[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CTCF is a versatile transcription factor with well-established roles in chromatin organization and insulator function. Recent findings also implicate CTCF in the control of elongation by RNA polymerase (pol) II. Here we show that CTCF knockdown abrogates pol II pausing at the early elongation checkpoint of c-myc by affecting recruitment of DRB-sensitivity-inducing factor (DSIF). CTCF knockdown also causes a termination defect on the U2 snRNA genes (U2), by affecting recruitment of negative elongation factor (NELF). In addition, CTCF is required for recruitment of positive elongation factor b (P-TEFb), which phosphorylates NELF, DSIF and Ser2 of the pol II CTD to activate elongation of transcription of c-myc and recognition of the snRNA gene-specific 3' box RNA processing signal. These findings implicate CTCF in a complex network of protein:protein/protein:DNA interactions and assign a key role to CTCF in controlling pol II transcription through the elongation checkpoint of the protein-coding c-myc and the termination site of the non-coding U2, by regulating the recruitment and/or activity of key players in these processes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The icosahedral capsid structure of simian virus 40 (diameter, 45 nm) consists of 72 pentameric subunits, with each subunit formed by five VP1 molecules. Electron microscopy, immuno-gold labeling, and ζ-potential analysis showed that purified recombinant VP1 pentamers covered polystyrene beads measuring 100, 200, and 500 nm in diameter, as well as silica beads. In addition to covering spherical beads, VP1 pentamers covered cubic magnetite beads, as well as the distorted surface structures of liposomes. These findings indicate that VP1 pentamers could coat artificial beads of various shapes and sizes larger than the natural capsid. Technology based on VP1 pentamers may be useful in providing a capsid-like surface for enclosed materials, enhancing their stability and cellular uptake for drug delivery systems.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The elongation factors DSIF and NELF are responsible for promoter-proximal RNA polymerase II (Pol II) pausing. NELF is also involved in 3' processing of replication-dependent histone genes, which produce non-polyadenylated mRNAs. Here we show that DSIF and NELF contribute to the synthesis of small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) through their association with Integrator, the large multisubunit complex responsible for 3' processing of pre-snRNAs. In HeLa cells, Pol II, Integrator, DSIF and NELF accumulate at the 3' end of the U1 snRNA gene. Knockdown of NELF results in misprocessing of U1, U2, U4 and U5 snRNAs, while DSIF is required for proper transcription of these genes. Knocking down NELF also disrupts transcription termination and induces the production of polyadenylated U1 transcripts caused by an enhanced recruitment of cleavage stimulation factor. Our results indicate that NELF plays a key role in determining the post-transcriptional fate of Pol II-transcribed genes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Accurate detection and monitoring of disease-related biomarkers is important in understanding pathophysiology. We devised a rapid immunoreaction system that uses submicrometer polymer-coated fluorescent ferrite (FF) beads containing both ferrites (magnetic iron oxide) and fluorescent europium complexes.
FF beads were prepared by encapsulation of hydrophobic europium complexes into the polymer layers of affinity magnetic beads using organic solvent. A sandwich immunoassay using magnetic collection of antibody-coated FF beads to a specific place was performed. Brain natriuretic peptide and prostate-specific antigen were selected as target detection antigens to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach. An immunohistochemical staining using magnetic collection of antibody-coated FF beads onto carcinoma cell samples was also performed.
The sandwich immunoassays, taking advantage of the magnetic collection of antibody-coated FF beads, detected target antigens within 5 min of sample addition. Without magnetic collection, the sandwich immunoassay using antibody-coated FF beads required long times, similar to conventional immunoassays. Using the magnetic collection of antibody-coated FF beads, immunohistochemical staining enabled discrimination of carcinoma cells within 20 min.
This proof of principle system demonstrates that immunoreactions involving the magnetic collection of antibody-coated FF beads allow acceleration of the antigen-antibody reaction. The simple magnetic collection of antibody-coated FF beads to a specific space enables rapid detection of disease-related biomarkers and identification of carcinoma cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SynonymsAffinity beads; Affinity matrices; Affinity resinsDefinitionsAffinity signifies the degree to which a molecule associates with another molecule. Affinity chromatography takes advantage of this association to isolate and purify target molecules for the ligand of interest from mixtures. Functional materials used to perform affinity purification of the target molecules are termed as affinity chromatography materials (affinity matrices).Introduction and Historical Background
Affinity chromatography, one of liquid chromatography techniques, is based on specific and reversible interactions found in biological systems such as antigen–antibody reactions and enzyme–substrate interactions. Affinity chromatography is a practical and useful method capable of selectively isolating and purifying a target molecule from crude mixtures, using a specific binding partner or a ligand [1, 2]. Cell lysates or chemical libraries have been used as crude mixtures containing target molecules for the liga ...
Encyclopedia of Polymeric Nanomaterials, 01/2014: pages 1-8; , ISBN: 978-3-642-36199-9
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Salicylic acid is a classic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Although salicylic acid also induces mitochondrial injury, the mechanism of its anti-mitochondrial activity is not well understood. In this study, by using a one-step affinity purification scheme with salicylic acid-immobilized beads, ferrochelatase (FECH), a homodimeric enzyme involved in heme biosynthesis in mitochondria, was identified as a new molecular target of salicylic acid. Moreover, co-crystal structure of the FECH·salicylic acid complex was determined. Structural and biochemical studies showed that salicylic acid binds to the dimer interface of FECH in two possible orientations and inhibits its enzymatic activity. Mutational analysis confirmed that Trp301 and Leu311, hydrophobic amino acid residues located at the dimer interface, are directly involved in salicylic acid binding. On a gel filtration column, salicylic acid caused a shift in the elution profile of FECH, indicating that its conformational change is induced by salicylic acid binding. In cultured human cells, salicylic acid treatment or FECH knockdown inhibited heme synthesis, whereas salicylic acid did not exert its inhibitory effect in FECH knockdown cells. Concordantly, salicylic acid treatment or FECH knockdown inhibited heme synthesis in zebrafish embryos. Strikingly, the salicylic acid-induced effect in zebrafish was partially rescued by FECH overexpression. Taken together, these findings illustrate that FECH is responsible for salicylic acid-induced inhibition of heme synthesis, which may contribute to its anti-mitochondrial and anti-inflammatory function. This study establishes a novel aspect of the complex pharmacological effects of salicylic acid.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA methylation is a well-characterized epigenetic landmark involved in transcriptional regulation; however, mechanisms underlying its regulation remain poorly characterized. Recent studies demonstrate that activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is involved in active DNA demethylation. AID is aberrantly expressed in inflammation-associated cancers and generates point mutations; however, cellular disorders attributed to its demethylation function are largely unexplored. Here we demonstrate that ectopic AID expression perturbs tumor-related gene expression. AID (with Gadd45) activated a methylated Pax5 reporter construct, and induced expression and association of endogenous Pax5 with the AID promoter, suggesting that aberrant AID expression triggers an auto-activation circuit to consolidate self-expression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Artificial beads including magnetite and fluorescence particles are useful to visualize pathologic tissue, such as cancers, from harmless types by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or fluorescence imaging. Desirable properties of diagnostic materials include high dispersion in body fluids, and the ability to target specific tissues. Here we report on the development of novel magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) intended for use as diagnosis and therapy that are coated with viral capsid protein VP1-pentamers of simian virus 40, which are monodispersive in body fluid by conjugating epidermal growth factor (EGF) to VP1. Critically, the coating of MNPs with VP1 facilitated stable dispersion of the MNPs in body fluids. In addition, EGF was conjugated to VP1 coating on MNPs (VP1-MNPs). EGF-conjugated VP1-MNPs were successfully used to target EGF receptor-expressing tumor cells in vitro. Thus, using viral capsid protein VP1 as a coating material would be useful for medical diagnosis and therapy.
Journal of Biotechnology 06/2013; 167(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jbiotec.2013.06.005 · 2.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vesnarinone is a synthetic quinolinone derivative used in the treatment of cardiac failure and cancer. It is also known to cause agranulocytosis as a side effect, which restricts its use, although the mechanism underlying agranulocytosis is not well understood. Here, we show that vesnarinone binds to valosin-containing protein (VCP), which interacts with poly-ubiquitinated proteins and is essential for the degradation of IκBα to activate NFκB. We show that vesnarinone binding to VCP impairs the degradation of IκBα and that the impairment of the degradation of IκBα is the result of the inhibition of the interaction between VCP and the 26S proteasome. These results suggest that vesnarinone suppresses NFκB activation by inhibiting the VCP-dependent degradation of poly-ubiquitinated IκBα, resulting in the suppression of TNFα mRNA expression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As the oscillating gradient spin-echo sequence has shown promise as a means to probe tissue microstructure, it was applied here to diffusion-tensor imaging of in vivo rat brain. The apparent diffusion tensor (ADT) was estimated for motion-probing gradient (MPG) frequencies in the range 33.3-133.3 Hz, and regions-of-interest (ROIs) in the corpus callosum (CC), visual cortex (VC), cerebellar white matter (CBWM) and cerebellar grey matter (CBGM) were selected for detailed analysis. There were substantial, approximately linear changes to the ADT with increasing MPG frequency for all four ROIs. All ROIs showed clear increases in mean diffusivity. CBWM had a substantial decrease in fractional anisotropy, whereas the CC and VC had minor increases of the same parameter. All eigenvalues of the ADT tended to increase with frequency for the CBWM, CBGM and VC, but only the principal eigenvalue increased strongly for the CC. On the other hand, there was no evidence that the orientation of the principal eigenvector varied systematically with MPG frequency for any of the ROIs. The relationship between the behaviour of the eigenvalues and the behaviours of the mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy is investigated in detail. Pixelwise linear fits to the MD from individual animals found elevated changes across the cerebellum. The data acquired for this work encompassed a range of effective diffusion-times from 7.5 ms down to 1.875 ms, and some ideas on how the results might be used to extract quantitative information about brain tissue microstructure are discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vitamin K2 (VK2, menaquinone) is known to have anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo. Although its effect is thought to be mediated, at least in part, by the induction of apoptosis, the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive. Here, we identified Bcl-2 antagonist killer 1 (Bak) as a molecular target of VK2-induced apoptosis. VK2 directly interacts with Bak and induces mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. Although Bak and Bax, another member of the Bcl-2 family, are generally thought to be functionally redundant, only Bak is necessary and sufficient for VK2-induced cytochrome c release and cell death. Moreover, VK2-2,3 epoxide, an intracellular metabolite of VK2, was shown to covalently bind to the cysteine-166 residue of Bak. Several lines of evidence suggested that the covalent attachment of VK2 is critical for apoptosis induction. Thus, this study reveals a specific role for Bak in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. This study also provides insight into the anticancer effects of VK2 and suggests that Bak may be a potential target of cancer therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bisphenol A (BPA) forms the backbone of plastics and epoxy resins used to produce packaging for various foods and beverages. BPA is also an estrogenic disruptor, interacting with human estrogen receptors (ER) and other related nuclear receptors. Nevertheless, the effects of BPA on human health remain unclear. The present study identified DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) as a novel BPA-binding protein. DNA-PKcs, in association with the Ku heterodimer (Ku70/80), is a critical enzyme involved in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Low levels of DNA-PK activity are previously reported to be associated with an increased risk of certain types of cancer. Although the Kd for the interaction between BPA and a drug-binding mutant of DNA-PKcs was comparatively low (137 nM), high doses of BPA were required before cellular effects were observed (100-300 μM). The results of an in vitro kinase assay showed that BPA inhibited DNA-PK kinase activity in a concentration-dependent manner. In M059K cells, BPA inhibited the phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs at Ser2056 and H2AX at Ser139 in response to ionizing radiation (IR)-irradiation. BPA also disrupted DNA-PKcs binding to Ku70/80 and increased the radiosensitivity of M059K cells, but not M059J cells (which are DNA-PKcs-deficient). Taken together, these results provide new evidence of the effects of BPA on DNA repair in mammalian cells, which are mediated via inhibition of DNA-PK activity. This study may warrant the consideration of the possible carcinogenic effects of high doses of BPA, which are mediated through its action on DNA-PK.
PLoS ONE 12/2012; 7(12):e50481. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0050481 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DRB sensitivity-inducing factor (DSIF) and negative elongation factor (NELF) were originally identified as factors responsible for transcriptional inhibition by 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-benzimidazole (DRB) and were later found to control transcription elongation, together with P-TEFb, at the promoter-proximal region. Although there is ample evidence that these factors play roles throughout the genome, other data also suggest gene- or tissue-specific roles for these factors. In this review, we discuss how these apparently conflicting data can be reconciled. In light of recent findings, we also discuss the detailed mechanism by which these factors control the elongation process at the molecular level.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: NF-κB is central for immune response and cell survival, and its deregulation is linked to chronic inflammation and cancer through poorly defined mechanisms. IκBα and A20 are NF-κB target genes and negative feedback regulators. Upon their activation by NF-κB, DSIF is recruited, P-TEFb is released, and their elongating polymerase II (Pol II) C-terminal domain (CTD) remains hypophosphorylated. We show that upon DSIF knockdown, mRNA levels of a subset of NF-κB targets are not diminished; yet much less IκBα and A20 protein are synthesized, and NF-κB activation is abnormally prolonged. Further analysis of IκBα and A20 mRNA revealed that a significant portion is uncapped, unspliced, and retained in the nucleus. Interestingly, the Spt5 C-terminal repeat (CTR) domain involved in elongation stimulation through P-TEFb is dispensable for IκBα and A20 regulation. These findings assign a function for DSIF in cotranscriptional mRNA processing when elongating Pol II is hypophosphorylated and define DSIF as part of the negative feedback regulation of NF-κB.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SV40 is comprised of the viral minichromosome and the capsid proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3. Complete reconstitution of SV40 virions in vitro remains a challenge. Here we describe in vitro reconstitution of SV40 particles that contain ~5-kb circular nucleosomal DNA with hyperacetylated histones and are encapsidated in a coat composed of VP1, VP2, and VP3, closely mimicking the characteristics of authentic SV40 virions. When inoculated into mammalian cells, VP1/2/3 particles containing nucleosomal DNA carrying a reporter gene yielded a significantly higher level of gene expression than VP1-only particles containing the corresponding naked DNA. The elevated gene expression resulted mainly from enhanced association of the particles with the cell surface and from facilitation of subsequent uptake into cells. Thus, the in vitro reconstitution system reported here should be useful for the elucidation of Polyomaviridae assembly mechanisms and for the development of novel carriers for gene delivery.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Histone variants perform unique functions and are deposited onto DNA by mechanisms distinct from those of canonical histones. The H2A variant, H2A.Z, also known as Htz1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is not uniformly distributed across the genome but facilitates transcriptional activation at target gene promoters and anti-silencing at heterochromatin loci. Htz1 is also involved in DNA replication, DNA repair, chromosome segregation and cell cycle control. Its sequence identity to canonical H2A is only ∼60%, and it is likely that the nonconserved residues are responsible for Htz1-specific functions. However, precise roles of these variant-specific residues are not well understood. To gain insights into the molecular basis underlying the functional differences between canonical and variant histones, 117 alanine-scanning point mutants of Htz1 were constructed for this study, and chemical genetic screens were carried out. Consequently, seven Htz1 residues that conferred one or more abnormal phenotypes when mutated were identified. Based on primary sequence and functional conservation between H2A and Htz1, two of these residues (F32 and I109) appear to have an Htz1-specific role, whereas the rest seem to have functions shared between H2A and Htz1. This study provides a useful resource for future investigations into functional convergence and divergence between canonical and variant histones.
Genes to Cells 04/2011; 16(5):590-607. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2443.2011.01512.x · 2.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies have showed that transcription elongation factors regulate early development. Foggy/Spt5 is a subunit of DRB sensitivity-inducing factor, which negatively and positively regulates transcription elongation. Here, we report that the positive function of Foggy/Spt5 is required for gata1 expression during zebrafish embryonic hematopoiesis. Antisense morpholino oligonucleotide (MO)-mediated knockdown of foggy/spt5 has led to a reduction in the expression of gata1 and the gata1 target genes alas2 and hbae3 and inhibited proper hemoglobin production. By contrast, expression of hematopoietic stem cell and endothelial markers, including scl, lmo2, gata2, fli-1, and flk-1, and expression of biklf, whose product directs gata1 expression via its direct binding to the gata1 promoter, were unaltered, suggesting that gata1 is a functionally important target gene of Foggy/Spt5. The MO-mediated gata1 repression was relieved by forced expression of wild-type foggy/spt5, but not by a mutant lacking the positive function. Therefore, this study provides evidence that Foggy/Spt5 plays an important role in gata1 gene expression and erythropoiesis through its transcriptional activation domain.
Genes to Cells 02/2011; 16(2):231-42. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2443.2010.01481.x · 2.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For a long time, not much attention had been paid to post-initiation steps in transcription, because it was widely believed that transcriptional control was brought about almost entirely through the regulation of transcription initiation. However, it has become clear that the process of elongation is also tightly controlled by a collection of regulatory factors called transcription elongation factors and contributes, for example, to rapid induction of immediate-early genes and to the control over the viral life cycle. Transcription elongation has attracted attention also because this process is coupled with various RNA processing events. In this review, we discuss biochemical and physiological aspects of elongation control, particularly focusing on the role of the negative elongation factor NELF.
Experimental Cell Research 10/2010; 316(17):2723-30. DOI:10.1016/j.yexcr.2010.05.036 · 3.25 Impact Factor