
  • 1994
    • Nuovo Ospedale Civile di Sassuolo
      Sassuolo, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
  • 1984-1986
    • San Giovanni Hospital Complex
      Roma, Latium, Italy