[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 2.6% of pancreatic cancer patients have the primary manifestation of gastrointestinal bleeding. It is not feasible to stop the duodenal hemorrhage caused by the pancreatic cancer infiltration. A 43-year-old woman who was diagnosed as having pancreatic cancer with multiple hepatic metastases and duodenal infiltration was administered gemcitabine and S-1 combination therapy. During the chemotherapy, initially, bleeding occurred due to duodenal infiltration. However, we continued the chemotherapy and duodenal infiltration was markedly reduced in size and did not rebleed. Aggressive chemotherapy contributed to maintenance of performance status as well as improvement of quality of life for the patient.
Case Reports in Gastroenterology 05/2014; 8(2):221-6.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the outcome of preoperative gemcitabine-based chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for resectable and borderline resectable pancreatic cancer (PC), with a focus on the differences in surgical outcomes and patterns of recurrence between these 2 categories.
Various multimodal treatment strategies have been proposed to improve the surgical outcomes of PC. Preoperative CRT and subsequent surgery is one of the promising strategies for resectable (PC-R) and borderline resectable (PC-BR) PC.
A total of 268 patients with PC-R and PC-BR received preoperative gemcitabine-based CRT. The numbers of PC-R and PC-BR cases were 188 and 80, respectively. We evaluated the following comparisons between patients with PC-R and those with PC-BR: (1) resection rate, (2) rate of margin-negative resection, (3) survival, and (4) pattern of the treatment failure, including local recurrence, peritoneal dissemination, and distant metastasis.
The resection rate of patients with PC-R (87%) was higher than that of patients with PC-BR (54%) (P < 0.001). Pathological margin-negative resection was achieved in 99% and 98% of the patients with PC-R and PC-BR, respectively. The 5-year survival rates of the PC-R and PC-BR cases were 57% and 34%, respectively (P = 0.029). Although the 5-year cumulative incidence of local recurrence was comparable in both groups (15% and 13%, respectively; P = 0.508), the 5-year cumulative incidence of peritoneal and distant recurrence was significantly higher in the patients with PC-BR (43 and 76%) than in the patients with PC-R (17% and 43%).
In the resected cases, the locoregional control was comparable between patients with PC-R and PC-BR after preoperative CRT. The survival rate for the patients with PC-BR was lower than the rate for those with PC-R due to a higher incidence of peritoneal and distant recurrence in the patients with PC-BR. (UMIN000001804).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High-grade pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN-3) is recognized as a precursor lesion of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). However, histological evidence that PanIN-3 invades beyond the basement membrane of pancreatic ductal epithelium, that is, the moment PanIN-3 becomes IDC, has not been captured yet. This may be because PanINs which are microscopic papillary or flat lesion rarely develop clinical symptoms and are not detectable on imaging examination. On the other hand, most IDCs were found in the advanced stage with massive invasion. In this report, PanIN-3 obstructed several branch pancreatic ducts and subsequently caused pancreatitis which developed clinical symptom and was detectable as a pancreatic mass in imaging studies. A 65-year-old woman was referred to our institution for further examination of her repeated pancreatitis. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a low echoic mass of 13 mm in diameter in the pancreatic body without upstream dilatation of the main pancreatic duct (MPD). Endoscopic retrograde pancreatography showed a strictured segment of 2 mm in length in the MPD at the pancreatic body. Cytological examination of pancreatic juice revealed adenocarcinoma and distal pancreatectomy was performed. A resected specimen revealed a whitish mass of 15 mm in diameter in the pancreatic body, which was identified as pancreatitis by histological examination. Papillary growth of PanIN-3 was seen mainly in the branch ducts. Each PanIN-3 was located separately in the branch ducts with normal epithelia in the MPD between them. In three adjacent branch ducts, PanIN-3 was observed to be invading microscopically beyond the basement membrane.
Case Reports in Gastroenterology 01/2013; 7(1):30-6.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AIM: Clinical use of point shear wave elastography for the liver has been established, however, few studies demonstrated its usefulness for the pancreas. A prospective study was conducted to clarify its feasibility for the pancreas and its usefulness for the identification of high risk group for pancreatic cancer.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Consecutive eighty-five patients underwent point shear wave elastography for the pancreas. The success rate of shear wave velocity (SWV) measurement, that is the number of successful measurements over total 10 measurements, was recorded. The SWV of the pancreas measured at non-tumorous area was compared between patients with and without pancreatic cancer. Factors associated with high SWV were determined by logistic regression model.
RESULTS: Sixty patients were included, of these 18 had pancreatic cancer. The success rate of 100% was achieved at the head, the body and the tail of the pancreas in 80%, 83%, and 68% of the patients, respectively. The success rate of ≥80% was achieved in 100%, 100%, and 96% of the patients, respectively. Although mean SWV of the pancreas harboring pancreatic cancer tended to be higher compared with that of the pancreas without cancer (1.51 ± 0.45 m/s vs 1.43 ± 0.28 m/s), they did not reach statistical significance. Multivariate analysis showed that increased amount of alcohol intake was associated with high SWV.
CONCLUSION: The SWV of the pancreas was measured with excellent success rate. However, tendency of higher SWV obtained from the pancreas harboring pancreatic cancer needed to be further investigated.
European journal of radiology 01/2013; · 2.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is an accurate method for cytological confirmation of pancreatic malignancy, but peritoneal dissemination caused by EUS-FNA could be a matter of concern because it may lead to poorer prognosis. Our aim was to estimate the risk of peritoneal carcinomatosis by EUS-FNA for pancreatic cancer. METHODS: Two hundred and seventeen patients with cytopathologically proven pancreatic cancer in a tertiary referral center were retrospectively reviewed. They were divided into two groups: 161 patients who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) alone (ERCP group), and 56 patients who had ever undergone EUS-FNA (EUS-FNA group). Peritoneal carcinomatosis was diagnosed by computed tomography and/or cytology during follow-up. Hazard ratios of factors including EUS-FNA for the development of peritoneal carcinomatosis were analyzed by the Cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in baseline characteristics between ERCP and EUS-FNA groups. Peritoneal carcinomatosis developed in 14.9 % (24/161) during an average follow-up period of 545 days, and 17.9 % (10/56) during 599 days among ERCP and EUS-FNA group, respectively. The EUS-FNA was not identified as a significant risk factor with hazard ratios (HR) of 1.07 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.51-2.25, p = 0.85] by univariate analysis and 1.35 (95 % CI 0.62-2.95, p = 0.45) by multivariate analysis. Nodal involvement (HR 2.19, 95 % CI 1.03-4.63, p = 0.04) and non-resection (HR 2.64, 95 % CI 1.11-6.25, p = 0.03) were shown to be statistically significant risk factors by multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: EUS-FNA for pancreatic cancer did not significantly increase the risk of peritoneal carcinomatosis.
Journal of Gastroenterology 10/2012; · 3.79 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: Our aim was to investigate how 2cm or smaller pancreatic cancers were detected successfully in recent years. Methodology: Diagnostic clues and subsequent examinations that detected 15 histologically confirmed 2cm or smaller pancreatic cancers were reviewed. Results: Diagnostic clues were imaging findings in 6 patients, symptoms in 5 and laboratory data in 4. Six of 8 patients who had risk factors of pancreatic cancer such as pancreatic cyst, dilated main pancreatic duct, pancreatitis, or diabetes had been followed-up by imaging and laboratory examinations. Five patients with extrapancreatic disease had been followed-up chiefly by laboratory examinations. The remaining 2 had neither of them. Detectabilities of pancreatic mass in US, CT and EUS were 89%, 67% and 100%, respectively; those of pancreatic mass and/or dilated main pancreatic duct were 100% in all three modalities. Cytological examination revealed adenocarcinoma preoperatively in 14 patients (93%). Conclusions: Small pancreatic cancer of 2cm or smaller were suggested by symptoms, laboratory data, or imaging examinations. They were confirmed by further examinations including cytology.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Gemcitabine is a key drug for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. Human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1) is a major transporter responsible for gemcitabine uptake into cells. This study was conducted to elucidate the association between expression level of hENT1 and outcome for pancreatic cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant therapy including gemcitabine. METHODS: Sixty-three patients who underwent neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by curative surgery for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas were included. Immunohistochemistry was performed using resected specimens and the staining intensity of hENT1 was scored as having no staining, low staining, or high staining; the former two were defined as negative expression of hENT1. The association between expression level of hENT1 and overall survival was evaluated by Cox proportional regression model. RESULTS: Expression level of hENT1 was evaluated as positive in 22 (35%) patients, and as negative in 41 (65%) patients. Univariate analysis showed that regional lymph node metastasis, vascular permeation, and perineural invasion are prognostic factors; however, expression level of hENT1 did not reach statistical significance. Multivariate analysis showed only vascular permeation as a prognostic factor. CONCLUSIONS: Expression level of hENT1 was not associated with prognosis for pancreatic cancer patients who were treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation including gemcitabine.
Journal of hepato-biliary-pancreatic sciences. 03/2012;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To elucidate the prognostic factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients treated with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE).
We studied 85 TACE-treated HCC patients, including 117 lesions, who fulfilled the Milan criteria. The area of iodized poppy-seed oil (lipiodol) accumulation on CT immediately after TACE was classified into three groups, by comparing with the area of HCC detected by CT during hepatic arteriography; accumulation surrounding the HCC lesion (group I), accumulation involving the entire area of the HCC lesion (group II), and accumulation that covered a portion of the HCC lesion (group III).
Among 85 patients, the 1- and 2-year disease free survival (DFS) rates were 67% and 50% in group I, 49% and 29% in group II and 29% and 15% in group III. DFS rate was higher in group I than in groups II and III (p=0.016 and p<0.001). Difference in DFS by lipiodol accumulation pattern was evident in patients aged 75 or younger.
Lipiodol accumulation pattern as evaluated by CT immediately after TACE may be a powerful indicator of the therapeutic efficacy of TACE in HCC patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present the first reported case of intraductal polypoid growth (IPG) variant of pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma (ACC) metastasizing to the intrahepatic bile duct. A 58-year-old Japanese woman had previously presented with obstructive jaundice and a 7.0 cm mass in the pancreatic head. She underwent biliary drainage for 2 months followed by pancreatectomy. Histological examination revealed a carcinoma with acinar pattern, immunohistochemically positive for trypsin, and acinar cell carcinoma was diagnosed. IPGs were prominent in the main pancreatic duct and its tributaries, extending into the intrapancreatic bile duct with tumor casts in the lumen. Imaging examinations 6 years later revealed a growing lesion within the intrahepatic bile duct. Needle biopsy examination suggested metastasis of ACC, and she underwent chemoradiation therapy and partial hepatectomy. Histological examination demonstrated ACC confined to the intrahepatic bile duct. The localization of metastasis and slow growth may indicate indolent biologic behavior of the IPG variant.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is an accurate method for cytological confirmation of pancreatic malignancy, but it has been unknown whether its diagnostic accuracy for pancreatic lesions was affected by their size, location, or size of needles. Our aim was to investigate the accuracy of EUS-FNA for suspected pancreatic malignancy in relation to these factors, especially to the size of lesions.
In a tertiary referral center, EUS-FNAs for 120 suspected pancreatic malignancies in 115 patients based on other imaging studies were evaluated retrospectively.
Overall accuracy of EUS-FNA was 96% (115/120), with sensitivity of 95% (76/80), specificity of 98% (39/40), positive predictive value of 99% (76/77), and negative predictive value of 91% (39/43). Accuracies for lesions less than 10mm, 11-20mm, 21-30mm, and more than 31mm were 96%, 95%, 96%, and 100%, respectively; those for lesions in the head, the body, and the tail of the pancreas were 96%, 95%, and 95%, respectively. Accuracies for 22-gauge and 25-gauge needle were 93% and 98%, respectively.
EUS-FNA was accurate in the evaluation of suspected pancreatic malignancy regardless of its size, location, or size of needles. It was useful also in the confirmation of small pancreatic malignancies less than 10mm.
Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 04/2011; 26(8):1256-61. · 3.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biliary stricture may be benign or malignant and causes obstructive jaundice. Brush cytology is a simple technique for diagnosing the cause of biliary stricture; however, its sensitivity has been reported to be low. A technique that comprises diagnosing the cause of stricture with a satisfactory sensitivity and relieving jaundice is required. This study was designed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of brush cytology and the feasibility of the subsequent stent placement in a single endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) session performed for presumed malignant biliary strictures.
Data were collected by reviewing the medical records of 100 consecutive patients with suspected malignant biliary stricture who underwent brush cytology followed by stent placement at our center. Diagnostic performance of brush cytology, completion rate of the whole procedures comprising brush cytology and stent placement, and complications were evaluated.
Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and overall accuracy of brush cytology were 83%, 100%, 100%, 33% and 84%, respectively. Biliary stent was successfully inserted for all patients (100%) subsequent to brush cytology in a single ERCP session. Eight patients (8%) had complications.
Brush cytology was performed with much higher sensitivity of 83% than those of previous reports and the subsequent stent placement was successfully completed in all cases. For presumed malignant biliary stricture, brush cytology should be selected as an initial attempt because this technique is simple and enables subsequent stent placement in a single ERCP session.
Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 03/2011; 26(8):1247-51. · 3.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A mural nodule is a strong predictive factor for malignancy in branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas, but the nodule size has hardly been considered. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a mural nodule of 10 mm was appropriate as an indicator of surgery for IPMN during follow-up.
The follow-up outcomes of 100 patients who had branch duct IPMN without mural nodules or who had branch duct IPMN with mural nodules of less than 9 mm in a tertiary care setting were investigated retrospectively. The patients underwent abdominal ultrasound (US) every 3 months and additional imaging examinations or cytologic examination of pancreatic juice when necessary. Surgery was recommended to them when a mural nodule developed or when a nodule enlarged and reached 10 mm.
During an average follow-up period of 97 months, branch duct IPMNs developed mural nodules that reached 10 mm in 5 patients (0.62% per year). In one patient the IPMN was revealed to be non-invasive carcinoma by resection, 1 IPMN was shown to be malignant by further follow-up, and 3 were not resected because of refusal or the patient's age. In 7 patients, mural nodules stayed within 9 mm. The remaining 88 patients lacked mural nodules in their branch duct IPMNs throughout the follow-up. The occurrence of invasive carcinoma around the IPMN was not indicated by imaging examinations in any patient. Univariate analysis showed that the size of the cyst at baseline significantly predicted the development of a mural nodule that reached 10 mm during follow-up (P = 0.05).
A mural nodule of 10 mm is appropriate as an indicator of surgery in the follow-up of branch duct IPMN.
Journal of Gastroenterology 11/2010; 46(5):657-63. · 3.79 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim: Two new imaging modalities have been developed recently that are directed at the focal liver lesions: gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Sonazoid contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS). We investigated the usefulness of these modalities for the diagnosis of small (<2 cm), well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).Methods: A total of 15 nodules from 13 patients, which were histologically diagnosed as well-differentiated HCC, were subjected to this study. Lesions that showed hypervascularity in the arterial phase and washout in the portal or late non-hemodynamic phase were regarded as HCC in the dynamic studies of all imaging modalities.Results: By multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), six of 15 (40%) nodules were diagnosed as HCC. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI diagnosed HCC in nine of the 15 (60%) nodules. Of the nine nodules that were not diagnosed by MDCT, four could be diagnosed by Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI. In Sonazoid CEUS, 10 of 15 nodules (67%) were diagnosed as HCC. Four of nine nodules that could not be diagnosed as HCC by MDCT, were diagnosed by Sonazoid CEUS. A total of 11 of the 15 (73%) nodules were diagnosed as HCC by Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI and Sonazoid CEUS in addition to MDCT.Conclusion: Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI and Sonazoid CEUS had greater diagnostic value for small, well-differentiated HCC than did conventional MDCT.
Hepatology Research 08/2010; 40(9):930 - 936. · 2.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: To prospectively determine whether slight dilatation of the main pancreatic duct and pancreatic cysts detected at ultrasonography (US) are predictive signs of pancreatic cancer. Materials and Methods: The research protocol was approved by the institutional review board, and written informed consent was obtained from all participants. One thousand fifty-eight subjects (age range, 36-80 years; mean, 61.8 years) with various kinds of abnormal US findings in the pancreas were enrolled from 1999 to 2002, after exclusion of pancreatic neoplasm and other malignant diseases. The endpoint was the subsequent development of pancreatic cancer, and the outcome was determined at the end of December 2007. To identify independent predictive variables for the subsequent development of pancreatic cancer, various baseline characteristics were examined by using a Cox regression model and a Cox proportional hazards model. The cumulative incidence of pancreatic cancer was estimated by using the Kaplan-Meyer method. Results: During the mean follow-up of 75.5 months (+/- 17.3[standard deviation]), pancreatic cancer subsequently developed in 12 of 1058 subjects. The risk of pancreatic cancer was significantly elevated in subjects with slight dilatation (> or = 2.5 mm) of the main pancreatic duct or presence of cyst (s) (> or = 5 mm). The respective hazard ratios were 6.38 (P = .018) and 6.23 (P = .003). For subjects with both findings, the 5-year cumulative risk of pancreatic cancer was 5.62% (95% confidence interval: .37%, 13.03%), and the age-and sex-adjusted hazard ratio compared with the risk in the absence of these findings was 27.50 (P = .002). Conclusion: Main pancreatic duct dilatation (> or = 2.5 mm) and presence of a pancreatic cyst (> or = 5 mm) were both strong independent predictors of the subsequent development of pancreatic cancer. (c) RSNA, 2010.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate serum CA19-9 alterations during preoperative gemcitabine-based chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for resectable pancreatic cancer (PC) in the earlier identification of patients who are likely to benefit from subsequent resection.
One of the advantages of the preoperative CRT strategy for patients with advanced PC is that undetectable systemic disease may be revealed during preoperative CRT, thus avoiding unnecessary surgery. Serum CA19-9 has been evaluated as a predictive indicator of the treatment efficacy and outcome in various clinical settings.
We retrospectively reviewed 64 consecutive patients with resectable PC (at diagnosis) who received preoperative CRT at our hospital between 2002 and 2008. Patients were divided into 2 groups (efficacy grouping) to evaluate the efficacy of preoperative CRT according to the clinical course. Group A included patients who were unable to receive the subsequent resection due to the development of unresectable factors during preoperative CRT and those who received the subsequent resection but developed recurrent disease within 6 months after surgery; group B included patients who received the subsequent resection and survived without recurrences for more than 6 months after surgery. We developed a new classification utilizing pretreatment CA19-9 and proportional alteration of CA19-9 2 months after the initiation of treatment. The categories were defined as: I (increased), MD (modestly decreased), and SD (substantially decreased). Clinicopathological variables and CA19-9 alteration status were correlated with the efficacy grouping and overall survival.
All of the category I patients were included in group A, 93.5% of the category SD patients in group B, and approximately half of the category MD patients in group A. CA19-9 alteration status was a single independent variable associated with efficacy grouping and overall patient survival, with the 1-year survival rate of category I patients, and the 4-year survival rate of category MD and SD patients being 22.2%, 34.1%, and 58.9%, respectively.
CA19-9 alteration status is useful in identifying those who will benefit from the preoperative CRT and subsequent resection and those who will not; it was a significant predictor for patient prognosis in the setting of the preoperative CRT strategy for resectable PC.
Annals of surgery 03/2010; 251(3):461-9. · 7.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Main duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas include neoplasms with varying likelihood of progression to malignancy. The aim of this study was to investigate a natural course of main duct IPMNs with a lower likelihood of malignancy.
Twenty main duct IPMNs with a lower likelihood of malignancy, which was defined as mural nodule of less than 10 mm or no visualized mural nodule, and negative result of cytological examination of pancreatic juice, underwent regular ultrasound every 3 months. Special imaging examinations and additional pancreatic juice cytological examination were performed when necessary. Surgery was considered when a mural nodule enlarged to 10 mm or the cytological examination result indicated malignancy.
During a mean of 70 months, 12 IPMNs (60%) did not progress and 6 (30%) progressed within a lower likelihood of malignancy. The remaining 2 IPMNs (10%) progressed to meet the criteria for resection, underwent surgery, and were demonstrated to be carcinomas.
Main duct IPMN with a lower likelihood of malignancy was divided into 2 subgroups: neoplasm that progressed and that which did not progress during its natural course. The former should be resected considering its malignant potential, whereas the latter may be managed nonsurgically as long as it stays unchanged.