Pierre Karakiewizc

Université de Montréal, Montréal, Quebec, Canada

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Publications (9)12.81 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Carcinoma in situ (CIS) is associated with increased risk of progression when found with high-grade non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer, yet its impact is less clear in the upper urinary tract. In the current study, we evaluated the impact of concomitant CIS on recurrence-free survival and cancer-specific survival following radical nephroureterectomy for upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). A multi-institutional retrospective cohort of 1,387 patients undergoing radical nephroureterectomy was identified. Concomitant CIS was defined as the presence of CIS in association with another pathologic stage; patients with CIS alone were excluded from the analysis. The presence of concomitant CIS served as the exposure variable with disease recurrence and cancer-specific mortality as the outcomes. Organ-confined disease was defined as AJCC/UICC stage II or lower. Concomitant CIS was identified in 371 of 1,387 (26.7%) patients and was significantly more common in patients with a previous bladder cancer history, high grade, and high stage tumors. In a multivariable analysis, concomitant CIS was a predictor of disease recurrence (HR = 1.25, P = 0.04) and cancer specific mortality (HR = 1.34, P = 0.05) for patients with organ-confined UTUC, but not in the entire cohort. Other prognostic variables, such as grade, stage, lymphovascular invasion, and lymph node status, were associated with poorer overall and recurrence-free survival for all patients. The presence of concomitant CIS in patients with organ-confined UTUC is associated with a higher risk of recurrent disease and cancer-specific mortality. This information may be useful in refining surveillance protocols and in more appropriate selection of patients for adjuvant chemotherapy.
    Urologic Oncology 05/2010; 30(3):252-8. · 3.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether a minimum number of lymph nodes (LNs) exist to detect lymph node invasion (LNI) in patients undergoing radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) for upper tract urothelial carcinoma. The study included 551 consecutive patients, from 13 centers worldwide, who underwent RNU and lymphadenectomy (LND) between 1992 and 2006. LND was performed at the discretion of the surgeon. All pathological slides were re-reviewed by uropathologists according to strict criteria. Receiver-operating characteristic curve coordinates were used to determine the probability of diagnosing LNI according to the total number of nodes removed. Additionally, the relationship between the number of nodes removed and the rate of positive LNs was tested in univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Median patient age was 68 years (range: 27-97). Of 551 patients, 140 (25.4%) had positive lymph nodes. Median number of lymph nodes removed was 5 (mean 6.7, range 1-41). The Receiver-operating characteristic coordinates plot indicated that the removal of 13 nodes yielded a 90% probability to detect >or=1 positive LNs. The removal of 8 nodes resulted in a 75% probability of finding >or=1 positive nodes. Removal of >8 LNs (P = .03; odds ratio 1.49) was independently associated with LNI after adjusting for pathological stage and grade. Our data indicate that 8 LNs need to be removed at radical nephroureterectomy to achieve a 75% probability of finding >or=1 positive nodes. Further improvement of the specificity of LND will require the removal of more lymph nodes.
    Urology 11/2009; 74(5):1070-4. · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bladder cancer has a very high frequency of recurrence and therefore requires lifelong surveillance, traditionally consisting of serial cystoscopy and cytology. These tests are both invasive and expensive, with considerable inter-user and inter-institutional variability. In addition, the sensitivity of cytology in detecting low-grade tumors is low. Therefore, there has been active investigation into urinary biomarkers that can either supplement or supplant these tests. At this point there are only six urine-based tests that are FDA-approved in bladder cancer surveillance, but a wide variety of other biomarkers are being studied. In this review, we examine the natural history of bladder cancer as well as the rationale and performance of an ideal urinary biomarker. The authors describe the FDA-approved biomarkers such as Bladder Tumor Antigen, ImmunoCyt, Nuclear Matrix Protein-22, and Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization, as well as the most promising investigational tests (i.e., Urinary bladder cancer test, BLCA-1, BLCA-4, hyaluronic acid, hyaluronidase, Lewis X antigen, microsatellite analysis, Quanticyt, soluble Fas, Survivin, and telomerase). The biological foundation, methodologies, and diagnostic performance of the biomarkers are discussed. The characteristics of the biomarkers are compared to urine cytology. At this time, urine biomarkers are utilized in a variety of clinical situations but their role is not well defined. The goal of identifying an optimal marker that will replace cystoscopy and/or cytology is still ongoing.
    Minerva urologica e nefrologica = The Italian journal of urology and nephrology 01/2009; 60(4):217-35. · 0.63 Impact Factor
  • R S Svatek, Y Lotan, P I Karakiewizc, S F Shariat
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    ABSTRACT: Bladder cancer screening differs from routine detection of bladder cancer in patients with symptoms, such as hematuria, or a history of bladder cancer. The ultimate goal of cancer screening is to decrease cancer-related mortality by detecting disease prior to the time that the disease would normally prompt evaluation from symptoms. There are several features of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder which make screening for this disease an attractive alternative to the current approach to this disease. The disease targets a defined population and survival for patients with this disease is strongly associated with disease stage at presentation. In addition, quick, easy, and painless screening tests are theoretically possible using tumor-related markers because of the direct exposure of cancer cells to urine. Indeed, recent insights into the biology of bladder cancer initiation and progression have resulted in the identification of several urine-based markers which have promise for detecting the presence of bladder cancer. Nevertheless, adoption of screening programs prior to establishing evidence of effectiveness and large-scale financial considerations has substantial damaging consequences. This article reviews the current literature regarding screening for bladder cancer using urine-based markers.
    Minerva urologica e nefrologica = The Italian journal of urology and nephrology 01/2009; 60(4):247-53. · 0.63 Impact Factor
  • European Urology Supplements - EUR UROL SUPPL. 01/2009; 8(4):150-150.
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    ABSTRACT: To assess whether tumour architecture can help to refine the prognosis of patients treated with nephroureterectomy (NU) for urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the upper urinary tract (UT), as the prognostic value of tumour architecture (papillary vs sessile) in UTUC remains elusive. The study included 1363 patients with UTUC and treated with radical NU at 12 centres worldwide. All slides were re-reviewed according to strict criteria by genitourinary pathologists who were unaware of the findings of the original pathology slides and clinical outcomes. Gross tumour architecture was categorized as sessile vs papillary. Papillary growth was identified in 983 patients (72.2%) and sessile growth in 380 (27.8%). The sessile growth pattern was associated with higher tumour grade, more advanced stage, lymphovascular invasion, and metastasis to lymph nodes (all P < 0.001). In multivariable Cox regression analyses that adjusted for the effects of pathological stage, grade and lymph node status, tumour architecture (sessile or papillary) was an independent predictor of cancer recurrence (hazard ratio 1.5, P = 0.002) and cancer-specific mortality (1.6, P = 0.001). Adding tumour architecture increased the predictive accuracy of a model that comprised pathological stage, grade and lymph node status for predicting cancer recurrence and cancer-specific death by a minimal but statistically significant margin (gain in predictive accuracy 1% and 0.5%, both P < 0.001). The tumour architecture of UTUC is associated with established features of biologically aggressive disease, and more importantly, with prognosis after radical NU. Including tumour architecture in predictive models for disease progression should be considered, aiming to identify patients who might benefit from early systemic therapeutic intervention.
    BJU International 11/2008; 103(3):307-11. · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the sex differences in the clinical and pathologic characteristics of upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) and to determine the effect on prognosis after radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) in a large multicenter series. The records of 1363 patients who had undergone RNU were reviewed from the UTUC Collaboration database. The median follow-up was 47 months (range 0-250). The pathologic slides were re-evaluated by genitourinary pathologists unaware of the original findings from the slides and the clinical outcomes. The endpoints were freedom from tumor recurrence and disease-specific survival. The male-to-female ratio was 2.1:1. The women were older than the men at diagnosis (70 +/- 11 vs 68 +/- 11 years; P < .001). No significant sex-related differences were found in the presence of symptoms at presentation (P = .70), pathologic stage (P = .98), tumor grade (P = .28), tumor architecture (P = .27), presence of lymphovascular invasion (P = .42), presence of concomitant carcinoma in situ (P = .08), or the presence of lymph node metastases (P = .24). Recurrence developed in 379 patients (28%), and 313 patients (23%) died of their disease. Sex was not associated with disease recurrence (P = .07) or disease-specific survival (P = .13). An adjustment for the effects of the pathologic features did not change the lack of association of sex with the clinical outcomes. To our knowledge, this is the largest series analyzing the effect of sex on the outcomes after RNU. No difference was found in the clinicopathologic features or prognosis between women and men treated with RNU for UTUC. The results of this large, international series show that RNU provides durable local control and disease-specific survival for both men and women with UTUC.
    Urology 10/2008; 73(1):142-6. · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    Shahrokh F Shariat, Jose A Karam, Yair Lotan, Pierre I Karakiewizc
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    ABSTRACT: Bladder cancer is currently diagnosed using cystoscopy and cytology in patients with suspicious signs and symptoms. These tests are also used to monitor patients with a history of bladder cancer. The recurrence rate for bladder cancer is high, thus necessitating long-term follow-up. Urine cytology has high specificity but low sensitivity for low-grade bladder tumors. Recently, multiple noninvasive urine-based bladder cancer tests have been developed. Although several markers have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for bladder cancer surveillance, only a few are approved for detection of bladder cancer in high-risk patients.
    Reviews in urology 01/2008; 10(2):120-35.
  • European Urology Supplements - EUR UROL SUPPL. 01/2008; 7(3):321-321.