Thomas P Eisele

Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana, United States

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Publications (53)380.95 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Randomized trials and mathematical modeling suggest that insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) provide community-level protection to both those using ITNs and those without individual access. Using nationally representative household survey datasets from 17 African countries, we examined whether community ITN coverage is associated with malaria infections in children < 5 years old and all-cause child mortality (ACCM) among children < 5 years old in households with one or more ITNs versus without any type of mosquito net (treated or untreated). Increasing ITN coverage (> 50%) was protective against malaria infections and ACCM for children in households with an ITN, although this protection was not conferred to children in households without ITNs in these data. Children in households with ITNs were protected against malaria infections and ACCM with ITN coverage > 30%, but this protection was not significant with ITN coverage < 30%. Results suggest that ITNs are more effective with higher ITN coverage.
    The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 09/2014; · 2.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In malaria-endemic countries, the absence of parasitological confirmation of malaria infection potentially results in overtreatment of non-malaria febrile illness with antimalarial drugs; this may lead to healthcare workers (HCW) missing other treatable illness or wastage of resources. This paper presents results from nationally representative assessments of malaria diagnostic accuracy, quality and capacity in Ghana and the Republic of Benin.
    Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 08/2014; · 1.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Active, population-wide mass screening and treatment (MSAT) for chronic Plasmodium falciparum carriage to eliminate infectious reservoirs of malaria transmission have proven difficult to apply on large national scales through trained clinicians from central health authorities.Methodology: Fourteen population clusters of approximately 1,000 residents centred around health facilities (HF) in two rural Zambian districts were each provided with three modestly remunerated community health workers (CHWs) conducting active monthly household visits to screen and treat all consenting residents for malaria infection with rapid diagnostic tests (RDT). Both CHWs and HFs also conducted passive case detection among residents who self-reported for screening and treatment. Diagnostic positivity was higher among symptomatic patients self-reporting to CHWs (42.5%) and HFs (24%) than actively screened residents (20.3%), but spatial and temporal variations of diagnostic positivity were highly consistent across all three systems. However, most malaria infections (55.6%) were identified through active home visits by CHWs rather than self-reporting to CHWs or HFs. Most (62%) malaria infections detected actively by CHWs reported one or more symptoms of illness. Most reports of fever and vomiting, plus more than a quarter of history of fever, headache and diarrhoea, were attributable to malaria infection. The minority of residents who participated >12 times had lower rates of malaria infection and associated symptoms in later contacts but most residents were tested <4 times and high malaria diagnostic positivity (32%), as well as incidence (1.46 detected infections per person per year) persisted in the population. Per capita cost for active service delivery by CHWs was US$5.14 but this would rise to US$10.68 with full community compliance with monthly testing at current levels of transmission, and US$6.25 if pre-elimination transmission levels and negligible treatment costs were achieved. While monthly active home visits by CHWs equipped with RDTs were insufficient to eliminate the human infection reservoir in this typical African setting, despite reasonably high LLIN/IRS coverage. However, dramatic impact upon infection and morbidity burden might be attainable and cost-effective if community participation in regular testing can be improved and the substantial, but not necessarily prohibitive, costs are affordable to national programmes.
    Malaria Journal 03/2014; 13(1):128. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The dramatic escalation of malaria control activities in Africa since the year 2000 has increased the importance of accurate measurements of impact on malaria epidemiology and burden. This study presents a systematic review of the emerging published evidence base on trends in malaria risk in Africa and argues that more systematic, timely, and empirically-based approaches are urgently needed to track the rapidly evolving landscape of transmission.
    Malaria Journal 01/2014; 13(1):39. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pregnant women in malaria-endemic countries in sub-Saharan Africa are especially vulnerable to malaria. Recommended prevention strategies include intermittent preventive treatment with two doses of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and the use of insecticide-treated nets. However, progress with implementation has been slow and the Roll Back Malaria Partnership target of 80% coverage of both interventions by 2010 has not been met. We aimed to review the coverage of intermittent preventive treatment, insecticide-treated nets, and antenatal care for pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa and to explore associations between coverage and individual and country-level factors, including the role of funding for malaria prevention. We used data from nationally representative household surveys from 2009-11 to estimate coverage of intermittent preventive treatment, use of insecticide-treated nets, and attendance at antenatal clinics by pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa. Using demographic data for births and published data for malaria exposure, we also estimated the number of malaria-exposed births (livebirths and stillbirths combined) for 2010 by country. We used meta-regression analysis to investigate the factors associated with coverage of intermittent preventive treatment and use of insecticide-treated nets. Of the 21·4 million estimated malaria-exposed births across 27 countries in 2010, an estimated 4·6 million (21·5%, 95% CI 19·3-23·7) were born to mothers who received intermittent preventive treatment. Insecticide-treated nets were used during pregnancy for 10·5 million of 26·9 million births across 37 countries (38·8%, 34·6-43·0). Antenatal care was attended at least once by 16·3 of 20·8 million women in 2010 (78·3%, 75·2-81·4; n=26 countries) and at least twice by 14·7 of 19·6 million women (75·1%, 72·9-77·3; n=22 countries). For the countries with previous estimates for 2007, coverage of intermittent preventive treatment increased from 13·1% (11·9-14·3) to 21·2% (18·9-23·5; n=14 countries) and use of insecticide-treated nets increased from 17·9% (15·1-20·7) to 41·6% (37·2-46·0; n=24 countries) in 2010. A fall in coverage by more than 10% was seen in two of 24 countries for intermittent preventive treatment and in three of 30 countries for insecticide-treated nets. High disbursement of funds for malaria control and a long time interval since adoption of the relevant policy were associated with the highest coverage of intermittent preventive treatment. High disbursement of funds for malaria control and high total fertility rate were associated with the greatest use of insecticide-treated nets, whereas a high per-head gross domestic product (GDP) was associated with less use of nets than was a lower GDP. Coverage of intermittent preventive treatment showed greater inequity overall than use of insecticide-treated nets, with richer, educated, and urban women more likely to receive preventive treatment than their poorer, uneducated, rural counterparts. Although coverage of intermittent preventive treatment and use of insecticide-treated nets by pregnant women has increased in most countries, coverage remains far below international targets, despite fairly high rates of attendance at antenatal clinics. The effect of the implementation of WHO's 2012 policy update for intermittent preventive treatment, which aims to simplify the message and align preventive treatment with the focused antenatal care schedule, should be assessed to find out whether it leads to improvements in coverage. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
    The Lancet Infectious Diseases 09/2013; · 19.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Mass distribution of long-lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLINs) has led to large increases in LLIN coverage in many African countries. As LLIN ownership levels increase, planners of future mass distributions face the challenge of deciding whether to ignore the nets already owned by households or to take these into account and attempt to target individuals or households without nets. Taking existing nets into account would reduce commodity costs but require more sophisticated, and potentially more costly, distribution procedures. The decision may also have implications for the average age of nets in use and therefore on the maintenance of universal LLIN coverage over time. METHODS: A stochastic simulation model based on the NetCALC algorithm was used to determine the scenarios under which it would be cost saving to take existing nets into account, and the potential effects of doing so on the age profile of LLINs owned. The model accounted for variability in timing of distributions, concomitant use of continuous distribution systems, population growth, sampling error in pre-campaign coverage surveys, variable net 'decay' parameters and other factors including the feasibility and accuracy of identifying existing nets in the field. RESULTS: Results indicate that (i) where pre-campaign coverage is around 40% (of households owning at least 1 LLIN), accounting for existing nets in the campaign will have little effect on the mean age of the net population and (ii) even at pre-campaign coverage levels above 40%, an approach that reduces LLIN distribution requirements by taking existing nets into account may have only a small chance of being cost-saving overall, depending largely on the feasibility of identifying nets in the field. Based on existing literature the epidemiological implications of such a strategy is likely to vary by transmission setting, and the risks of leaving older nets in the field when accounting for existing nets must be considered. CONCLUSIONS: Where pre-campaign coverage levels established by a household survey are below 40% we recommend that planners do not take such LLINs into account and instead plan a blanket mass distribution. At pre-campaign coverage levels above 40%, campaign planners should make explicit consideration of the cost and feasibility of accounting for existing LLINs before planning blanket mass distributions. Planners should also consider restricting the coverage estimates used for this decision to only include nets under two years of age in order to ensure that old and damaged nets do not compose too large a fraction of existing net coverage.
    Parasites & Vectors 06/2013; 6(1):174. · 3.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Considerable progress has been made in reducing maternal, newborn, and child mortality world-wide, but many more deaths could be prevented if effective interventions were available to all who could benefit from them. Timely, high-quality measurements of intervention coverage—the proportion of a population in need of a health intervention that actually receives it—are essential to support sound decisions about progress and investments in women's and children's health. The PLOS Medicine ''Measuring Coverage in MNCH'' Collection of research studies and reviews presents systematic assess-ments of the validity of health intervention coverage measurement based on household surveys, the primary method for estimating population-level intervention coverage in low-and middle-income countries. In this overview of the Collection, we discuss how and why some of the indicators now being used to track intervention coverage may not provide fully reliable coverage mea-surements, and how a better understanding of the systematic and random error inherent in these coverage indicators can help in their interpretation and use. We draw together strategies proposed across the Collection for improving coverage measurement, and recommend continued support for high-quality household surveys at national and sub-national levels, supplemented by surveys with lighter tools that can be implemented every 1–2 years and by complementary health-facility-based assessments of service quality. Finally, we stress the importance of learning more about coverage measure-ment to strengthen the foundation for assessing and improving the progress of maternal, newborn, and child health programs.
    PLoS Medicine 05/2013; 10(5):e1001423. · 15.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nationally representative household surveys are increasingly relied upon to measure maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) intervention coverage at the population level in low- and middle-income countries. Surveys are the best tool we have for this purpose and are central to national and global decision making. However, all survey point estimates have a certain level of error (total survey error) comprising sampling and non-sampling error, both of which must be considered when interpreting survey results for decision making. In this review, we discuss the importance of considering these errors when interpreting MNCH intervention coverage estimates derived from household surveys, using relevant examples from national surveys to provide context. Sampling error is usually thought of as the precision of a point estimate and is represented by 95% confidence intervals, which are measurable. Confidence intervals can inform judgments about whether estimated parameters are likely to be different from the real value of a parameter. We recommend, therefore, that confidence intervals for key coverage indicators should always be provided in survey reports. By contrast, the direction and magnitude of non-sampling error is almost always unmeasurable, and therefore unknown. Information error and bias are the most common sources of non-sampling error in household survey estimates and we recommend that they should always be carefully considered when interpreting MNCH intervention coverage based on survey data. Overall, we recommend that future research on measuring MNCH intervention coverage should focus on refining and improving survey-based coverage estimates to develop a better understanding of how results should be interpreted and used.
    PLoS Medicine 05/2013; 10(5):e1001386. · 15.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess progress in the scale-up of rapid diagnostic tests and artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) across Africa, malaria control programs have increasingly relied on standardized national household surveys to determine the proportion of children with a fever in the past 2 wk who received an effective antimalarial within 1-2 d of the onset of fever. Here, the validity of caregiver recall for measuring the primary coverage indicators for malaria diagnosis and treatment of children <5 y old is assessed. A cross-sectional study was conducted in five public clinics in Kaoma District, Western Provence, Zambia, to estimate the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of caregivers' recall of malaria testing, diagnosis, and treatment, compared to a gold standard of direct observation at the health clinics. Compared to the gold standard of clinic observation, for recall for children with fever in the past 2 wk, the sensitivity for recalling that a finger/heel stick was done was 61.9%, with a specificity of 90.0%. The sensitivity and specificity of caregivers' recalling a positive malaria test result were 62.4% and 90.7%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of recalling that the child was given a malaria diagnosis, irrespective of whether a laboratory test was actually done, were 76.8% and 75.9%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for recalling that an ACT was given were 81.0% and 91.5%, respectively. Based on these findings, results from household surveys should continue to be used for ascertaining the coverage of children with a fever in the past 2 wk that received an ACT. However, as recall of a malaria diagnosis remains suboptimal, its use in defining malaria treatment coverage is not recommended. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
    PLoS Medicine 05/2013; 10(5):e1001417. · 15.25 Impact Factor
  • The Lancet Infectious Diseases 04/2013; 13(4):292-3. · 19.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Malaria remains the leading communicable disease in Ethiopia, with around one million clinical cases of malaria reported annually. The country currently has plans for elimination for specific geographic areas of the country. Human movement may lead to the maintenance of reservoirs of infection, complicating attempts to eliminate malaria. METHODS: An unmatched case--control study was conducted with 560 adult patients at a Health Centre in central Ethiopia. Patients who received a malaria test were interviewed regarding their recent travel histories. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to determine if reported travel outside of the home village within the last month was related to malaria infection status. RESULTS: After adjusting for several known confounding factors, travel away from the home village in the last 30 days was a statistically significant risk factor for infection with Plasmodium falciparum (AOR 1.76; p=0.03) but not for infection with Plasmodium vivax (AOR 1.17; p=0.62). Male sex was strongly associated with any malaria infection (AOR 2.00; p=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Given the importance of identifying reservoir infections, consideration of human movement patterns should factor into decisions regarding elimination and disease prevention, especially when targeted areas are limited to regions within a country.
    Malaria Journal 01/2013; 12(1):33. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Low birthweight is a significant risk factor for neonatal and infant death. A prominent cause of low birthweight is infection with Plasmodium falciparum during pregnancy. Antimalarial intermittent preventive therapy in pregnancy (IPTp) and insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) significantly reduce the risk of low birthweight in regions of stable malaria transmission. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of malaria prevention in pregnancy (IPTp or ITNs) at preventing low birthweight and neonatal mortality under routine programme conditions in malaria endemic countries of Africa. METHODS: We used a retrospective birth cohort from national cross-sectional datasets in 25 African countries from 2000-10. We used all available datasets from multiple indicator cluster surveys, demographic and health surveys, malaria indicator surveys, and AIDS indicator surveys that were publically available as of 2011. We tried to limit confounding bias through exact matching on potential confounding factors associated with both exposure to malaria prevention (ITNs or IPTp with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine) in pregnancy and birth outcomes, including local malaria transmission, neonatal tetanus vaccination, maternal age and education, and household wealth. We used a logistic regression model to test for associations between malaria prevention in pregnancy and low birthweight, and a Poisson model for the outcome of neonatal mortality. Both models incorporated the matched strata as a random effect, while accounting for additional potential confounding factors with fixed effect covariates. FINDINGS: We analysed 32 national cross-sectional datasets. Exposure of women in their first or second pregnancy to full malaria prevention with IPTp or ITNs was significantly associated with decreased risk of neonatal mortality (protective efficacy [PE] 18%, 95% CI 4-30; incidence rate ratio [IRR] 0·820, 95% CI 0·698-0·962), compared with newborn babies of mothers with no protection, after exact matching and controlling for potential confounding factors. Compared with women with no protection, exposure of pregnant women during their first two pregnancies to full malaria prevention in pregnancy through IPTp or ITNs was significantly associated with reduced odds of low birthweight (PE 21%, 14-27; IRR 0·792, 0·732-0·857), as measured by a combination of weight and birth size perceived by the mother, after exact matching and controlling for potential confounding factors. INTERPRETATION: Malaria prevention in pregnancy is associated with substantial reductions in neonatal mortality and low birthweight under routine malaria control programme conditions. Malaria control programmes should strive to achieve full protection in pregnant women by both IPTp and ITNs to maximise their benefits. Despite an attempt to mitigate bias and potential confounding by matching women on factors thought to be associated with access to malaria prevention in pregnancy and birth outcomes, some level of confounding bias possibly remains. FUNDING: Malaria Control and Evaluation Partnership in Africa (MACEPA), Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
    The Lancet Infectious Diseases 09/2012; · 19.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents results from an evaluation of the effect of a community health worker (CHW) -based, interpersonal communication campaign (IPC) for increasing insecticide-treated mosquito net (ITN) use among children in Luangwa District, Zambia, an area with near universal coverage of ITNs and moderate to low malaria parasite prevalence. A quasi-experimental community randomized control trial was conducted from 2008 to 2010. CHWs were the unit of randomization. Cross-sectional data were collected from houses in both 2008 and 2010 using simple random sampling of a complete household enumeration of the district. A difference-in -differences approach was used to analyse the data. ITN use among children <5 years old in households with ≥1 ITN increased overall from 54% in 2008 to 81% in 2010 (χ2 = 96.3, p <0.01); however, there was no difference in increase between the treatment and control arms in 2010 (p >0.05). ITN use also increased among children five to 14 years old from 37% in 2008 to 68% in 2010. There was no indication that the CHW-based intervention activities had a significant effect on increasing ITN use in this context, over and above what is already being done to disseminate information on the importance of using an ITN to prevent malaria infection. ITN use increased dramatically in the district between 2008 and 2010. It is likely that IPC activities in general may have contributed to the observed increase in ITN use, as the increased observed in this study was far higher than the increase observed between 2008 and 2010 malaria indicator survey (MIS) estimates. Contamination across control communities, coupled with linear settlement patterns and subsequent behavioural norms related to communication in the area, likely contributed to the observed increase in net use and null effect in this study.
    Malaria Journal 09/2012; 11:313. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The National Malaria Control Center of Zambia introduced rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) to detect Plasmodium falciparum as a pilot in some districts in 2005 and 2006; scale up at a national level was achieved in 2009. Data on RDT use, drug consumption, and diagnostic results were collected in three Zambian health districts to determine the impact RDTs had on malaria case management over the period 2004-2009. Reductions were seen in malaria diagnosis and antimalarial drug prescription (66.1 treatments per facility-month (95% confidence interval [CI] = 44.7-87.4) versus 26.6 treatments per facility-month (95% CI = 11.8-41.4)) pre- and post-RDT introduction. Results varied between districts, with significant reductions in low transmission areas but none in high areas. Rapid diagnostic tests may contribute to rationalization of treatment of febrile illness and reduce antimalarial drug consumption in Africa; however, their impact may be greater in lower transmission areas. National scale data will be necessary to confirm these findings.
    The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 07/2012; 87(3):437-46. · 2.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Funding from external agencies for malaria control in Africa has increased dramatically over the past decade resulting in substantial increases in population coverage by effective malaria prevention interventions. This unprecedented effort to scale-up malaria interventions is likely improving child survival and will likely contribute to meeting Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 to reduce the < 5 mortality rate by two thirds between 1990 and 2015. The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) model was used to quantify the likely impact that malaria prevention intervention scale-up has had on malaria mortality over the past decade (2001-2010) across 43 malaria endemic countries in sub-Saharan African. The likely impact of ITNs and malaria prevention interventions in pregnancy (intermittent preventive treatment [IPTp] and ITNs used during pregnancy) over this period was assessed. The LiST model conservatively estimates that malaria prevention intervention scale-up over the past decade has prevented 842,800 (uncertainty: 562,800-1,364,645) child deaths due to malaria across 43 malaria-endemic countries in Africa, compared to a baseline of the year 2000. Over the entire decade, this represents an 8.2% decrease in the number of malaria-caused child deaths that would have occurred over this period had malaria prevention coverage remained unchanged since 2000. The biggest impact occurred in 2010 with a 24.4% decrease in malaria-caused child deaths compared to what would have happened had malaria prevention interventions not been scaled-up beyond 2000 coverage levels. ITNs accounted for 99% of the lives saved. The results suggest that funding for malaria prevention in Africa over the past decade has had a substantial impact on decreasing child deaths due to malaria. Rapidly achieving and then maintaining universal coverage of these interventions should be an urgent priority for malaria control programmes in the future. Successful scale-up in many African countries will likely contribute substantially to meeting MDG 4, as well as succeed in meeting MDG 6 (Target 1) to halt and reverse malaria incidence by 2015.
    Malaria Journal 03/2012; 11:93. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As some malaria control programs shift focus from disease control to transmission reduction, there is a need for transmission data to monitor progress. At lower levels of transmission, it becomes increasingly more difficult to measure precisely, for example through entomological studies. Many programs conduct regular cross sectional parasite prevalence surveys, and have access to malaria treatment data routinely collected by ministries of health, often in health management information systems. However, by themselves, these data are poor measures of transmission. In this paper, we propose an approach for combining annual parasite incidence and treatment data with cross-sectional parasite prevalence and treatment seeking survey data to estimate the incidence of new infections in the human population, also known as the force of infection. The approach is based on extension of a reversible catalytic model. The accuracy of the estimates from this model appears to be highly dependent on levels of detectability and treatment in the community, indicating the importance of information on private sector treatment seeking and access to effective and appropriate treatment.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(8):e42861. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Describing genetic diversity of the Plasmodium falciparum parasite provides important information about the local epidemiology of malaria. In this study, we examined the genetic diversity of P. falciparum isolates from the Artibonite Valley in Haiti using the allelic families of merozoite surface protein 1 and 2 genes (msp-1 and msp-2). The majority of study subjects infected with P. falciparum had a single parasite genotype (56% for msp-1 and 69% for msp-2: n=79); 9 distinct msp-1 genotypes were identified by size differences on agarose gels. K1 was the most polymorphic allelic family with 5 genotypes (amplicons from 100 to 300 base pairs [bp]); RO33 was the least polymorphic, with a single genotype (120-bp). Although both msp-2 alleles (3D7/IC1, FC27) had similar number of genotypes (n=4), 3D7/IC1 was more frequent (85% vs. 26%). All samples were screened for the presence of the K76T mutation on the P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt) gene with 10 of 79 samples positive. Of the 2 (out of 10) samples from individuals follow-up for 21 days, P. falciparum parasites were present through day 7 after treatment with chloroquine. No parasites were found on day 21. Our results suggest that the level of genetic diversity is low in this area of Haiti, which is consistent with an area of low transmission.
    Acta tropica 01/2012; 121(1):6-12. · 2.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In November 2010, Sierra Leone distributed over three million long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) with the objective of providing protection from malaria to individuals in all households in the country. We conducted a nationally representative survey six months after the mass distribution campaign to evaluate its impact on household insecticide-treated net (ITN) ownership and use. We examined factors associated with household ITN possession and use with logistic regression models. The survey included 4,620 households with equal representation in each of the 14 districts. Six months after the campaign, 87.6% of households own at least one ITN, which represents an increase of 137% over the most recent estimate of 37% in 2008. Thirty-six percent of households possess at least one ITN per two household members; rural households were more likely than urban households to have ≥ 1:2 ITN to household members, but there was no difference by socio-economic status or household head education. Among individuals in households possessing ≥ 1 ITN, 76.5% slept under an ITN the night preceding the survey. Individuals in households where the household head had heard malaria messaging, had correct knowledge of malaria transmission, and where at least one ITN was hanging, were more likely to have slept under an ITN. The mass distribution campaign was effective at achieving high coverage levels across the population, notably so among rural households where the malaria burden is higher. These important gains in equitable access to malaria prevention will need to be maintained to produce long-term reductions in the malaria burden.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(5):e37927. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    Thomas P Eisele, Richard W Steketee
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    ABSTRACT: Thomas Eisele and Richard Steketee discuss new research in PLoS Medicine by Stephen Lim and colleagues that examined the association of insecticide-treated nets with the reduction of P. falciparum prevalence in children under 5 and all-cause post-neonatal mortality.
    PLoS Medicine 09/2011; 8(9):e1001088. · 15.25 Impact Factor
  • Joseph Keating, Thomas P Eisele
    The Lancet Infectious Diseases 08/2011; 11(12):891-2. · 19.97 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
380.95 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2004–2013
    • Tulane University
      • • Department of Tropical Medicine
      • • School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine
      New Orleans, Louisiana, United States
  • 2011
    • Population Council
      • HIV and AIDS Program
      New York City, NY, United States
  • 2003–2011
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      • • Center for Global Health
      • • Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria
      Atlanta, MI, United States
  • 2009
    • PATH
      Seattle, Washington, United States