Jianguo Song

Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China

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Publications (17)118.24 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been implicated in various patho- physiological processes, including cancer cell migration and distal metastasis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) are important in cancer progression and the regulation of EMT. To explore the biological significance and regulatory mechanism of EMT, we determined the expression, the biological function, and the signaling pathway of prostate transmembrane protein, androgen induced-1 (TMEPAI), during the induction of EMT and cell migration. TGF-β1 significantly upregulated the expression of TMEPAI during EMT in human lung adenocarcinoma. Depletion of TMEPAI abolished TGF-β1-induced downregulation of ferritin heavy chain (FHC) and the subsequent generation of ROS, thus suppressing TGF-β1-induced EMT and cell migration. In addition, increased ROS production and overexpression of TMEPAI downregulated the level of IRS-1. Both the addition of H2O2 and IRS-1 siRNA rescued the ability of TGF-β1 to induce EMT in TMEPAI-depleted cells. Remarkably, the levels of TMEPAI in lung tumor tissues are very high, whereas its expression in normal lung epithelium is very low. Moreover, TMEPAI expression was positively correlated with the cell mesenchymal phenotype and migration potential. Our work reveals that TMEPAI contributes to TGF-β1-induced EMT through ROS production and IRS-1 downregulation in lung cancer cells.
    Carcinogenesis 04/2013; DOI:10.1093/carcin/bgt132 · 5.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The forkhead box transcription factor A2 (FOXA2) is an important regulator in animal development and body homeostasis. However, whether FOXA2 is involved in transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1)-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and tumor metastasis remains unknown. The present study showed that in human lung cancer cell lines, the abundance of FOXA2 positively correlates with epithelial phenotypes and negatively correlates with the mesenchymal phenotypes of cells, and TGF-β1 treatment decreased FOXA2 protein level. Consistently, knockdown of FOXA2 promoted EMT and invasion of lung cancer cells, whereas overexpression of FOXA2 reduced the invasion and suppressed TGF-β1-induced EMT. In addition, knockdown of FOXA2 induced slug expression, and ectopic expression of FOXA2 inhibited slug transcription. Furthermore, we identified that FOXA2 can bind to slug promoter through a conserved binding site, and that the DNA-binding region and transactivation region II of FOXA2 are required for repression of the slug promoter. These data demonstrate that FOXA2 functions as a suppressor of tumor metastasis by inhibition of EMT.
    Cell Research 02/2011; 21(2):316-26. DOI:10.1038/cr.2010.126 · 11.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatocyte-like cells can be derived from pluripotent stem cells such as embryonic stem (ES) cells, but ES cell-derived hepatic cells with extensive capacity to repopulate liver have not been identified. We aimed to identify and purify ES cell-derived hepatoblast-like progenitor cells and to explore their capacity for liver repopulation in mice after in vitro expansion. Unmanipulated mouse ES cells were cultured under defined conditions and allowed to undergo stepwise hepatic differentiation. The derived hepatic cells were examined by morphologic, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, gene expression, and clonal expansion analyses. The capacities of ES cell-derived hepatic progenitor cells to repopulate liver were investigated in mice that were deficient in fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (Fah) (a model of liver injury). Mouse ES cells were induced to differentiate into a population that contained hepatic progenitor cells; this population included cells that expressed epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) but did not express c-Kit. Clonal hepatic progenitors that arose from single c-Kit(-)EpCAM(+) cells could undergo long-term expansion and maintain hepatoblast-like characteristics. Enriched c-Kit(-)EpCAM(+) cells and clonally expanded hepatic progenitor cells repopulated the livers of Fah-deficient mice without inducing tumorigenesis. ES cell-derived c-Kit(-)EpCAM(+) cells contain a population of hepatoblast-like progenitor cells that can repopulate livers of mice.
    Gastroenterology 12/2010; 139(6):2158-2169.e8. DOI:10.1053/j.gastro.2010.08.042 · 13.93 Impact Factor
  • Xunde Wang, Xinchao Pan, Jianguo Song
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    ABSTRACT: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine/threonine protein kinase which has been implicated in the regulation of cellular energy homeostasis. Relatively very little is known about its role in other cellular processes. We observed that AMPK-alpha can be activated by transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) in mouse hepatocytes. Inhibition of AMPK by Compound C, a selective AMPK-alpha inhibitor, inhibited TGF-beta1-induced apoptosis and EMT in hepatocytes. In addition, overexpression of a dominant-negative form of AMPK-alpha subunit also suppressed TGF-beta1-induced EMT and apoptosis in AML12 cells. Furthermore, inhibition of AMPK suppressed TGF-beta1-induced Smad3 transcriptional activity. This study indicates that AMPK is able to modulate Smad3 transcriptional activity, which plays an important role in TGF-beta1-induced apoptosis and EMT.
    Cellular Signalling 11/2010; 22(11):1790-7. DOI:10.1016/j.cellsig.2010.07.008 · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The proper function of the bone morphogenic protein (BMP) pathway during embryonic development and organ maintenance requires its communication with other signaling pathways. Unlike the well-documented regulation of the BMP pathway by FGF/MAPK and Wnt/GSK3 signals, cross-talk between BMP/Smad and retinoic acid (RA)/RA receptor (RAR) pathways is poorly understood. Here, we show that RA represses BMP signal duration by reducing the level of phosphorylated Smad1 (pSmad1). Through its nuclear receptor-mediated transcription, RA enhances the interaction between pSmad1 and its ubiquitin E3 ligases, thereby promoting pSmad1 ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. This regulation depends on the RA-increased Gadd45 expression and MAPK activation. During the neural development in chicken embryo, the RA/RAR pathway also suppresses BMP signaling to antagonize BMP-regulated proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitor cells. Furthermore, this cross-talk between RA and BMP pathways is involved in the proper patterning of dorsal neural tube of chicken embryo. Our results reveal a mechanism by which RA suppresses BMP signaling through regulation of pSmad1 stability.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/2010; 107(44):18886-91. DOI:10.1073/pnas.1009244107 · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been implicated in various physiological and pathological events. In this study, we found that the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (Dex) can inhibit transforming growth factor-beta1-induced EMT and cell migration. We also demonstrated that Dex inhibits EMT through a mechanism involving the suppression of ROS generation. Surprisingly, Dex alone induced mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET). Dexamethasone treatment abolished Snail1 binding to the E-cadherin promoter, suggesting that suppression of Snail1 contributes to the above roles of Dex. Our findings demonstrate that Dex functions as both a suppressor of EMT and as an inducer of MET and therefore may be implicated in certain pathophysiological events.
    FEBS letters 10/2010; 584(22):4646-54. DOI:10.1016/j.febslet.2010.10.038 · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been implicated in embryonic development, fibrosis, and tumor metastasis. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) also play important roles in the control of various physiological and pathological events. However, whether HDACs are involved in the control of EMT in liver cells remains unidentified. Three structurally unrelated HDAC inhibitors completely suppress transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1)-induced EMT in AML-12 murine hepatocytes and primary mouse hepatocytes. Expression of a dominant-negative mutant of HDAC1 but not HDAC2 or downregulation of HDAC1 but not HDAC2 by RNAi suppressed TGF-beta1-induced EMT. In addition, both HDAC inhibitor TSA and HDAC1 RNAi blocked cell migration. Overexpression of HDAC1 in invasive hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) samples was detected. Further study showed that the mRNA levels of ZO-1 and E-cadherin were downregulated during TGF-beta1-induced EMT, and HDAC1 can downregulate the promoter activities of ZO-1 and E-cadherin. Conclusions: our results demonstrate that HDAC1 is required for TGF-beta1-induced EMT and cell migration in hepatocytes. Its high expression levels in majority of invasive HCC samples suggest that, by promoting EMT, HDAC1 can be related with the invasiveness of HCC. The data also suggest that the repression of transcription of ZO-1 and E-cadherin by HDAC1 may be involved in TGF-beta1-induced EMT.
    The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology 09/2010; 42(9):1489-97. DOI:10.1016/j.biocel.2010.05.006 · 4.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO) is a multifunctional regulator that is implicated in various physiological and pathological processes. Here we report that administration of NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) inhibited transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1)-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and apoptosis in mouse hepatocytes. Overexpression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) by transfection of the iNOS-expressing vector, which increased NO production, also inhibited the TGF-beta1-induced EMT and apoptosis in these cells. Treatment of cells with proinflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, and interferon (IFN)-gamma, which increased the endogenous NO production, produced the same inhibitory effect. Furthermore, exogenous NO donor SNAP treatment caused a decrease in the intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels. Consistently, depletion of intracellular ATP by mitochondrial uncoupler carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP) inhibited the TGF-beta1-induced EMT and apoptosis, suggesting that an NO-induced decrease of ATP involved in the NO-mediated inhibition of TGF-beta1-induced EMT and apoptosis. NO and FCCP also inhibited TGF-beta1-induced STAT3 activation, suggesting that signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 inactivation is involved in the NO-induced effects on TGF-beta1-induced EMT and apoptosis. CONCLUSION: Our study indicates that NO plays an important role in the inhibition of TGF-beta1-induced EMT and apoptosis in mouse hepatocytes through the downregulation of intracellular ATP levels. The data provide an insight into the in vivo mechanisms on the function of NO during the processes of both EMT and apoptosis.
    Hepatology 11/2009; 50(5):1577-87. DOI:10.1002/hep.23156 · 11.19 Impact Factor
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    Kehua Zhang, Dongmei Wang, Jianguo Song
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    ABSTRACT: Cortactin is an F-actin binding protein, regulating cell movement and adhesive junction assembly. However, the function of cortactin in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) remains elusive. Here we found that during transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1)- induced EMT in AML-12 murine hepatocytes, cortactin underwent tyrosine dephosphorylation. Inhibition of the dephosphorylation of cortactin by sodium vanadate blocked TGF-beta1-induced EMT. Knockdown of cortactin by RNAi led to decrease of intercellular junction proteins E-cadherin and Zonula occludens-1 and induced expression of mesenchymal protein fibronectin. Additionally, knockdown of cortactin further promoted TGF-beta1-induced EMT in AML-12 cells, as determined by EMT markers and cell morphological changes. Moreover, migration assay showed that cortactin knockdown promoted the migration of AML-12 cells, and also enhanced TGF-beta1-induced migration. Our study showed the involvement of cortactin in the TGFbeta1- induced EMT.
    Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica 10/2009; 41(10):839-45. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    Kehua Zhang, Dongmei Wang, Jianguo Song
    Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica 09/2009; 41(10):839-845. DOI:10.1093/abbs/gmp070 · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) is an important transcription factor involved in many biological events, including apoptosis, tumorigenesis, angiogenesis and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. However, no direct evidence for a role of STAT3 in 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation has been reported. In the present study, we found that rapid activation of STAT3, lasting for more than 48 h, was elicited upon induction of adipogenesis. Both the STAT3-selective inhibitor stattic and the JAK2 (Janus kinase 2)/STAT3-selective inhibitors AG490 and Gö6976 inhibited STAT3 activation, leading to the suppression of adipocyte differentiation. Adipocyte differentiation was also suppressed by STAT3 siRNA (small interfering RNA) or dominant-negative STAT3. Interestingly, the PPARgamma (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma) agonist TAZ (troglitazone) abolished the STAT3-inhibitor- and RNAi (RNA interference)-mediated suppression of adipogenesis. However, TAZ treatment had no effect on the stattic- and AG490-mediated down-regulation of STAT3 activation, suggesting that STAT3 regulates adipocyte differentiation through signalling that occurs upstream of PPARgamma. These data indicate that STAT3 functions as a critical factor for adipogenesis via a mechanism involving the PPARgamma activation pathway.
    Biology of the Cell 07/2009; 102(1):1-12. DOI:10.1042/BC20090070 · 3.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: cAMP and protein kinase A (PKA) are widely known as signaling molecules that are important for the induction of adipogenesis. Here we show that a strong increase in the amount of cAMP inhibits the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 fibroblast cells. Stimulation of PKA activity suppresses adipogenesis and, in contrast, inhibition of PKA activity markedly accelerates the adipogenic process. As adipogenesis progresses, there is a significant increase in the expression level of PKA regulatory subunits and a corresponding decrease in PKA activity. Moreover, treatment of 3T3-L1 cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates PKA activity and blocks adipogenesis. Inhibition of PKA activity abolishes this suppressive effect of EGF on adipogenesis. Moreover, activation of PKA induces serine/threonine phosphorylation, reduces tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and the association between PKA and IRS-1. Taken together, our study demonstrates that PKA has a pivotal role in the suppression of adipogenesis. cAMP at high concentrations can suppress adipogenesis through PKA activation. These findings could be important and useful for understanding the mechanisms of adipogenesis and the relevant physiological events.
    Cell Research 03/2008; 18(2):311-23. DOI:10.1038/cr.2008.12 · 11.98 Impact Factor
  • Jianguo Song
    Cell Research 04/2007; 17(4):289-90. DOI:10.1038/cr.2007.25 · 11.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Apoptosis and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transdifferentiation or transition (EMT) are crucial for normal development and body homeostasis. The alterations of these events are closely related to some pathologic processes, such as tumor formation and metastasis, fibrotic diseases of liver and kidney, and abnormal development of embryos. The mechanism that underlies the simultaneously occurring apoptosis and EMT induced by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) has not been well studied. In this report, we investigated the potential mechanism that underlies TGF-beta1-induced apoptosis and EMT. TGF-beta1-induced apoptosis and EMT were associated with the activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3). Inhibition of PKA by specific PKA inhibitor H89 or by PKA inhibitor peptide blocked STAT3 activation and suppressed TGF-beta1-induced apoptosis and EMT. Furthermore, overexpression of a phosphorylation-deficient form of STAT3, but not wild-type STAT3, produced an inhibitory effect on TGF-beta1-induced apoptosis and EMT. The results indicate that PKA is an upstream regulator for TGF-beta1-induced STAT3 activation and plays an important role in TGF-beta1-mediated apoptosis and EMT. These studies provided a new insight into the signaling mechanism underlying the apoptosis and EMT, which could be of importance in understanding some related physiologic and pathologic processes.
    Cancer Research 10/2006; 66(17):8617-24. DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-06-1308 · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Protein kinase C (PKC) is a member of serine/threonine protein kinase family that plays important roles in the control of vast variety of cellular functions. Nevertheless, the regulatory effect of PKC on adipogenesis remained not well understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of several PKC isoforms on the adipogenic conversion of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes induced by dexamethasone, isobutylmethylxanthine and insulin. Treatment of cells with broad-spectrum PKC inhibitor Rö318220 suppressed the adipogenesis. Gö6976, a selective inhibitor for PKC isoforms-alpha, -betaI and -mu, also inhibited the adipogenesis of cells. Pretreatment of cells with peroxisomal proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) agonist troglitazone abolished the inhibitory effect of Gö6976 on adipogenesis. The plasmic membrane translocation of PKC-betaI was observed at the first 2 days of differentiation. Whereas no translocation of PKC-alpha and -mu was observed. Overexpression of dominant negative PKC-betaI, but not wild-type PKC-betaI, blocked adipogenesis. This effect of dominant negative PKC-betaI can be reversed by troglitazone, suggesting that PKC-betaI is required for the initiation of adipogenesis. In addition, rottlerin, a specific inhibitor of PKC-delta, can reverse the suppression of adipogenesis mediated by 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate, transforming growth factor-beta1, and epidermal growth factor. These data suggest that PKC-betaI is important in the induction of adipogenesis, while the PKC-delta has an inhibitory role for adipogenesis.
    The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology 02/2006; 38(12):2151-63. DOI:10.1016/j.biocel.2006.06.009 · 4.24 Impact Factor
  • Bo Zhou, Fuqiang Li, Hehua Chen, Jianguo Song
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    ABSTRACT: Adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) and transforming growth factor-beta are important regulators of many biological processes. In this study we investigated the effect and its potential mechanism of cAMP on transforming growth factor-beta1- and serum deprivation-induced apoptosis in Mv1Lu cells. Transforming growth factor-beta1 treatment or serum deprivation induces apoptotic response in Mv1Lu cells. Forskolin, a cAMP-elevating agent, or 8-Bromo-cAMP (8-B-cAMP), a cell permeable cAMP analogue, inhibited the cell proliferation and markedly enhanced apoptosis induced by transforming growth factor-beta1, but completely suppressed serum deprivation-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, forskolin decreased the Akt phosphorylation, and the inhibition of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase by LY294002 sensitized Mv1Lu cells to transforming growth factor-beta1-induced apoptosis. In addition, forskolin treatment induced tyrosine phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor. Inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor by specific inhibitor PD153035 blocked the cAMP-mediated suppression of serum deprivation-induced apoptosis. The results indicate that cAMP exerts its opposite effects in transforming growth factor-beta1- and serum deprivation-induced apoptosis via a mechanism involving the modulation of signaling components of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/Akt and epidermal growth factor receptor in Mv1Lu cells.
    The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology 08/2005; 37(7):1483-95. DOI:10.1016/j.biocel.2005.02.012 · 4.24 Impact Factor
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    Yanan Yang, Sheng Zhao, Jianguo Song
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    ABSTRACT: Apoptosis is an important cell suicide program which involves the caspases activation and is implicated in physiological and pathological processes. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage is often associated with apoptosis and has been served as one hallmark of apoptosis and caspase activation. In this study, we aimed to determine TGF-beta1-induced apoptosis and to examine the involvement of caspases and its relationship with PARP cleavage. TGF-beta1 induces strong apoptosis of AML-12 cells which can be detected by DNA fragmentation, FACS, and morphological assays. Z-VAD-fmk, a selective caspase inhibitor, partially inhibits the TGF-beta1-induced apoptosis; but has no effect on TGF-beta1-induced DNA fragmentation and PARP cleavage. However, BD-fmk, a broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor, completely suppresses TGF-beta1-induced apoptosis, but unexpectedly does not inhibit TGF-beta1-induced PARP cleavage. Furthermore, Z-VAD-fmk treatment is able to completely inhibit the daunorubicin-induced apoptosis in A-431 cells, but only slightly blocks the daunorubicin-induced PARP cleavage, whereas BD-fmk can inhibit both daunorubicin-induced apoptosis and PARP cleavage completely. In addition, we observed that both TGF-beta1-induced apoptosis and PARP degradation in AML-12 cells can be completely blocked by inhibiting the protein synthesis with cycloheximide. These results demonstrate for the first time that TGF-beta1-induced caspase-dependent apoptosis is associated with caspase-independent PARP cleavage that requires the TGF-beta1-induced synthesis of new proteins. The results indicate that caspase-3 is not a major caspase involved in TGF-beta1-induced apoptosis in AML-12 cells, and is not required for apoptosis-associated DNA fragmentation. The results also suggest that PARP cleavage may occur as an independent event that can be disassociated with cell apoptosis.
    The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology 03/2004; 36(2):223-34. DOI:10.1016/S1357-2725(03)00215-2 · 4.24 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

356 Citations
118.24 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2004–2013
    • Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
  • 2010
    • Second Military Medical University, Shanghai
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
  • 2005–2008
    • Chinese Academy of Sciences
      • Molecular Biology and Cell Biology Laboratory
      Peping, Beijing, China