[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hunger arouses sensory perception, eventually leading to an increase in food intake, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We found that cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptors promote food intake in fasted mice by increasing odor detection. CB1 receptors were abundantly expressed on axon terminals of centrifugal cortical glutamatergic neurons that project to inhibitory granule cells of the main olfactory bulb (MOB). Local pharmacological and genetic manipulations revealed that endocannabinoids and exogenous cannabinoids increased odor detection and food intake in fasted mice by decreasing excitatory drive from olfactory cortex areas to the MOB. Consistently, cannabinoid agonists dampened in vivo optogenetically stimulated excitatory transmission in the same circuit. Our data indicate that cortical feedback projections to the MOB crucially regulate food intake via CB1 receptor signaling, linking the feeling of hunger to stronger odor processing. Thus, CB1 receptor-dependent control of cortical feedback projections in olfactory circuits couples internal states to perception and behavior.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In mammals, olfactory bulb granule cells (GCs) are generated throughout life in the subventricular zone. GABAergic inputs onto newborn neurons likely regulate their maturation, but the details of this process remain still elusive. Here, we investigated the differentiation, synaptic integration, and survival of adult-born GCs when their afferent GABAergic inputs are challenged by conditional gene targeting. Migrating GC precursors were targeted with Cre-eGFP-expressing lentiviral vectors in mice with a floxed gene encoding the GABA(A) receptor α2-subunit (i.e., Gabra2). Ablation of the α2-subunit did not affect GC survival but dramatically delayed their maturation. We found a reduction in postsynaptic α2-subunit and gephyrin clusters accompanied by a decrease in the frequency and amplitude of GABAergic postsynaptic currents beginning ∼14 d post-injection (dpi). In addition, mutant cells exhibited altered dendritic branching and spine density. Spine loss appeared with mislocation of glutamatergic synapses on dendritic shafts and a reduction of spontaneous glutamatergic postsynaptic currents, underscoring the relevance of afferent GABAergic transmission for a proper synaptic integration of newborn GCs. To test the role of GABAergic signaling during much early stages of GC maturation, we used a genetic strategy to selectively inactivate Gabra2 in precursor cells of the subventricular zone. In these mice, labeling of newborn GCs with eGFP lentiviruses revealed similar morphological alterations as seen on delayed Gabra2 inactivation in migrating neuroblasts, with reduced dendritic branching and spine density at 7 dpi. Collectively, these results emphasize the critical role of GABAergic synaptic signaling for structural maturation of adult-born GCs and formation of glutamatergic synapses.
Journal of Neuroscience 06/2012; 32(26):9103-15. · 6.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuronal precursors are continuously integrated into the adult olfactory bulb (OB). The vast majority of these precursor cells originates from the subventricular zone and migrates along the rostral migratory stream (RMS) en route to the OB. This process, called postnatal neurogenesis, results from intricate pathways depending both on cell-autonomous factors and extrinsic regulation provided by the local environment. Using electroporation in postnatal mice to label neuronal precursors with green fluorescent protein (GFP) and to reduce the expression levels of doublecortin (DCX) with short-hairpin (Sh) RNA, we investigated the consequences of impairing migration on the fate of postnatal-formed neurons. First, we showed that electroporation of Dcx ShRNA plasmid efficiently knocks down the expression of DCX and disrupts cells migration along the RMS. Second, we found misplaced anomalous migrating cells that displayed defects in polarity and directionality. Third, patch-clamp recordings performed at 5-7 days post-electroporation (dpe) revealed increased density of voltage-dependent Na(+) channels and enhanced responsiveness to GABA(A) receptor agonist. At later time points (i.e., 12 and 30 dpe), most of the Dcx ShRNA(+) cells developed in the core of the OB and displayed aberrant dendritic length and branching. Additional analysis revealed the formation of GABAergic and glutamatergic synaptic inputs on the mispositioned neurons. Finally, quantifying fate determination by numbering the proportion of GFP(+)/calretinin(+) newborn neurons revealed that Dcx ShRNA(+) cells acquire mature phenotype despite their immature location. We conclude that altering the pace of migration at early stages of postnatal neurogenesis profoundly modifies the tightly orchestrated steps of neuronal maturation, and unveils the influence of microenvironment on controlling neuronal development in the postnatal forebrain.
Journal of Neuroscience 05/2011; 31(20):7551-62. · 6.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In adult mammals, thousands of new neurons integrate in the olfactory bulb (OB) each day. This process of adult neurogenesis has received a great deal of scientific attention aimed at understanding how mature neural networks withstand neuronal replacement, and medical interest to explore the promise that these cells may be manipulated for brain repair therapies. In the present review, we focus on the mechanisms and consequences of the functional integration of newborn interneurons in the OB network. We first describe the steps of synaptic integration and functional maturation of adult-born interneurons in the OB. We then examine the physiological control of cell maturation and survival. Finally, we explore the potential impact of adult neurogenesis on the function of the OB.
European Journal of Neuroscience 03/2011; 33(6):1069-77. · 3.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is an RNA-binding protein essential for multiple aspects of neuronal mRNA metabolism. Its absence leads to the fragile X syndrome, the most prevalent genetic form of mental retardation. The anatomical landmark of the disease, also present in the Fmr1 knock-out (KO) mice, is the hyperabundance of immature-looking lengthened dendritic spines. We used the well known continuous production of adult-born granule cells (GCs) in the mouse olfactory bulb (OB) to analyze the consequences of Fmrp loss on the differentiation of GCs. Morphological analysis of GCs in the Fmr1 KO mice showed an increase in spine density without a change in spine length. We developed an RNA interference strategy to cell-autonomously mutate Fmr1 in a wild-type OB network. Mutated GCs displayed an increase in spine density and spine length. Detailed analysis of the spines through immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, and electrophysiology surprisingly showed that, despite these abnormalities, spines receive normal glutamatergic synapses, and thus that mutated adult-born neurons are synaptically integrated into the OB circuitry. Time-course analysis of the spine defects showed that Fmrp cell-autonomously downregulates the level and rate of spine production and limits their overgrowth. Finally, we report that Fmrp does not regulate dendritogenesis in standard conditions but is necessary for activity-dependent dendritic remodeling. Overall, our study of Fmrp in the context of adult neurogenesis has enabled us to carry out a precise dissection of the role of Fmrp in neuronal differentiation and underscores its pleiotropic involvement in both spinogenesis and dendritogenesis.
Journal of Neuroscience 02/2011; 31(6):2205-15. · 6.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The olfactory bulb (OB) receives and integrates newborn interneurons throughout life. This process is important for the proper functioning of the OB circuit and consequently, for the sense of smell. Although we know how these new interneurons are produced, the way in which they integrate into the pre-existing ongoing circuits remains poorly documented. Bearing in mind that glutamatergic inputs onto local OB interneurons are crucial for adjusting the level of bulbar inhibition, it is important to characterize when and how these inputs from excitatory synapses develop on newborn OB interneurons. We studied early synaptic events that lead to the formation and maturation of the first glutamatergic synapses on adult-born granule cells (GCs), the most abundant subtype of OB interneuron. Patch-clamp recordings and electron microscopy (EM) analysis were performed on adult-born interneurons shortly after their arrival in the adult OB circuits. We found that both the ratio of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) to α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR), and the number of functional release sites at proximal inputs reached a maximum during the critical period for the sensory-dependent survival of newborn cells, well before the completion of dendritic arborization. EM analysis showed an accompanying change in postsynaptic density shape during the same period of time. Interestingly, the latter morphological changes disappeared in more mature newly-formed neurons, when the NMDAR to AMPAR ratio had decreased and functional presynaptic terminals expressed only single release sites. Together, these findings show that the first glutamatergic inputs to adult-generated OB interneurons undergo a unique sequence of maturation stages.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: New olfactory bulb granule cells (GCs) are GABAergic interneurons continuously arising from neuronal progenitors and integrating into preexisting bulbar circuits. They receive both GABAergic and glutamatergic synaptic inputs from olfactory bulb intrinsic neurons and centrifugal afferents. Here, we investigated the spatiotemporal dynamic of newborn GC synaptogenesis in adult mouse olfactory bulb. First, we established that GABAergic synapses onto mature GC dendrites contain the GABA(A) receptor alpha2 subunit along with the postsynaptic scaffolding protein gephyrin. Next, we characterized morphologically and electrophysiologically the development of GABAergic and glutamatergic inputs onto newborn GCs labeled with eGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) using lentiviral vectors. Already when reaching the GC layer (GCL), at 3 d post-vector injection (dpi), newborn GCs exhibited tiny voltage-dependent sodium currents and received functional GABAergic and glutamatergic synapses, recognized immunohistochemically by apposition of specific presynaptic and postsynaptic markers. Thereafter, GABAergic and glutamatergic synaptic contacts increased differentially in the GCL, and at 7 dpi, PSD-95 clusters outnumbered gephyrin clusters. Thus, the weight of GABAergic input was predominant at early stages of GC maturation, but not later. Newborn GC dendrites first reached the external plexiform layer at 4 dpi, where they received functional GABAergic contacts at 5 dpi. Reciprocal synapses initially were formed on GC dendritic shafts, where they might contribute to spine formation. Their presence was confirmed ultrastructurally at 7 dpi. Together, our findings unravel rapid synaptic integration of newborn GCs in adult mouse olfactory bulb, with GABAergic and glutamatergic influences being established proximally before formation of output synapses by apical GC dendrites onto mitral/tufted cells.
Journal of Neuroscience 12/2009; 29(48):15039-52. · 6.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To explore the functional consequences of adult neurogenesis in the mouse olfactory bulb, we investigated plasticity at glutamatergic synapses onto GABAergic interneurons. We found that one subset of excitatory synapses onto adult-born granule cells showed long-term potentiation shortly after their arrival in the bulb. This property faded as the newborn neurons matured. These results indicate that recently generated adult-born olfactory interneurons undergo different experience-dependent synaptic modifications compared with their pre-existing mature neighbors and provide a possible substrate for adult neurogenesis-dependent olfactory learning.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The first synapse in olfaction undergoes considerable anatomical plasticity in both early postnatal development and adult neurogenesis, yet we know very little concerning its functional maturation at these times. Here, we used whole-cell recordings in olfactory bulb slices to describe olfactory nerve inputs to developing postnatal neurons and to maturing adult-born cells labeled with a GFP-encoding lentivirus. In both postnatal development and adult neurogenesis, the maturation of olfactory nerve synapses involved an increase in the relative contribution of AMPA over NMDA receptors, and a decrease in the contribution of NMDA receptors containing the NR2B subunit. These postsynaptic transformations, however, were not mirrored by presynaptic changes: in all cell groups, paired-pulse depression remained constant as olfactory nerve synapses matured. Although maturing cells may therefore offer, transiently, a functionally distinct connection for inputs from the nose, presynaptic function at the first olfactory connection remains remarkably constant in the face of considerable anatomical plasticity.
Journal of Neuroscience 04/2008; 28(11):2919-32. · 6.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the olfactory bulb (OB), odorants induce oscillations in the gamma range (20-80 Hz) that play an important role in the processing of sensory information. Synaptic transmission between dendrites is a major contributor to this processing. Glutamate released from mitral cell dendrites excites the dendrites of granule cells, which in turn mediate GABAergic inhibition back onto mitral cells. Although this reciprocal synapse is thought to be a key element supporting oscillatory activity, the mechanisms by which dendrodendritic inhibition induces and maintains gamma oscillations remain unknown. Here, we assessed the role of the dendrodendritic inhibition, using mice lacking the GABA(A) receptor alpha1-subunit, which is specifically expressed in mitral cells but not in granule cells. The spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic current frequency in these mutants was low and was consistent with the reduction of GABA(A) receptor clusters detected by immunohistochemistry. The remaining GABA(A) receptors in mitral cells contained the alpha3-subunit and supported slower decaying currents of unchanged amplitude. Overall, inhibitory-mediated interactions between mitral cells were smaller and slower in mutant than in WT mice, although the strength of sensory afferent inputs remained unchanged. Consequently, both experimental and theoretical approaches revealed slower gamma oscillations in the OB network of mutant mice. We conclude, therefore, that fast oscillations in the OB circuit are strongly constrained by the precise location, subunit composition and kinetics of GABA(A) receptors expressed in mitral cells.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 05/2007; 104(17):7259-64. · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using the patch-clamp technique, we investigated Cl- channels on the basolateral membrane of the connecting tubule (CNT) and cortical collecting duct (CCD). We found a approximately 10-pS channel in CNT cell-attached patches. Substitution of sodium gluconate for NaCl in the pipette shifted the reversal potential by +25 mV, whereas N-methyl-D-gluconate chloride had no effect, indicating anion selectivity. On inside-out patches, we determined a selectivity sequence of Cl- > Br- approximately NO3(-) > F-, which is compatible with that of ClC-K2, a Cl- channel in the distal nephron. In addition, the number of open channels (NP(o)) measured in cell-attached patches was significantly increased when Ca2+ concentration or pH in the pipette was increased, which is another characteristic of ClC-K. These findings suggest that the basis for this channel is ClC-K2. A similar Cl- channel was found in CCD patches. Because CNT and CCD are heterogeneous tissues, we studied the cellular distribution of the Cl- channel using recording conditions (KCl-rich solution in the pipette) that allowed us to detect simultaneously Cl- channels and inwardly rectifying K+ channels. We detected Cl- channels alone in 45% and 42% and K+ channels alone in 51% and 58% of CNT and CCD patches, respectively. Cl- and K+ channels were recorded simultaneously from two patches (4% of patches) in the CNT and from none of the patches in the CCD. This indicates that Cl- and K+ channels are located in different cell types, which we suggest may be the intercalated cells and principal cells, respectively.
American journal of physiology. Renal physiology 06/2006; 290(6):F1421-9. · 3.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Edema and ascites in nephrotic syndrome mainly result from increased Na+ reabsorption along connecting tubules and cortical collecting ducts (CCD). In puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN)-induced nephrosis, increased Na+ reabsorption is associated with increased activity of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and Na+,K+-ATPase, two targets of aldosterone. Because plasma aldosterone increases in PAN-nephrotic rats, the aldosterone dependence of ENaC activation in PAN nephrosis was investigated. For this purpose, (1) the mechanism of ENaC activation was compared in nephrotic and sodium-depleted rats, and (2) ENaC activity in PAN-nephrotic rats was evaluated in the absence of hyperaldosteronemia. The mechanism of ENaC activation was similar in CCD from nephrotic and sodium-depleted rats, as demonstrated by (1) increased number of active ENaC evaluated by patch clamp, (2) recruitment of ENaC to the apical membrane determined by immunohistochemistry, (3) shift in the electrophoretic profile of gamma-ENaC, and (4) increased abundance of beta-ENaC mRNA. Corticosteroid clamp fully prevented all PAN-induced changes in ENaC but did not alter the development of a full-blown nephrotic syndrome with massive albuminuria, amiloride-sensitive sodium retention, induction of CCD Na+,K+-ATPase, and ascites. It is concluded that in PAN-nephrosis, (1) ENaC activation in CCD is secondary to hyperaldosteronemia, (2) sodium retention and induction of Na+,K+-ATPase in CCD are independent of hyperaldosteronemia, and (3) ENaC is not necessarily limiting for sodium reabsorption in the distal nephron.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 01/2006; 16(12):3642-50. · 8.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chloride channels located on the basolateral membrane are known to be involved in chloride absorption in several parts of the renal tubule, and particularly in the thick ascending limb and distal convoluted tubule. The data available suggest that the ClC-K channels play the major role in this process. We provide here a description of the electrophysiological properties of these channels, still very incomplete at this stage, and we attempt to compare ClC-Ks to three chloride channels that we have identified in the basolateral membrane of microdissected fragments of the mouse renal tubule using the patch-clamp technique. Based on anion selectivity and dependence on external pH and calcium shown by the ClC-Ks, we propose candidate ClC-K1 and ClC-K2 in native tissue. We also discuss the possibility that chloride channels that do not belong to the ClC family may also be involved in the absorption of chloride across the cortical thick ascending limb.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The distal convoluted tubule (DCT) is a heterogeneous segment subdivided into early (DCT1) and late (DCT2) parts, depending on the distribution of various transport systems. We do not have an exhaustive picture of the Cl(-) channels on the basolateral side: the presence of ClC-K2 channels is generally accepted, whereas that of ClC-K1 remains controversial. We used here single-cell RT-PCR and patch clamp to probe Cl(-) channel heterogeneity in microdissected mouse DCT at the molecular and functional levels. Our findings show that 63% of the DCT cells express ClC-K2 mRNA, either alone (type 1 cells: 47 and 23% in DCT1 and DCT2, respectively), or combined with ClC-K1, mostly in DCT2 (type 2 cells: 33%), but 37% of DCT1 and DCT2 cells do not express any ClC-K. Patch-clamp experiments revealed that a Cl(-) channel, with 9-pS conductance and Cl(-) > NO(3)(-) = Br(-) anion selectivity sequence, is present in the DCT1 and DCT2 basolateral membranes (87 and 71% of the patches, respectively). This dominant channel is likely to be ClC-K2 in type 1 cells. In type 2 cells, it could be ClC-K2 and/or ClC-K1 homodimers, but also ClC-K1/ClC-K2 heterodimers, or a mixture of all combinations. A second, distinct Cl(-) channel (13% of DCT1 patches, 29% of DCT2 patches) also displayed 9-pS conductance but had a completely different anion selectivity (I(-) > NO(3)(-) > Br(-) > Cl(-)), which was not compatible with that of the ClC-Ks. This indicates that a Cl(-) channel that is unlikely to belong to the ClC family may also be involved in Cl(-) absorption in the DCT2.
American journal of physiology. Renal physiology 12/2004; 287(6):F1233-43. · 3.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The distal-convoluted tubule (DCT) of the kidney absorbs NaCl mainly via an Na+-Cl- cotransporter located at the apical membrane, and Na+, K+ ATPase at the basolateral side. Cl- transport across the basolateral membrane is thought to be conductive, but the corresponding channels have not yet been characterized. In the present study, we investigated Cl- channels on microdissected mouse DCTs using the patch-clamp technique. A channel of approximately 9 pS was found in 50% of cell-attached patches showing anionic selectivity. The NPo in cell-attached patches was not modified when tubules were preincubated in the presence of 10-5 M forskolin, but the channel was inhibited by phorbol ester (10-6 M). In addition, NPo was significantly elevated when the calcium in the pipette was increased from 0 to 5 mM (NPo increased threefold), or pH increased from 6.4 to 8.0 (NPo increased 15-fold). Selectivity experiments conducted on inside-out patches showed that the Na+ to Cl- relative permeability was 0.09, and the anion selectivity sequence Cl(-)--I(-) > Br(-)--NO3(-) > F(-). Intracellular NPPB (10-4 M) and DPC (10-3 M) blocked the channel by 65% and 80%, respectively. The channel was inhibited at acid intracellular pH, but intracellular ATP and PKA had no effect. ClC-K Cl- channels are characterized by their sensitivity to the external calcium and to pH. Since immunohistochemical data indicates that ClC-K2, and perhaps ClC-K1, are present on the DCT basolateral membrane, we suggest that the channel detected in this study may belong to this subfamily of the ClC channel family.
The Journal of General Physiology 05/2003; 121(4):287-300. · 4.73 Impact Factor