[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary hypobetalipoproteinemia (pHBL) is characterized by plasma cholesterol levels <5th percentile of a population distribution. Plasma non-cholesterol sterols (NCS) are markers of cholesterol liver synthesis and intestinal absorption. Plasma NCS were measured in 111 pHBL subjects, 108 low cholesterol (LC) and 253 normal cholesterol (NC) controls to gain information on cholesterol metabolism in pHBL, and to assess whether NCS measurements may aid in distinguishing pHBL from LC controls. pHBL subjects compared with LC controls were characterized by increased cholesterol absorption (campesterol/TC) while the synthesis (lathosterol/TC) was not increased. The analysis of pHBL subjects divided by gene defect showed a high campesterol/TC ratio in familial HBL (FHBL) carriers of apolipoproteinB (ApoB) truncations longer than ApoB48 and in FHBL without known gene defect ("not linked"). One not linked kindred was characterized by an increase of the 7-dehydrocholesterol/latho ratio. In a discriminant analysis plasma NCS did not improve the power of TC levels to distinguish FHBL from LC controls. In conclusion, increased cholesterol absorption was found in FHBL subjects harbouring truncations of ApoB>ApoB48, and FHBL harbouring as yet unknown molecular defects. Not linked FHBL kindred are not homogeneous in terms of plasma NCS levels. NCS cannot replace genetic HBL analysis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Familial hypobetalipoproteinemia (FHBL) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by abnormally low levels of apolipoprotein-B (apoB) containing lipoproteins. FHBL is caused by APOB, PCSK9 or ANGPTL3 mutations or is associated with loci located in chromosomes 10 and 3p21. However, other genes should be involved. This study describes the kinetic parameters of the apoB containing lipoproteins and sequence abnormalities of the APOB and PCSK9 genes of FHBL patients identified in a large hospital based survey.
Cases with primary or secondary causes of hypobetalipoproteinemia were identified. ApoB kinetics were measured in cases with primary forms in whom truncated forms of apoB were not present in VLDL (n = 4). A primed constant infusion of [(13)C] leucine was administered, VLDL and LDL apoB production and catabolic rates measured by a multicompartmental model and compared to normolipemic controls. In addition, these subjects had an abdominal ultrasound and direct sequencing was carried out for the PCSK9 and apoB genes.
Three individuals had normal apoB production with increased catabolic rate; the remaining had reduced synthetic and catabolic rates. Various polymorphisms, some of them previously unreported (*), in the PCSK9 gene (R46L, A53V, I474V, D480N*, E498K*) and in the apoB gene (N441D*, Y1395C, P2712L, D2285E*, I2286V, T3540S*, T3799M*) were found in the FHBL patients. We found hepatic ultrasound changes of hepatic steatosis in only one of the four probands.
FHBL without truncated apoB is a heterogeneous disease from a metabolic and a genetic perspective. Hypobetalipoproteinemia is a risk factor but not an obligate cause of steatosis.
Annals of hepatology: official journal of the Mexican Association of Hepatology 01/2011; 10(2):155-64. · 1.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We sequenced all protein-coding regions of the genome (the "exome") in two family members with combined hypolipidemia, marked by extremely low plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides. These two participants were compound heterozygotes for two distinct nonsense mutations in ANGPTL3 (encoding the angiopoietin-like 3 protein). ANGPTL3 has been reported to inhibit lipoprotein lipase and endothelial lipase, thereby increasing plasma triglyceride and HDL cholesterol levels in rodents. Our finding of ANGPTL3 mutations highlights a role for the gene in LDL cholesterol metabolism in humans and shows the usefulness of exome sequencing for identification of novel genetic causes of inherited disorders. (Funded by the National Human Genome Research Institute and others.).
New England Journal of Medicine 10/2010; 363(23):2220-7. · 54.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the mechanism of low levels of full length and truncated apoB in individuals heterozygous for apoB truncation, a non-sense mutation was introduced in one of the three alleles of apob gene of HepG2 cells by homologous recombination. Despite very low levels of apoB-82 (1-2%) in the media, a prominent N-terminal apoB protein of 85 kDa (apoB-15) was secreted that fractionated at d>1.065 in density gradient ultracentrifugation. The mechanism of production of this short protein was studied by (35)S-methionine pulse-chase experiment. Oleate prevented presecretory degradation of apoB-100 in the cell and resulted in increased secretion of newly synthesized apoB-100 with decreases in the apoB-15, suggesting that rescue of pre-secretary intracellular degradation of apoB restricted the production and secretion of apoB-15. Further investigation on the degradation of transmembrane forms of apoB, in the presence and absence of a cysteine protease inhibitor, N-acetyl-leucyl-leucyl-norleucinal (ALLN), showed appearance of detectable levels of newly synthesized apoB-82 in the cell and the media together with increased apoB-100 secretion, and reduction in the secretion of apoB-15. Compared to ER membrane, the levels of apoB were higher in the luminal content, and presence of both oleate and ALLN had additive effect on apoB secretion. These results suggest that the presence of improper folding of apoB during translocation led to the cleavage of both apoB-100 and apoB-82 by ALLN-sensitive protease and generation of 85 kDa N-terminal fragment of apoB.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 08/2010; 398(4):665-70. · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatic steatosis is associated with insulin resistance, but it is not clear whether increased intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) content causes the resistance or is a marker. Subjects with familial hypobetalipoproteinemia (FHBL) have high levels of IHTG because of a genetic defect in hepatic export of triglycerides, and provide a unique cohort to study the relationship between steatosis and insulin sensitivity.
One group of lean subjects with normal IHTG content (2.2% +/- 0.6% of liver volume) (n = 6), and 3 groups of overweight and obese subjects matched for body mass index, were studied: (1) normal IHTG content (3.3% +/- 0.5%; n = 6), (2) high IHTG content (21.4% +/- 2.6%) due to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD; n = 6), and (3) high IHTG content (18.1% +/- 2.2%) due to FHBL (n = 3). A hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp procedure, in conjunction with glucose tracer infusion, was used to determine multiorgan insulin sensitivity.
Hepatic insulin sensitivity (reciprocal of glucose rate of appearance [micromol x kg fat-free mass(-1) x min(-1)] x insulin [mU/L]) was greatest in the Lean group (2.0 +/- 0.4); it was the same among subjects with FHBL (0.8 +/- 0.1) and the group with normal IHTG content, matched for body mass index (0.7 +/- 0.1), but greater than the NAFLD group (0.3 +/- 0.1) (P < .01). Muscle insulin sensitivity (percent increase in glucose uptake during insulin infusion) was greatest in the Lean group (576% +/- 70%). Muscle insulin sensitivity was similar in subjects with FHBL and those with normal IHTG (319% +/- 77%, 326% +/- 27%, respectively), but greater than the NAFLD group (145% +/- 18%) (P < .01).
Steatosis is dissociated from insulin resistance in FHBL, which suggests that increased IHTG content is a marker, not a cause, of metabolic dysfunction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One significant clinical symptom of familial hypobetalipoproteinemia [FHBL] due to defects in apolipoprotein B (apoB) is steatohepatosis. However, the increased hepatic fat content in apoB-related FHBL subjects was not associated with glucose intolerance, in contrast with what is the case in the metabolic syndrome. Meanwhile, in human subjects with similar apoB truncations, degree of obesity and insulin sensitivity, their liver triglyceride (TG) contents may vary considerably, suggesting that, in addition to defective apoB, other genes may affect the magnitude of hepatic TG accumulation. We hypothesized that genetic background affects the severity of hepatic steatosis and the expression of insulin sensitivity. To test the hypotheses, mouse apoB38.9-bearing congenies were bred under high, medium and low liver triglyceride (TG) backgrounds using "speed congenics" approach. These mice were fed on regular diet for 12 weeks. Their insulin sensitivity, serum and liver lipids were assessed. The highest liver fat strain [BALB/cByJ] accumulated significantly higher TG in the liver under apoB38.9 heterozygous condition, while the lowest liver fat strain [SWR/J] had the smallest liver TG change, suggesting that the genetic backgrounds affected the hepatic TG responses to the presence of the apoB38.9 mutation. Interestingly, only the low liver fat strain [SWR/J-apoB38.9] showed significant upward shifts of both glucose tolerance test (GTT) and insulin tolerance test (ITT) curves. Neither the glucose nor the insulin tolerance curves were altered in the two cognate congenics with higher liver fat content [BALB/cByJ and C57BL/6J]. Thus, hepatic TG contents and measures of glucose metabolism were dissociated from each other. It is tempting to conclude that hepatic TG per se may not be responsible for the insulin resistance seen in fatty liver. The genetic/molecular bases for the differences between SWR/J and the other two strains with respect to their glucose metabolic responses to increases in hepatic TG contents remain to be elucidated.
Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association 02/2008; 119:217-23; discussion 223-4.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High plasma apolipoprotein B (apoB) and LDL cholesterol levels increase cardiovascular disease risk. These highly correlated measures may be partially controlled by common genetic polymorphisms. To identify chromosomal regions that contain genes causing low plasma levels of one or both parameters in Caucasian families ascertained for familial hypobetalipoproteinemia (FHBL), we conducted a whole-genome scan using 443 microsatellite markers typed in nine multigenerational families with at least two members with FHBL. Both variance components and regression-based linkage methods were used to identify regions of interest. Common linkage regions were identified for both measures on chromosomes 10q25.1-10q26.11 [maximum log of the odds (LOD) = 4.2 for LDL and 3.5 for apoB] and 6q24.3 (maximum LOD = 1.46 for LDL and 1.84 for apoB). There was also evidence for linkage to apoB on chromosome 13q13.2 (LOD = 1.97) and to LDL on chromosome 3p14.1 at 94 centimorgan (LOD = 1.52). Bivariate linkage analysis provided further evidence for loci contributing to both traits (6q24.3, LOD = 1.43; 10q25.1, LOD = 1.74). We evaluated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes within our linkage regions to identify variants associated with apoB or LDL levels. The most significant finding was for rs2277205 in the 5' untranslated region of acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase short/branched chain and LDL (P = 10(-7)). Three additional SNPs were associated with apoB and/or LDL (P < 0.01). Although only the linkage signal on chromosome 10 reached genome-wide statistical significance, there are likely multiple chromosomal regions with variants that contribute to low levels of apoB and LDL and that may protect against coronary heart disease.
The Journal of Lipid Research 12/2007; 48(12):2632-9. · 4.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Familial hypobetalipoproteinemia (FHBL) due to truncation-specifying mutations of apolipoprotein B (apoB), which impair hepatic lipid export in very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles, is associated with fatty liver. In an FHBL-like mouse with the apoB38.9 mutation, fatty liver develops despite reduced hepatic fatty acid synthesis. However, hepatic cholesterol contents in apoB38.9 mice are normal. We found that cholesterogenic enzymes (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, sterol-C5-desaturase, and 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase) were consistently downregulated in two separate expression-profiling experiments using a total of 19 mice (n = 7 each for apob(+/+) and apob(+/38.9), and n = 5 for apob(38.9/38.9)) and Affymetrix Mu74Av2 GeneChip microarrays. Results were confirmed by real-time PCR. Cholesterol synthesis rates in cultured hepatocytes were reduced by 35% and 25% in apob(38.9/38.9) and apob(+/38.9), respectively, vs. apob(+/+). Hepatic triglycerides and lipid peroxides, the latter measured by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) assay, were significantly elevated in apob(+/38.9) (117%) and apob(38.9/38.9) (132%) vs. apob(+/+) (100%), as were mRNA expression of the microsomal lipid peroxidizing enzymes Cyp4A10 and Cyp4A14. Hepatic lipid peroxide levels were positively correlated with triglyceride contents (r = 0.601, P = 0.0065). Thus the fatty liver due to a VLDL secretion defect is associated with insufficient adaptation to triglyceride accumulation and with increased lipid peroxidation. In contrast, apoB38.9 mice effectively maintain cholesterol homeostasis in the liver, at least in part, by reducing hepatic cholesterol synthesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The genetic etiology of familial hypobetalipoproteinemia (FHBL) is unclear in the majority of cases. Mutations in apolipoprotein B (APOB) are the only confirmed causes of FHBL. Recently, loss-of-function mutations of PCSK9 gene have been shown to be associated with the hypocholesterolemia phenotype. Our primary goal was to confirm that mutations in PCSK9 could be another cause of FHBL. Using the sequencing approach, we found that the c.43_44insCTG variation in PCSK9, a common in-frame insertion in both African American and Caucasian populations, is associated with the hypocholesterolemia phenotype in three FHBL families. Then we tested whether this variation could be associated with lower cholesterol levels in the general population. A total of 403 subjects from a Caucasian population, in which hypobetalipoprotein (HBL) and normal groups were classified using standard criteria, were sequenced for this variation. The allele frequency of this variation in the HBL group was 0.186, but was only 0.128 in the normal lipid group. The mean plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol level in subjects heterozygous for this variant is significantly lower than that in the normal group (p<0.01). Heterozygous subjects also had higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels (p<0.01). In general, LDL-cholesterol concentration in individuals with PCSK9 c.43_44insCTG variation was approximately 10-15 mg/dL lower than that in normal individuals. We conclude that the c.43_44insCTG variant plays a role in lowering cholesterol in the general population.
Human Mutation 06/2006; 27(5):460-6. · 5.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Familial hypobetalipoproteinemia (FHBL), an autosomal dominant disorder, is defined as <5th percentile LDL-cholesterol or apolipoprotein (apo) B in the plasma. FHBL subjects are generally heterozygous and asymptomatic. Three genetic forms exist: (i) premature stop codon specifying mutations of APOB; (ii) FHBL linked to a susceptibility locus on the chromosome 3p21; and (iii) FHBL linked neither to APOB nor to the chromosome 3p21. In heterozygous apoB-defective FHBL, the hepatic VLDL export system is defective because apoB 100, the product of the normal allele, is produced at approximately 25% of normal rate, and truncated apoB is cleared too rapidly. The reduced capacity for hepatic triglyceride export increases hepatic fat three-fold. Indexes of adiposity and insulin action are similar to controls. 'Knock-in' mouse models of apoB truncations resemble human FHBL phenotypes. Liver fat in the chromosome 3p21-linked FHBL is normal. Elucidation of the genetic basis of the non-apoB FHBL could uncover attractive targets for lipid-lowering therapy. (See note added in proof.).
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 07/2005; 62(12):1372-8. · 5.62 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fatty liver is prevalent in apolipoprotein B (apoB)-defective familial hypobetalipoproteinemia (FHBL). Similar to humans, mouse models of FHBL produced by gene targeting (apob(+/38.9)) manifest low plasma cholesterol and increased hepatic triglycerides (TG) even on a chow diet due to impaired hepatic VLDL-TG secretive capacity. Because apoB truncations shorter than apoB48 are expressed in the intestine, we examined whether FHBL mice may have limited capacity for intestinal dietary TG absorption. In addition, we investigated whether FHBL mice are more susceptible to diet-induced hepatic TG accumulation. Fat absorption capacity was impaired in apoB38.9 mice in a gene dose-dependent manner. Relative fractional fat absorption coefficients for apob(+/+), apob(+/38.9), and apob(38.9/38.9) were 1.00, 0.96, and 0.71, respectively. To raise hepatic TG, we fed high-fat (HF) and low-fat (LF) pellets. Hepatic TG level was observed in rank order: HF > LF > chow. On both LF and HF, liver TG level was higher in the apob(+/38.9) than in apob(+/+). Hepatic TG secretion remained impaired in the apob(+/38.9) on the HF diet. Thus the FHBL mice are more susceptible to diet-induced fatty liver despite relatively reduced intestinal TG absorption capacity on a HF diet.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our aim was to ascertain whether fatty liver may be present in the genetic form of familial hypobetalipoproteinemia (FHBL) linked to a susceptibility locus on chromosome 3p21. Three genetic forms of FHBL exist: (a) FHBL caused by truncation-specifying mutations of apolipoprotein B (apoB), (b) FHBL linked to chr3p21, and (c) FHBL not linked either to APOB or to chr3p21. Fatty liver is common in apoB-defective FHBL. Hepatic fat contents were quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy in 16 subjects with 3p21-linked FHBL, 32 subjects with apoB-defective FHBL, and 39 sex- and age-matched controls. Mean liver fat of 3p21 subjects was similar to controls and approximately 60% lower than apoB-defective FHBL subjects ( P = .0012). Indices of adiposity (body mass index, waist/hip ratio) and masses of abdominal subcutaneous, retroperitoneal, and intraperitoneal adipose tissue (IPAT) were quantified by MR imaging. Mean measures of adiposity were similar in the 3 groups, suggesting that adiposity per se was not responsible for differences in liver fat. Liver fat content was positively correlated with IPAT. The intercepts of regression lines of IPAT on liver fat content were similar in controls and 3p21, but higher in apoB-defective FHBL subjects. The slopes of the lines were steepest in apoB-defective, intermediate in 3p21, and flattest in controls. Lipoprotein profiles and very low density lipoprotein-apoB100 kinetics of 3p21 and apoB-defective groups also differed. Thus, 2 genetic subtypes of FHBL also differ in several phenotypic features.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess whether genetic factor(s) determine liver triglyceride (TG) levels, a 10-mouse strain survey of liver TG contents was performed. Hepatic TG contents were highest in BALB/cByJ, medium in C57BL/6J, and lowest in SWR/J in both genders. Ninety and seventy-six percent of variance in hepatic TG in males and females, respectively, was due to strain (genetic) effects. To understand the physiological/biochemical basis for differences in hepatic TG among the three strains, studies were performed in males of the BALB/cByJ, C57BL/6J, and SWR/J strains. In vivo hepatic fatty acid (FA) synthesis rates and hepatic TG secretion rates ranked BALB/cByJ approximately C57BL/6J > SWR/J. Hepatic 1-(14)C-labeled palmitate oxidation rates and plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations ranked in reverse order: SWR/J > BALB/cByJ approximately C57BL/6J. After 14 h of fasting, plasma-free FA and hepatic TG contents rose most in BALB/cByJ and least in SWR/J. beta-Hydroxybutyrate concentrations rose least in BALB/cByJ and most in SWR/J. Adaptation to fasting was most effective in SWR/J and least in BALB/cByJ, perhaps because BALB/cByJ are known to be deficient in SCAD, a short-chain FA oxidizing enzyme. To assess the role of insulin action, glucose tolerance test (GTT) was performed. GTT-glucose levels ranked C57BL/6J > BALB/cByJ approximately SWR/J. Thus strain-dependent (genetic) factors play a major role in setting hepatic TG levels in mice. Processes such as FA production and hepatic export in VLDL on the one hand and FA oxidation on the other, explain some of the strain-related differences in hepatic TG contents. Additional factor(s) in the development of fatty liver in BALB/cByJ remain to be demonstrated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report two novel APOB mutations causing short apolipoprotein B (apoB) truncations undetectable in plasma and familial hypobetalipoproteinemia (FHBL). In Family 56, a 5 bp deletion in APOB exon 7 (870_874del5) causes a frame shift, converting tyrosine to a stop codon (Y220X) and producing an apoB-5 truncation. In Family 59, a point mutation (1941G>T) in APOB exon 13 converts glutamic acid to stop codon (E578X), specifying apoB-13. A recurrent mutation in exon 26 (4432delT) produces apoB-30.9 in Family 58. In some members of these families, we observed that plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and apoB levels were unusually low even for subjects heterozygous for FHBL. To ascertain whether genetic variations in apolipoprotein E (apoE) would explain some of the variations of apoB and LDL cholesterol levels, apoE genotypes were assessed in affected subjects from a total of eight FHBL families with short apoB truncations. Heterozygous FHBL with the epsilon3/epsilon4 genotype had 10-1 5mg/dL higher plasma LDL cholesterol and apoB levels compared to subjects with the epsilon2/epsilon3 and epsilon3/epsilon3 genotypes. The apoE genotype has been reported to account for approximately 10% of the variation of LDL cholesterol in the general population. It accounted for 15-60% of the variability of plasma LDL cholesterol or apoB levels in our FHBL subjects. The physiologic bases for the greater effects of apoE in FHBL remain to be determined.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) procedure for in vivo measurement of lipid levels in mouse liver is described and validated. The method uses respiratory-gated, localized spectroscopy to collect proton spectra from voxels within the mouse liver. Bayesian probability theory analysis of these spectra allows the relative intensities of the lipid and water resonances within the liver to be accurately measured. All spectral data were corrected for measured spin-spin relaxation. A total of 48 mice were used in this study, including wild-type mice and two different transgenic mouse strains. Different groups of these mice were fed high-fat or low-fat diets or liquid diets with and without the addition of alcohol. Proton spectra were collected at baseline and, subsequently, every 4 weeks for up to 16 weeks. Immediately after the last MRS measurement, mice were killed and their livers analyzed for triglyceride level by conventional wet-chemistry methods. The excellent correlation between in vivo MRS and ex vivo wet-chemistry determinations of liver lipids validates the MRS method. These results clearly demonstrate that in vivo MRS will be an extremely valuable technique for longitudinal studies aimed at providing important insights into the genetic, environmental, and dietary factors affecting fat deposition and accumulation within the mouse liver.
The Journal of Lipid Research 08/2004; 45(7):1364-71. · 4.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fatty liver is frequent in the apolipoprotein B (apoB)-defective genetic form of familial hypobetalipoproteinemia (FHBL), but interindividual variability in liver fat is large. To explain this, we assessed the roles of metabolic factors in 32 affected family members with apoB-defective FHBL and 33 related and unrelated normolipidemic controls matched for age, sex, and indices of adiposity. Two hour, 75 g oral glucose tests, with measurements of plasma glucose and insulin levels, body mass index, and waist-hip ratios were obtained. Abdominal subcutaneous, intraperitoneal (IPAT), and retroperitoneal adipose tissue masses were quantified by MR imaging, and hepatic fat was quantified by MR spectroscopy. Mean +/- SD liver fat percentage values of FHBL and controls were 14.8 +/- 12.0 and 5.2 +/- 5.9, respectively (P = 0.001). Means for these measures of obesity and insulin action were similar in the two groups. Important determinants of liver fat percentage were FHBL-affected status, IPAT, and area under the curve (AUC) insulin in both groups, but the strongest predictors were IPAT in FHBL (partial R(2) = 0.55, P < 0.0002) and AUC insulin in controls (partial R(2) = 0.59, P = 0.0001). Regression of liver fat percentage on IPAT fat was significantly greater for FHBL than for controls (P < 0.001). In summary, because apoB-defective FHBL imparts heightened susceptibility to liver triglyceride accumulation, increasing IPAT and insulin resistance exert greater liver fat-increasing effects in FHBL.
The Journal of Lipid Research 05/2004; 45(5):941-7. · 4.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apolipoprotein B (apoB) truncation-specifying mutations cause familial hypobetalipoproteinemia (FHBL). Lipoprotein kinetics studies have shown that production rates of apoB-100 are reduced by 70-80% in heterozygous FHBL humans, instead of the expected 50%. To develop suitable mouse models to study the underlying mechanism, apoB-38.9-only (Apob(38.9/38.9)) mice were crossbred with Apobec-1 knockout (Apobec-1(-/-)) mice or apoB-100-only (Apob(100/100)) mice to produce two lines of apoB-38.9 heterozygous mice that produce only apoB-38.9 and apoB-100, namely Apobec-1(-/-)/Apob(38.9/+) and Apob(38.9/100) mice. In vivo rates of apoB-100 secretion were measured using [35S]Met/Cys to label proteins and Triton WR-1339 to block apoB-100 VLDL lipolysis/uptake. Rates of secretion were reduced by 80%, rather than the expected 50%, in both Apobec-1(-/-)/Apob(38.9/+) and Apob(38.9/100) mice compared with those of the respective Apobec-1(-/-)/Apob(+/+) and Apob(100/100) control mice. Continuous labeling and pulse-chase experiments in primary hepatocyte cultures revealed that rates of apoB-100 synthesis by Apobec-1(-/-)/Apob(38.9/+) and Apob(38.9/100) hepatocytes were reduced to the expected 50% of those of the respective controls, but the efficiency of secretion of apoB-100 was significantly lower in apoB-38.9 heterozygous hepatocytes. The greater-than-expected decreases in apoB-100 production rates of FHBL heterozygous humans appear to be attributable to a defect in secretion rather than in the synthesis of apoB-100 from the unaffected apoB allele.
The Journal of Lipid Research 02/2004; 45(1):155-63. · 4.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We review the genetics and pathophysiology of familial hypobetalipoproteinemia (FHBL), a mildly symptomatic genetically heterogeneous autosomal trait. The minority of human FHBL is caused by truncation-specifying mutations of the APOB gene on chromosome 2. In seven families, linkage to chromosome 2 is absent, linkage is instead to chromosome 3 (3p21). In others, linkage is absent to both APOB and to 3p21. Apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100) levels are approximately 25% of normal, instead of the 50% expected based on the presence of one normal allele due to reduced rates of production. The presence of the truncating mutation seems to have a "dominant recessive" effect on apoB-100 secretion. Concentrations of apoB truncations in plasma differ by truncation but average at approximately 10% of normal levels. Lipoproteins bearing truncated forms of apoB are cleared more rapidly than apoB-100 particles. In contrast with apoB-100 particles cleared primarily in liver via the LDL receptor, most apoB truncation particles are cleared in renal proximal tubular cells via megalin. Since apoB defects cause a dysfunctional VLDL-triglyceride transport system, livers accumulate fat. Hepatic synthesis of fatty acids is reduced in compensation. Informational lacunae remain about genes affecting fat accumulation in liver, and the modulation of liver fat in the presence apoB truncation defects.
The Journal of Lipid Research 06/2003; 44(5):878-83. · 4.39 Impact Factor