Xing-Quan Zhu

Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, Sa-erh-t’u, Heilongjiang Sheng, China

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Publications (222)709.33 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite which can infect almost all mammalian animals, leading to toxoplasmosis. T. gondii rhoptry protein 38 (TgROP38) is an active rhoptry protein kinase which is involved in the inhibitory effect on host cell transcription by down-regulating the MAPK signaling track.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 09/2014; 14(1):525. · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis E, caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV), is an important global public health concern. There are conflicting reports in regard to the association of HEV infection and psychiatric disorders. Therefore, we investigated this association in a Chinese population through a case-control seroprevalence study.
    International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Toxoplasma gondii can infect all warm-blooded animals including humans. Infection with T. gondii is probably the leading cause of posterior uveitis in humans and the most comment route of transmission is raw and undercooked meat from infected animals. T. gondii calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 (TgCDPK1) plays a critical role in direct parasite motility, host-cell invasion, and egress.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 09/2014; 14(1):487. · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii, which can infect warm-blooded animals and humans. A serological survey was undertaken to examine the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in sika deer in northeastern China. 114 (13.46%, 95% CI 11.16-15.76) out of 847 serum samples were positive to T. gondii by modified agglutination test (MAT) at a 1:25 cut-off, with titers of 1:25 in 44, 1:50 in 32, 1:100 in 17, 1:500 in 11, 1:1500 or higher in 10. These samples were collected between November 2012 and October 2013 from Inner Mongolia, Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces in China. However, statistically significant differences were not observed between T. gondii seroprevalence and genders or regions of sika deer in the logistic regression analysis (P>0.05) and left out of the final model. Seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in male sika deer was 14.07% (95% CI 11.14-17.01), slightly higher than that in the female (12.38%) (95% CI 8.69-16.06) and seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in Harbin, Changchun City, Jilin City and Chifeng City were 12.02% (95% CI 7.60-16.44), 15.51% (95% CI 11.52-19.50), 12.27% (95% CI 7.23-17.31) and 12.50% (95% CI 7.38-17.63), respectively. Seasons of sampling were considered as main risk factors associated with T. gondii infection, autumn (15.32%) were more than 2 times (OR=1.98, 95% CI=1.18-3.33, P=0.01) at risk of acquiring T. gondii infection compared to winter (8.37%). Our results indicated a widespread exposure to T. gondii among sika deer in China. To our knowledge, this is the first report of T. gondii seroprevalence in sika deer in China.
    Acta tropica. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Toxocarosis is a widespread zoonosis caused by the ascarid nematodes Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati, which primarily infect dogs and cats, respectively. Most human infections with Toxocara are asymptomatic; however, some infected individuals may develop a serious illness and even death. Nevertheless, epidemiological knowledge regarding the prevalence and risks associated with Toxocara infection is limited in China. Therefore, we performed a cross-sectional pilot study and estimated the seroprevalence of Toxocara infection in humans in Shandong Province, eastern China for the first time, from June 2011 to July 2013, involving clinically healthy individuals, pregnant women and psychiatric patients, aiming to attract public attention to Toxocara infection.
    PLoS neglected tropical diseases. 08/2014; 8(8):e3082.
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    ABSTRACT: Limited available sequence information has greatly impeded population genetics, phylogenetics and systematics studies in the subclass Acari (mites and ticks). Mitochondrial (mt) DNA is well known to provide genetic markers for investigations in these areas, but complete mt genomic data have been lacking for many Acari species. Herein, we present the complete mt genome of the scab mite Psoroptes cuniculi.
    Parasites & Vectors 07/2014; 7(1):340. · 3.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Toxoplasmosis, caused by the obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii, is an important zoonotic disease worldwide. The precise detection of T. gondii infection in dogs has important public health significance. In this study, recombinant granule antigen proteins GRA1 and GRA7 were evaluated as potential diagnostic markers for T. gondii infection in dogs by an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
    BMC Veterinary Research 07/2014; 10(1):158. · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lancet flukes parasitize the bile ducts and gall bladder of a range of mammals, including humans, causing dicrocoeliosis. In the present study, we sequenced and characterized the complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes as well as the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2 = ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of two lancet flukes, Dicrocoelium chinensis and D. dendriticum. Sequence comparison of a conserved mt gene and nuclear rDNA sequences among multiple individual lancet flukes revealed substantial nucleotide differences between the species but limited sequence variation within each of them. Phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated amino acid and multiple mt rrnS sequences using Bayesian inference supported the separation of D. chinensis and D. dendriticum into two distinct species-specific clades. Results of the present study support the proposal that D. dendriticum and D. chinensis represent two distinct lancet flukes. While providing the first mt genomes from members of the superfamily Plagiorchioidea, the novel mt markers described herein will be useful for further studies of the diagnosis, epidemiology and systematics of the lancet flukes and other trematodes of human and animal health significance.
    Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 07/2014; · 4.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The survival of the intracellular protozoan parasite Neospora caninum depends on its ability to adapt to changing metabolic conditions of the host cell. Thus, defining cellular and metabolic changes in affected target tissues may aid in delineating pathogenetic mechanism. We undertook this study to assess the metabolic response of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) to N. caninum infection in vitro.
    BMC Research Notes 06/2014; 7(1):406.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Toxoplasmosis, caused by the obligate intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, has become a serious public health problem worldwide. T. gondii can infect almost all warm-blooded animals, including parrots. However, little is known of T. gondii infection in parrots in China. Antibodies against T. gondii in 311 parrots including 202 Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), 26 Lovebirds (Agapornis sp.), 22 Cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), and 61 Alexandrine Parakeets (Psittacula eupatria) in the cities of Beijing and Weifang in north China were tested using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Twenty-six (8.36%) out of 311 serum samples were positive for T. gondii at the cutoff of 1:5. Among the four species, a higher seroprevalence of T. gondii was found in Cockatiels (13.64%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.00-27.98), although the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.61). Seropositivity rates against T. gondii in male parrots (10.43%, 95% CI 5.74-15.12) were not statistically different from that in female parrots (6.08%, 95% CI 2.23-9.93, p=0.17). The seropositivity of T. gondii in parrots from Weifang and Beijing was 11.11% (95% CI 6.13-16.09) and 5.70% (95% CI 2.08-9.31), respectively. The seroprevalence varied in parrots of different age groups, ranging from 5.71% (95% CI 1.27-10.15) to 13.00% (95% CI 6.41-19.69), however, the difference among age groups was not statistically significant (p=0.12). The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in parrots in summer (11.63%, 95% CI 6.84-16.42) was significantly higher than in spring (4.32%, 95% CI 0.94-7.70, p=0.02). The results of the present survey indicated that parrots in China are exposed to T. gondii. To our knowledge, this is the first report of T. gondii seroprevalence in parrots in China.
    Vector borne and zoonotic diseases (Larchmont, N.Y.) 05/2014; · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cryptosporidium is an enteric apicomplexan parasite, which can infect yaks, leading to reduction of milk production and poor weight gain. White yak (Bos grunniens) is a unique yak breed inhabiting only in Tianzhu Tibetan Autonomous County, Gansu province, northwestern China. The objective of the present study was to molecularly determine Cryptosporidium infection and species in white yaks.
    Parasites & Vectors 05/2014; 7(1):230. · 3.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging haemorrhagic fever that was first described in rural areas of China. The causative agent, SFTS virus (SFTSV), is a novel phlebovirus in the Bunyaviridae family. Since the first report in 2010, SFTS has been found in 11 provinces of China, with about 2500 reported cases, and an average case-fatality rate of 7·3%. The disease was also reported in Japan and Korea in 2012; Heartland virus, another phlebovirus genetically closely related to SFTSV, was isolated from two patients in the USA. The disease has become a substantial risk to public health, not only in China, but also in other parts of the world. The virus could undergo rapid evolution by gene mutation, reassortment, and homologous recombination in tick vectors and vertebrate reservoir hosts. No specific treatment of SFTS is available, and avoiding tick bites is an important measure to prevent the infection and transmission of SFTSV. This Review provides information on the molecular characteristics and ecology of this emerging tick-borne virus and describes the epidemiology, clinical signs, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of human infection with SFTSV.
    The Lancet Infectious Diseases 05/2014; · 19.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Sera from 659 Black-headed Gulls (Chroicocephalus ridibundus) in Dianchi Lake, China were assayed for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Specific T. gondii antibodies were detected in 131 (19.9%) Black-headed Gulls (MAT titer≥1∶5). These results indicate that T. gondii infection is common in Black-headed Gulls.
    Journal of wildlife diseases 05/2014; · 1.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Toxoplasma gondii can cause serious public health problems and economic losses worldwide. Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are key mediators of T. gondii signaling pathways, and are implicated as important virulence factors. In the present study, we cloned a novel T. gondii CDPK gene, named TgCDPK5, and constructed the eukaryotic expression vector pVAX-CDPK5. Then, the immune protection induced by pVAX-CDPK5 was evaluated in Kunming mice. After injection of pVAX-CDPK5 intramuscularly, immune responses including lymphoproliferative assay, cytokine and antibody measurements were monitored, and mouse survival time and brain cyst formation were evaluated following challenge with T. gondii RH strain (Genotype I) and the PRU strain (Genotype II). pVAX-CDPK5 effectively induced immune responses with increased specific antibodies, predominance of IgG2a production and a strong lymphocyte proliferative response. The levels of IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-12 (p70), as well as the percentage of CD3+ CD4+ and CD3+ CD8+ cells in mice vaccinated with pVAX-CDPK5 were significantly increased. However, IL-4 and IL-10 were not produced in the vaccinated mice. These results demonstrated that pVAX-CDPK5 could elicit strong humoral and cellular Th1 immune responses. The survival time of immunized mice challenged with T. gondii RH strain (8.67 ± 4.34 days) was slightly, but not significantly, longer than that in the control groups within 7 days (P > 0.05). The numbers of brain cysts of the mice in pVAX-CDPK5 group was reduced by ∼40% when compared with those in the control groups (P < 0.05), which provided a foundation for further development of effective sub-unit vaccines against T. gondii.
    Clinical and vaccine Immunology: CVI 04/2014; · 2.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The parasitic nematodes Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum are of great public health and economic significance, and the two taxa were proposed to represent a single species. miRNAs are known with functions of gene regulations at post-transcriptional level. We herein compared the miRNA profiles of A. lumbricoides and A. suum female adults by Solexa deep sequencing combined with bioinformatics analysis and stem-loop real-time PCR. Using the A. suum genome as the reference genome, we obtained 171 and 494 miRNA candidates from A. lumbricoides and A. suum, respectively. Among which, 74 miRNAs were shared between the two taxa, 97 and 420 miRNAs were A. lumbricoides and A. suum specific. Target and function prediction revealed a significant set of targets which are related to ovarian message protein, vitellogenin and chondroitin proteoglycan of the two nematodes. Enrichment analysis revealed that the percentages of most predicted functions of the miRNA targets were similar, with some taxon specific or taxon enhanced functions, such as different target numbers, specific functions (NADH dehydrogenase and electron carrier functions), etc. This study characterized comparatively the miRNAs of adult A. lumbricoides and A. suum, and the findings provide additional evidence that A. lumbricoides and A. suum represent a single species. Due to the fast evolution nature of miRNAs and the different parasitic living conditions of humans and pigs, the phenomenon above might indicate a fast evolution of miRNAs of Ascaris in humans and pigs.
    BMC Veterinary Research 04/2014; 10(1):99. · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cats are the definitive hosts of Toxoplasma gondii. The distribution of genetic diversity of T. gondii in cats is of importance to understand the transmission of this parasite. The objective of this study was to genetically characterize T. gondii isolates from cats in Yunnan province, southwestern China. Genomic DNA was extracted from 5-10 g cat tissue samples (brain, tongue, heart, and liver). Using multilocous polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technology, we determined genetic diversity of T. gondii isolates from cats in Yunnan province.Result: In total, 175 stray cats were tested for T. gondii DNA, respectively, 44 (25.14%) of which were found to be positive for the T. gondii B1 gene by PCR amplification. The positive DNA samples were typed at 11 genetic markers, including 10 nuclear markers, namely, SAG1, 5[prime]-3[prime]SAG2, alternative SAG2, SAG3, GRA6, L358, PK1, BTUB, c22-8, c29-2 and an apicoplast locus Apico. Of these, 16 isolates from cats were genotyped with data for more than 9 loci, revealed 5 genotypes in total, of which 11 of 16 samples were identified as ToxoDB#9, two samples may belong to genotye #225, one was Type II, one was ToxoDB#3, and one was ToxoDB#20 ( The results of the present study indicated a wide distribution of T. gondii infection in cats in Yunnan province, which may pose significant public health concerns. To our knowledge, the present study is the first report of T. gondii prevalence and genotypes in cats in southwestern China, and the first report of Type II T. gondii from cats in China.
    Parasites & Vectors 04/2014; 7(1):178. · 3.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Toxoplasmosis, caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, is one of the most common zoonosis worldwide, affecting a wide range of warm-blooded mammals and birds worldwide. However, no information on T. gondii infection in pet birds in China is available. Therefore, this study was performed to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection in pet birds in Gansu province, China. A total of 687 blood samples were collected from pet birds (Carduelis spinus, Alauda gulgula, Cocothraustes migratorlus) in three representative administrative regions in Gansu province, northwest China between August 2011 and September 2012 T. gondii antibodies were determined using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Genomic DNA was extracted from the brain tissues of seropositive pet birds and T. gondii B1 gene was amplified using a semi-nested PCR.DNA samples giving positive B1 amplification were then genetically characterized using multi-locus PCR-RFLP. The overall T. gondii seroprevalence was 11.21% (77/687). C. spinus had the highest T. gondii seroprevalence (11.65%), followed by A. arvensis (11.39%) and C. migratorlus (5.26%), these differences were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Of 77 DNA samples, 8 were positive for the T. gondii B1 gene, four showed complete genotyping results. Only one genotype (the Type II variant: ToxoDB genotype #3) was identified. The results of the present survey indicated the presence of T. gondii infection in pet birds in Gansu province, China. These data provide base-line information for the execution of control strategies against T. gondii infection in pet birds. To our knowledge, this is the first report documenting the occurrence of T. gondii prevalence and genotype in pet birds in China.
    Parasites & Vectors 04/2014; 7(1):152. · 3.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fascioliasis is an important and neglected disease of humans and other mammals, caused by trematodes of the genus Fasciola. Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica are valid species that infect humans and animals, but the specific status of Fasciola sp. ('intermediate form') is unclear. Single specimens inferred to represent Fasciola sp. ('intermediate form'; Heilongjiang) and F. gigantica (Guangxi) from China were genetically identified and characterized using PCR-based sequencing of the first and second internal transcribed spacer regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA. The complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes of these representative specimens were then sequenced. The relationships of these specimens with selected members of the Trematoda were assessed by phylogenetic analysis of concatenated amino acid sequence datasets by Bayesian inference (BI). The complete mt genomes of representatives of Fasciola sp. and F. gigantica were 14,453 bp and 14,478 bp in size, respectively. Both mt genomes contain 12 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and two ribosomal RNA genes, but lack an atp8 gene. All protein-coding genes are transcribed in the same direction, and the gene order in both mt genomes is the same as that published for F. hepatica. Phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated amino acid sequence data for all 12 protein-coding genes showed that the specimen of Fasciola sp. was more closely related to F. gigantica than to F. hepatica. The mt genomes characterized here provide a rich source of markers, which can be used in combination with nuclear markers and imaging techniques, for future comparative studies of the biology of Fasciola sp. from China and other countries.
    Parasites & Vectors 03/2014; 7(1):150. · 3.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite imperils health of almost all warm-blooded animals, including humans. The objective of this study was to determine genetic characterization of T. gondii in free-living Microtus fortis in Jilin province, northeastern China. A total of 104 DNA samples, 74 from Gongzhuling and 30 from Baicheng, were extracted from lung tissues of M. fortis, and 56 (53.85%) of them were detected positive of T. gondii by semi-nested PCR of B1 gene. These positive DNA samples were typed at 10 genetic markers, including SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alternative SAG2, BUTB, GRA6, L358, PK1, c22-8, c29-2, and Apico. Four samples were successfully genotyped at all genetic loci, and grouped to two distinct genotypes; two samples belonged to ToxoDB Genotype #10 (Type I) and the other two presented ToxoDB Genotype #9 (; four samples were genotyped at 8 genetic loci, in which two samples belonged to ToxoDB Genotype #10 and two presented ToxoDB Genotype #9. To our knowledge, this is the first report of genetic typing of T. gondii from free-living M. fortis in northeast China. The results suggest that the Type I and ToxoDB Genotype # 9 could be a potential risk for the transmission through the Reed vole in this region.
    Journal of Parasitology 03/2014; · 1.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The synergistic protective efficacy of murine interleukin 21 (mIL-21) and mIL-15 administrated with DNA vaccine against acute and chronic Toxoplasma gondii infection in mice was investigated using T. gondii MIC8 (TgMIC8) as a model. We cloned mIL-21 and mIL-15 from splenic tissues of Kunming mice, and constructed eukaryotic plasmid pVAX/mIL-15, pVAX/mIL-21, and pVAX/mIL-21/mIL-15, respectively. After immunizing with pVAX/TgMIC8 in the presence or absence of these cytokines, immune responses were analyzed using lymphoproliferative assay, cytokine and serum antibody measurements, flow cytometric surface markers on lymphocytes and protection against acute and chronic T. gondii infection. Mice receiving pVAX/TgMIC8 alone developed a strong humoral responses and Th1 type cellular immune responses, and showed an increase of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells compared with all the controls. Adding pVAX/mIL-21 to pVAX/TgMIC8 compared to pVAX/TgMIC8 resulted in only a slight increase in humoral and cellular immune responses, and this immune response was lower than that induced by the pVAX/mIL-15 combined with pVAX/TgMIC8. Co-administration of pVAX/mIL-21/mIL-15 combined with pVAX/TgMIC8 elicited the strongest humoral and cellular immune responses among all the groups, leading to significantly increased survival time against acute infection and the significant reduction of tissue cysts, compared to all the controls. Synergy of mIL-21 and mIL-15 can facilitate specific humoral as well as cellular immune responses elicited by DNA vaccine against acute and chronic T. gondii infection in mice.
    Vaccine 03/2014; · 3.77 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
709.33 Total Impact Points


  • 2011–2014
    • Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University
      Sa-erh-t’u, Heilongjiang Sheng, China
    • Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute
      Kao-lan-hsien, Gansu Sheng, China
    • National Institute of Parasitic Diseases
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
    • Shanghai Veterinary Research Institute
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
    • Spanish National Research Council
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
    • Northwest A & F University
      Yang-ling-chen, Shaanxi, China
  • 2013
    • University of Zurich
      Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
  • 2012–2013
    • Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
      Peping, Beijing, China
    • Hunan Agricultural University
      • College of Veterinary Medicine
      Ch’ang-sha-chen, Jiangsu Sheng, China
  • 2009–2013
    • Yunnan Agricultural University
      Panlong, Shaanxi, China
    • Southern Medical University
      • Department of Parasitology
      Shengcheng, Guangdong, China
    • South China Agricultural University
  • 2010–2012
    • University of Jinan (Jinan, China)
      Chi-nan-shih, Shandong Sheng, China
    • Chinese Academy of Inspection and Quarantine
      Peping, Beijing, China
    • Guangdong Ocean University
      Tsamkong, Guangdong, China
  • 2004–2012
    • China Agricultural University
      • College of Veterinary Medicine
      Peping, Beijing, China
    • Zhongshan University
      中山, Guangdong, China
  • 2009–2010
    • Academy of Military Medical Sciences
      T’ien-ching-shih, Tianjin Shi, China
  • 2007–2010
    • shanxi agricultural university
      Shanxi, Liaoning, China
    • Guangxi University
      Yung-ning, Guangxi Zhuangzu Zizhiqu, China
  • 2008
    • Sylhet Agricultural University
      Mujib City, Dhaka, Bangladesh
  • 2005–2008
    • Sun Yat-Sen University
      • • School of Life Sciences
      • • Animal Experiment Center
      Zhongshan, Guangdong Sheng, China