Stefano Mangani

Università degli Studi di Siena, Siena, Tuscany, Italy

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Publications (138)630.14 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Ferritin superfamily protein cages reversibly synthesize internal biominerals, Fe2O3·H2O. Fe(2+) and O2 (or H2O2) substrates bind at oxidoreductase sites in the cage, initiating biomineral synthesis to concentrate iron and prevent potentially toxic reactions products from Fe(2+)and O2 or H2O2 chemistry. By freezing ferritin crystals of Rana catesbeiana ferritin M (RcMf) at different time intervals after exposure to a ferrous salt, a series of high-resolution anomalous X-ray diffraction data sets were obtained that led to crystal structures that allowed the direct observation of ferrous ions entering, moving along and binding at enzyme sites in the protein cages. The ensemble of crystal structures from both aerobic and anaerobic conditions provides snapshots of the iron substrate bound at different cage locations that vary with time. The observed differential occupation of the two iron sites in the enzyme oxidoreductase centre (with Glu23 and Glu58, and with Glu58, His61 and Glu103 as ligands, respectively) and other iron-binding sites (with Glu53, His54, Glu57, Glu136 and Asp140 as ligands) reflects the approach of the Fe(2+) substrate and its progression before the enzymatic cycle 2Fe(2+) + O2 → Fe(3+)-O-O-Fe(3+) → Fe(3+)-O(H)-Fe(3+) and turnover. The crystal structures also revealed different Fe(2+) coordination compounds bound to the ion channels located at the threefold and fourfold symmetry axes of the cage.
    Acta Crystallographica Section D Biological Crystallography 04/2015; 71(Pt 4):941-953. DOI:10.1107/S1399004715002333 · 7.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human thymidylate synthase (hTS), a target for anti-proliferative drugs, is an obligate homodimer. Single-point mutations to alanine at the monomer-monomer interface may enable the identification of specific residues that delineate sites for drugs aimed at perturbing the protein-protein interactions critical for activity. We computationally identified putative hotspot residues at the interface and designed mutants to perturb the inter-subunit interaction. Dimer dissociation constants measured by a FRET-based assay range from 60 nM for wild-type hTS up to about 1 mM for single-point mutants, and agree with computational predictions of the effects of these mutations. Mutations that are remote from the active site retain full or partial activity although the substrate KM values were generally higher and the dimer was less stable. The lower dimer stability of the mutants can facilitate access to the dimer interface by small molecules and thereby aid the design of inhibitors that bind at the dimer interface.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 03/2015; 58(8). DOI:10.1021/acs.jmedchem.5b00137 · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the presence of abnormal α-synuclein (αS) deposits in the brain. Alterations in homeostasis and metal-induced oxidative stress may play a crucial role in the progression of αS amyloid assembly and pathogenesis of PD. Contrary to αS, β-synuclein (βS) is not involved in the PD etiology. However, it has been suggested that the βS/αS ratio is altered in PD, indicating that a correct balance of these two proteins is implicated in the inhibition of αS aggregation. αS and βS share similar abilities to coordinate Cu(II). In this study, we investigated and compared the interaction of Cu(I) with the N-terminal portion of βS and αS by means of NMR, circular dichroism, and X-ray absorption spectroscopies. Our data show the importance of M10K mutation, which induces different Cu(I) chemical environments. Coordination modes 3S1O and 2S2O were identified for βS and αS, respectively. These new insights into the bioinorganic chemistry of copper and synuclein proteins are a basis to understand the molecular mechanism by which βS might inhibit αS aggregation.
    Inorganic Chemistry 12/2014; 54(1). DOI:10.1021/ic502407w · 4.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Class D (or OXA-type) β-lactamases have expanded to be the most diverse group of serine β-lactamases with a highly heterogeneous β-lactam hydrolysis profile and are typically resistant to marketed β-lactamase inhibitors. Class D enzymes are increasingly found in multi-drug resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and various species of the Enterobacteriaceae and are posing a serious threat to the clinical utility of β-lactams including the carbapenems, which are typically reserved as the drugs of last resort. Avibactam, a novel non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor, not only inhibits all class A and class C β-lactamases, but also has the promise of inhibition of certain OXA enzymes, thus extending the antibacterial activity of the β-lactam used in combination to the organisms that produce these enzymes. X-ray structures of OXA-24 and OXA-48 in complex with avibactam revealed the binding mode of this inhibitor in this diverse class of enzymes and provide a rationale for selective inhibition of OXA-48 members. Additionally, various subunits of the OXA-48 structure in the asymmetric unit provide snapshots of different states of the inhibited enzyme. Overall, these data provide the first structural evidence of the exceptionally slow reversibility observed with avibactam in class D β-lactamases. Mechanisms for acylation and deacylation of avibactam by class D enzymes are proposed, and the likely extent of inhibition of class D β-lactamases by avibactam is discussed.
    ACS Chemical Biology 11/2014; 10(2). DOI:10.1021/cb500703p · 5.36 Impact Factor
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    Dataset: 247807
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    Dataset: Doc12
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    Dataset: Doc12
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    Dataset: OXA-48
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    ABSTRACT: Thymidylate synthase (TS) is a target for antifolate-based chemotherapies of microbial and human diseases. Here, ligand-based, synthetic and X-ray crystallography studies led to the discovery of 6-(3-cyanobenzoyloxy)-2-oxo-2H-naphto[1,8-bc]furan, a novel inhibitor with a Ki of 310 nM against Pneumocystis carinii TS. The X-ray ternary complex with Escherichia coli TS revealed, for the first time, displacement of the substrate towards the dimeric protein interface, thus providing new opportunities for further design of specific inhibitors of microbial pathogens.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 10/2013; 56(22). DOI:10.1021/jm4014086 · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although β-lactams have been the most effective class of antibacterial agents used in clinical practice for the past half century, their effectiveness on Gram-negative bacteria has been eroded due to the emergence and spread of β-lactamase enzymes that are not affected by currently marketed β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations. Avibactam is a novel, covalent, non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor presently in clinical development in combination with either ceftaroline or ceftazidime. In vitro studies show that avibactam may restore the broad-spectrum activity of cephalosporins against class A, class C and some class D β-lactamases. Here we describe the structure of two clinically important β-lactamase enzymes bound to avibactam, the class A CTX-M-15 extended-spectrum β-lactamase and class C Pseudomonas aeruginosa AmpC β-lactamase, which together provide insight into the binding modes for the respective enzyme classes. The structure reveals a similar binding mode in both enzymes and thus provides a rationale for the broad-spectrum inhibitory activity of avibactam. Identification of the key residues surrounding the binding pocket allows for a better understanding of the potency of this scaffold. Finally, avibactam has recently been shown to be a reversible inhibitor and the structure provides insights into the mechanism of avibactam recyclization. Analysis of the ultra-high resolution CTX-M-15 structure suggests how the deacylation mechanism favors recyclization over hydrolysis.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 02/2013; 57(6). DOI:10.1128/AAC.02247-12 · 4.45 Impact Factor
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    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 10/2012; 427(2):439. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2012.09.016 · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Drug resistance to therapeutic antibiotics poses a challenge to the identification of novel targets and drugs for the treatment of infectious diseases. Infections caused by Enterococcus faecalis are a major health problem. Thymidylate synthase (TS) from E. faecalis is a potential target for antibacterial therapy. The X-ray crystallographic structure of E. faecalis thymidylate synthase (EfTS), which was obtained as a native binary complex composed of EfTS and 5-formyltetrahydrofolate (5-FTHF), has been determined. The structure provides evidence that EfTS is a half-of-the-sites reactive enzyme, as 5-FTHF is bound to two of the four independent subunits present in the crystal asymmetric unit. 5-FTHF is a metabolite of the one-carbon transfer reaction catalysed by 5-formyltetrahydrofolate cyclo-ligase. Kinetic studies show that 5-FTHF is a weak inhibitor of EfTS, suggesting that the EfTS-5-FTHF complex may function as a source of folates and/or may regulate one-carbon metabolism. The structure represents the first example of endogenous 5-FTHF bound to a protein involved in folate metabolism.
    Acta Crystallographica Section D Biological Crystallography 09/2012; 68(Pt 9):1232-41. DOI:10.1107/S0907444912026236 · 7.23 Impact Factor
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    Gabriella Tamasi, Stefano Mangani, Renzo Cini
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    ABSTRACT: After having set up the computational methodology for Cu(I)-sulfur systems as models for copper proteins, namely using the simple ligands H(2)S, HS(-), CH(3)SH, and CH(3)S(-), the Cu(I)-Cysteine systems have been investigated: [Cu(I)( S -H(2)Cys) (n) ](+) (H(2)Cys, cysteine, NH(2),SH,COOH) [Cu(I)( S -HCys) (n) ](1-) (n) (NH(2),S(-),COOH). Finally, the structures for bi-nuclear [Formula: see text] (Et, CH(2)CH(3)), [Formula: see text] and tri-nuclear [Cu(I)( S -SH)](3), [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] (NH(2),SH,COOH), [Formula: see text] (NH(2),S(-),COOH, and NH(2),SH,COO(-)), as well as [Formula: see text] (NH(2),S(-),COO(-)), were also optimized to mimic the active center for a metallo-chaperone copper transport protein (CopZ). The X-ray structures for the biomolecules were matched fairly well as regards the Cu-S bond distances and Cu…Cu contact distances in the case the model cysteine S atom is deprotonated. Upon protonation of ligand S atoms, the conformation of clusters is altered and might bring about the di- and tri-nuclear core breakage. These findings suggest that subtle protonation/deprotonation steps, i.e. small and/or local pH changes play a significant role for copper transport processes.
    Journal of biomolecular Structure & Dynamics 06/2012; 30(6):728-51. DOI:10.1080/07391102.2012.689703 · 2.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The first step of iron biomineralization mediated by ferritin is the oxidation at the ferroxidase active site of two ferrous ions to a diferric oxo/hydroxo species. Metal-loaded ferritin crystals obtained by soaking crystals of frog ferritin in FeSO(4) and CuSO(4) solutions followed by flash freezing provided X-ray crystal structures of the tripositive iron and bipositive copper adducts at 2.7 and 2.8 Å resolution, respectively. At variance with the already available structures, the crystal form used in this study contains 24 independent subunits in the asymmetric unit permitting comparison between them. For the first time, the diferric species at the ferroxidase site is identified in ferritins from higher eukaryotes. Anomalous difference Fourier maps for crystals (iron crystal 1) obtained after long soaking times in FeSO(4) solution invariantly showed diferric species with a Fe-Fe average distance of 3.1 ± 0.1 Å, strongly indicative of the presence of a μ-oxo/hydroxo bridge between the irons; protein ligands for each iron ion (Fe1 and Fe2) were also unequivocally identified and found to be the same in all subunits. For copper bound ferritin, dicopper(II) centers are also observed. While copper at site 1 is essentially in the same position and has the same coordination environment as Fe1, copper at site 2 is displaced toward His54, now acting as a ligand; this results in an increased intermetal distance (4.3 ± 0.4 Å). His54 coordination and longer metal-metal distances might represent peculiar features of divalent cations at the ferroxidase site. This oxidation-dependent structural information may provide key features for the mechanistic pathway in ferritins from higher eukaryotes that drive uptake of bivalent cation and release of ferric products at the catalytic site. This mechanism is supported by the X-ray picture obtained after only 1 min of soaking in FeSO(4) solutions (iron crystal 2) which reasonably contain the metal at different oxidation states. Here two different di-iron species are trapped in the active site, with intermetal distances corresponding to those of the ferric dimer in crystal 1 and of the dicopper centers and corresponding rearrangement of the His54 side chain.
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 03/2012; 134(14):6169-76. DOI:10.1021/ja210084n · 11.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Class D β-lactamases with carbapenemase activity are emerging as carbapenem-resistance determinants in gram-negative bacterial pathogens, mostly Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Carbapenemase activity is an unusual feature among class D β-lactamases, and the structural elements responsible for this activity remain unclear. Based on structural and molecular dynamics data, we previously hypothesized a potential role of the residues located in the short-loop connecting strands β5 and β6 (the β5-β6 loop) in conferring the carbapenemase activity of the OXA-48 enzyme. In this work, the narrow-spectrum OXA-10 class D β-lactamase, which is unable to hydrolyze carbapenems, was used as a model to investigate the possibility of evolving carbapenemase activity by replacement of the β5-β6 loop with those present in three different lineages of class D carbapenemases (OXA-23, OXA-24, and OXA-48). Biological assays and kinetic measurements showed that all three OXA-10-derived hybrids acquired significant carbapenemase activity. Structural analysis of the OXA-10loop24 and OXA-10loop48 hybrids revealed no significant changes in the molecular fold of the enzyme, except for the orientation of the substituted β5-β6 loops, which was reminiscent of that found in their parental enzymes. These results demonstrate the crucial role of the β5-β6 loop in the carbapenemase activity of class D β-lactamases, and provide previously unexplored insights into the mechanism by which these enzymes can evolve carbapenemase activity.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2011; 108(45):18424-9. DOI:10.1073/pnas.1110530108 · 9.81 Impact Factor
  • Acta Crystallographica Section A Foundations of Crystallography 08/2011; 67(a1):C772-C772. DOI:10.1107/S0108767311080482 · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human thymidylate synthase is a homodimeric enzyme that plays a key role in DNA synthesis and is a target for several clinically important anticancer drugs that bind to its active site. We have designed peptides to specifically target its dimer interface. Here we show through X-ray diffraction, spectroscopic, kinetic, and calorimetric evidence that the peptides do indeed bind at the interface of the dimeric protein and stabilize its di-inactive form. The "LR" peptide binds at a previously unknown binding site and shows a previously undescribed mechanism for the allosteric inhibition of a homodimeric enzyme. It inhibits the intracellular enzyme in ovarian cancer cells and reduces cellular growth at low micromolar concentrations in both cisplatin-sensitive and -resistant cells without causing protein overexpression. This peptide demonstrates the potential of allosteric inhibition of hTS for overcoming platinum drug resistance in ovarian cancer.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/2011; 108(34):E542-9. DOI:10.1073/pnas.1104829108 · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To identify specific bacterial thymidylate synthase (TS) inhibitors, we exploited phenolphthalein (PTH), which inhibits both bacterial and human enzymes. The X-ray crystal structure of Lactobacillus casei TS (LcTS) that binds PTH showed multiple binding modes of the inhibitor, which prevented a classical structure-based drug design approach. To overcome this issue, we synthesized two phthalimidic libraries that were tested against TS enzymes and then we performed X-ray crystallographic screening of the active compounds. Compounds 6A, 8A, and 12A showed 40-fold higher affinity for bacterial TS than human TS. The X-ray crystallographic screening characterized the binding mode of six inhibitors in complexes with LcTS. Of these, 20A, 23A, and 24A showed a common unique binding mode, whereas 8A showed a different, unique binding mode. A comparative analysis of the LcTS X-ray complexes that were obtained with the pathogenic TS enabled the selection of compounds 8A and 23A as specific compounds and starting points to be exploited for the specific inhibition of pathogen enzymes.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 06/2011; 54(15):5454-67. DOI:10.1021/jm2005018 · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: TEM-72, a class A β-lactamase identified in isolates of Enterobacteriaceae, is a quadruple mutant of TEM-1 (Q39K, M182T, G238S and E240K) and shows extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) properties arising from the G238S and E240K substitutions. Although many structures of TEM variants have been published, they do not include an enzyme with the simultaneous presence of both of the ESBL-conferring G238S and E240K substitutions. Furthermore, the structure shows the presence of a citrate anion bound to the TEM-72 active site, where it interacts with all of the conserved residues of class A β-lactamases. The present structure supports the use of polycarboxylates as a scaffold for the design of broad-spectrum inhibitors of serine β-lactamases.
    Acta Crystallographica Section F Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications 03/2011; 67(Pt 3):303-6. DOI:10.1107/S1744309110054680 · 0.57 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
630.14 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1980–2015
    • Università degli Studi di Siena
      • Department of Medicine, Surgery and Neuroscience
      Siena, Tuscany, Italy
  • 1987–2012
    • University of Florence
      • • CERM - Centro di Ricerca di Risonanze Magnetiche
      • • Dipartimento di Chimica "Ugo Schiff"
      Florens, Tuscany, Italy
  • 2003
    • Università di Pisa
      Pisa, Tuscany, Italy
    • Sapienza University of Rome
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 1999
    • Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron
      Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
  • 1998
    • University of Bologna
      • Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology FaBiT
      Bolonia, Emilia-Romagna, Italy