Angelo A Cardoso

Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States

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Publications (53)350.08 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The microRNA miR-155 has been implicated in regulating inflammatory responses and tumorigenesis, but its precise role in linking inflammation and cancer has remained elusive. Here, we identify a connection between miR-155 and Notch signaling in this context. Loss of Notch signaling in the bone marrow (BM) niche alters hematopoietic homeostasis and leads to lethal myeloproliferative-like disease. Mechanistically, Notch signaling represses miR-155 expression by promoting binding of RBPJ to the miR-155 promoter. Loss of Notch/RBPJ signaling upregulates miR-155 in BM endothelial cells, leading to miR-155-mediated targeting of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) inhibitor κB-Ras1, NF-κB activation, and increased proinflammatory cytokine production. Deletion of miR-155 in the stroma of RBPJ(-/-) mice prevented the development of myeloproliferative-like disease and cytokine induction. Analysis of BM from patients carrying myeloproliferative neoplasia also revealed elevated expression of miR-155. Thus, the Notch/miR-155/κB-Ras1/NF-κB axis regulates the inflammatory state of the BM niche and affects the development of myeloproliferative disorders.
    Cell stem cell. 07/2014; 15(1):51-65.
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    ABSTRACT: We previously showed that immature CD166+ osteoblasts (OB) promote hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function. Here, we demonstrate that CD166 is a functional HSC marker that identifies both murine and human long-term repopulating cells. Both murine LSKCD48-CD166+CD150+ and LSKCD48-CD166+CD150+CD9+ cells as well as human Lin-CD34+CD38-CD49f+CD166+ cells sustained significantly higher levels of chimerism in primary and secondary recipients than CD166- cells. CD166(-/-) (KO) LSK cells engrafted poorly in wild type (WT) recipients and KO bone marrow cells failed to radioprotect lethally irradiated WT recipients. CD166(-/-) hosts supported short- but not long-term WT HSC engraftment confirming that loss of CD166 is detrimental to the competence of the hematopoietic niche. CD166(-/-) mice were significantly more sensitive to hematopoietic stress. Marrow-homed transplanted WT hematopoietic cells lodged closer to the recipient endosteum than CD166(-/-) cells suggesting that HSC-OB homophilic CD166 interactions are critical for HSC engraftment. STAT3 has 3 binding sites on the CD166 promoter and STAT3 inhibition reduced CD166 expression suggesting that both CD166 and STAT3 may be functionally coupled and involved in HSC competence. These studies illustrate the significance of CD166 in the identification and engraftment of HSC and in HSC-niche interactions and suggest that CD166 expression can be modulated to enhance HSC function.
    Blood 04/2014; · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thymomas are low-grade epithelial tumors of the anterior mediastinum. The complexity of the disease and the lack of in vitro and in vivo models hamper the development of better therapeutics. In this study, we report a novel cell line, designated as IU-TAB-1, which was established from a patient with stage II thymoma (World Health Organization-type AB). The IU-TAB-1 cell line was established in vitro and characterized using histological and immunohistochemical staining, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, cytogenetic analyses and functional assays including in vitro and a NOD/SCID xenograft model. A whole-genome gene expression analysis (Illumina) was performed on the IU-TAB-1 cell line and 34 thymomas to determine the clinical relevance of the cell line. The IU-TAB-1 cell line was positive for epithelial markers (pan-cytokeratin and EpCAM/CD326) including thymic epithelial (TE) surface markers (such as CD29, CD9, CD54/ICAM-1, CD58 and CD24) and p63, and negative for B- and T-cell lineage markers. Gene expression profiling demonstrated overlapping and distinct genes between IU-TAB-1 and primary thymomas including the primary tumor (from which the cell line was derived). IU-TAB-1 cells are tumorigenic when implanted in immunodeficient mice with tumors reaching a volume of 1000 mm(3) at around 130 days. The established cell line represents a biologically relevant new tool to investigate the molecular pathology of thymic malignancies and to evaluate the efficacy of novel therapeutics both in vitro and in vivo.Laboratory Investigation advance online publication, 27 August 2012; doi:10.1038/labinvest.2012.115.
    Laboratory Investigation 08/2012; · 3.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The extra-embryonic yolk sac (YS) is the first hematopoietic site in the mouse embryo and is thought to generate only primitive erythroid and myeloerythroid progenitor cells before definitive HSC emergence within the embryo on E10.5. Here, we have shown the existence of T cell-restricted progenitors in the E9.5 YS that directly engraft in recipient immunodeficient mice. T-cell progenitors were also produced in vitro from both YS and para-aortic splanchnopleura hemogenic endothelial cells, and these T-cell progenitors repopulated the thymus and differentiated into mature T-cell subsets in vivo on transplantation. Our data confirm that the YS produces T-lineage-restricted progenitors that are available to colonize the thymus and provide new insight into the YS as a definitive hematopoietic site in the mouse embryo.
    Blood 03/2012; 119(24):5706-14. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1), a tumor suppressor, is a rate-limiting effector in an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-dependent apoptotic pathway. Its expression is epigenetically suppressed in several tumors. A mechanistic basis for epigenetic/transcriptional repression of DAPK1 was investigated in certain forms of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with poor prognosis, which lacked ER stress-induced apoptosis. Heterogeneous primary AMLs were screened to identify a subgroup with Flt3ITD in which repression of DAPK1, among NF-κB-and c-Jun-responsive genes, was studied. RNA interference knockdown studies were carried out in an Flt3ITD(+) cell line, MV-4-11, to establish genetic epistasis in the pathway Flt3ITD-TAK1-DAPK1 repression, and chromatin immunoprecipitations were carried out to identify proximate effector proteins, including TAK1-activated p52NF-κB, at the DAPK1 locus. AMLs characterized by normal karyotype with Flt3ITD were found to have 10- to 100-fold lower DAPK1 transcripts normalized to the expression of c-Jun, a transcriptional activator of DAPK1, as compared with a heterogeneous cytogenetic category. In addition, Meis1, a c-Jun-responsive adverse AML prognostic gene signature was measured as control. These Flt3ITD(+) AMLs overexpress relB, a transcriptional repressor, which forms active heterodimers with p52NF-κB. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays identified p52NF-κB binding to the DAPK1 promoter together with histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) and HDAC6 in the Flt3ITD(+) human AML cell line MV-4-11. Knockdown of p52NF-κB or its upstream regulator, NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK), de-repressed DAPK1. DAPK1-repressed primary Flt3ITD(+) AMLs had selective nuclear activation of p52NF-κB. Flt3ITD promotes a noncanonical pathway via TAK1 and p52NF-κB to suppress DAPK1 in association with HDACs, which explains DAPK1 repression in Flt3ITD(+) AML.
    Clinical Cancer Research 11/2011; 18(2):360-9. · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rationally designed therapies aim at the specific disruption of critical signaling pathways activated by malignant transformation or signals from the tumor microenvironment. Because mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an important signal integrator and a key translational regulator, we evaluated its potential involvement in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and whether mTOR blockade synergizes with chemotherapeutic agents or other signaling antagonists to inhibit primary leukemia T cells. mTOR signaling status was assessed using biochemical, immunostaining, and molecular regulation studies and functional assays performed to assess the impact of mTOR blockade on T-ALL proliferation, survival, and cell cycle. We observed that mTOR signaling is highly activated in all T-ALL patients tested, with phosphorylation of its downstream substrates eIF4G and S6 ribosomal protein. mTOR activation was detected in vivo and was further increased in vitro by stimulation with interleukin-7, a potentially leukemogenic cytokine normally produced by the bone marrow microenvironment. In T-ALL cells, mTOR blockade was associated with accumulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(kip1), which preferentially adopted a nuclear localization. Functional studies using rapamycin or CCI-779 showed a dominant inhibitory effect of mTOR blockade on interleukin-7-induced proliferation, survival, and cell-cycle progression of T-ALL cells. Furthermore, mTOR blockade markedly potentiated the antileukemia effects of dexamethasone and doxorubicin, and showed highly synergistic interactions in combination with specific inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and Janus kinase 3 signaling. This study shows activation of mTOR signaling in primary T-ALL cells evolving in the leukemic bone marrow, and supports the inclusion of mTOR antagonists in current therapeutic regimens for this cancer.
    Experimental hematology 01/2011; 39(4):457-472.e3. · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite exhibiting oncogenic events, patient's leukemia cells are responsive and dependent on signals from their malignant bone marrow (BM) microenvironment, which modulate their survival, cell cycle progression, trafficking and resistance to chemotherapy. Identification of the signaling pathways mediating this leukemia/microenvironment interplay is critical for the development of novel molecular targeted therapies.We observed that primary leukemia B-cell precursors aberrantly express receptors of the BAFF-system, BAFF-R, BCMA, and TACI. These receptors are functional as their ligation triggers activation of NF-κB, MAPK/JNK, and Akt signaling. Leukemia cells express surface BAFF and APRIL ligands, and soluble BAFF is significantly higher in leukemia patients in comparison to age-matched controls. Interestingly, leukemia cells also express surface APRIL, which seems to be encoded by APRIL-δ, a novel isoform that lacks the furin convertase domain. Importantly, we observed BM microenvironmental cells express the ligands BAFF and APRIL, including surface and secreted BAFF by BM endothelial cells. Functional studies showed that signals through BAFF-system receptors impact the survival and basal proliferation of leukemia B-cell precursors, and support the involvement of both homotypic and heterotypic mechanisms.This study shows an unforeseen role for the BAFF-system in the biology of precursor B-cell leukemia, and suggests that the target disruption of BAFF signals may constitute a valid strategy for the treatment of this cancer.
    PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(6):e20787. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Nadia Carlesso, Angelo A Cardoso
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    ABSTRACT: In the postnatal life, hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niches are specialized microenvironments in the bone marrow that are essential for the maintenance and function of HSCs. The purpose of this review is to discuss the concept of HSC niche in light of recent studies that broaden its complexity and better define its molecular regulation. Also, we will discuss recent studies addressing the impact of leukemia development on HSC regulation and normal hematopoiesis, while discussing the potential regulation of leukemia-initiating cells by bone marrow niches. Recent studies have identified new cellular and molecular components of the HSC niche and highlighted reciprocal interactions between the hematopoietic cells and their niches. These studies indicate that the HSC niche is not constituted by a single cell type but rather should be considered as a multicellular functional unit. Finally, advances have been made that provide promising insights into the the instructive role of the bone marrow microenvironment in hematological malignancies. Increasing insights into the cell-cell cross talk between the hematopoietic system and its microenvironment in the bone marrow, and in particular in the interplay of HSCs with their niche(s), should provide new tools for combinatorial therapies in bone marrow failure and bone marrow cancers.
    Current opinion in hematology 07/2010; 17(4):281-6. · 5.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Local modulation of vascular mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling reduces smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation after endovascular interventions but may be associated with endothelial cell (EC) toxicity. The trilaminate vascular architecture juxtaposes ECs and SMCs to enable complex paracrine coregulation but shields SMCs from flow. We hypothesized that flow differentially affects mTOR signaling in ECs and SMCs and that SMCs regulate mTOR in ECs. SMCs and/or ECs were exposed to coronary artery flow in a perfusion bioreactor. We demonstrated by flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, and immunoblotting that EC expression of phospho-S6 ribosomal protein (p-S6RP), a downstream target of mTOR, was doubled by flow. Conversely, S6RP in SMCs was growth factor but not flow responsive, and SMCs eliminated the flow sensitivity of ECs. Temsirolimus, a sirolimus analog, eliminated the effect of growth factor on SMCs and of flow on ECs, reducing p-S6RP below basal levels and inhibiting endothelial recovery. EC p-S6RP expression in stented porcine arteries confirmed our in vitro findings: Phosphorylation was greatest in ECs farthest from intact SMCs in metal stented arteries and altogether absent after sirolimus stent elution. The mTOR pathway is activated in ECs in response to luminal flow. SMCs inhibit this flow-induced stimulation of endothelial mTOR pathway. Thus, we now define a novel external stimulus regulating phosphorylation of S6RP and another level of EC-SMC crosstalk. These interactions may explain the impact of local antiproliferative delivery that targets SMC proliferation and suggest that future stents integrate design influences on flow and drug effects on their molecular targets.
    Circulation 05/2010; 121(20):2192-9. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene leading to PTEN protein deletion and subsequent activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway are common in cancer. Here we show that PTEN inactivation in human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cells is not always synonymous with PTEN gene lesions and diminished protein expression. Samples taken from patients with T-ALL at the time of diagnosis very frequently showed constitutive hyperactivation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. In contrast to immortalized cell lines, most primary T-ALL cells did not harbor PTEN gene alterations, displayed normal PTEN mRNA levels, and expressed higher PTEN protein levels than normal T cell precursors. However, PTEN overexpression was associated with decreased PTEN lipid phosphatase activity, resulting from casein kinase 2 (CK2) overexpression and hyperactivation. In addition, T-ALL cells had constitutively high levels of ROS, which can also downmodulate PTEN activity. Accordingly, both CK2 inhibitors and ROS scavengers restored PTEN activity and impaired PI3K/Akt signaling in T-ALL cells. Strikingly, inhibition of PI3K and/or CK2 promoted T-ALL cell death without affecting normal T cell precursors. Overall, our data indicate that T-ALL cells inactivate PTEN mostly in a nondeletional, posttranslational manner. Pharmacological manipulation of these mechanisms may open new avenues for T-ALL treatment.
    Journal of Clinical Investigation 11/2008; 118(11):3762-74. · 12.81 Impact Factor
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    Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 08/2008; 23(1):206-8. · 10.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Homeostasis of the hematopoietic compartment is challenged and maintained during conditions of stress by mechanisms that are poorly defined. To understand how the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment influences hematopoiesis, we explored the role of Notch signaling and BM endothelial cells in providing microenvironmental cues to hematopoietic cells in the presence of inflammatory stimuli. The human BM endothelial cell line (BMEC) and primary human BM endothelial cells were analyzed for expression of Notch ligands and the ability to expand hematopoietic progenitors in an in vitro coculture system. In vivo experiments were carried out to identify modulation of Notch signaling in BM endothelial and hematopoietic cells in mice challenged with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or in Tie2-tmTNF-alpha transgenic mice characterized by constitutive TNF-alpha activation. BM endothelial cells were found to express Jagged ligands and to greatly support progenitor's colony-forming ability. This effect was markedly decreased by Notch antagonists and augmented by increasing levels of Jagged2. Physiologic upregulation of Jagged2 expression on BMEC was observed upon TNF-alpha activation. Injection of TNF-alpha or LPS upregulated three- to fourfold Jagged2 expression on murine BM endothelial cells in vivo and resulted in increased Notch activation on murine hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Similarly, constitutive activation of endothelial cells in Tie2-tmTNF-alpha mice was characterized by increased expression of Jagged2 and by augmented Notch activation on hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Our results provide the first evidence that BM endothelial cells promote expansion of hematopoietic progenitor cells by a Notch-dependent mechanism and that TNF-alpha and LPS can modulate the levels of Notch ligand expression and Notch activation in the BM microenvironment in vivo.
    Experimental Hematology 06/2008; 36(5):545-558. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study describes the cytotoxic properties of a series of 15 cyclic imides observed against different endothelial cells and K562 leukemic cells. Initially, eight structurally unrelated compounds were evaluated against cultured bone marrow endothelial cells (BMEC) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Only two imides showed cytotoxic activity at 10 microM. In continuation of our screening, eight compounds, structurally related to the compound with the higher cytotoxic activity, were assayed against endothelial cells and the K562 leukemic cell line. All of these new compounds except two exhibited cytotoxic and antiproliferative activities at concentrations below 10 microM against BMEC and HUVEC, respectively. The K562 leukemia cell line was only affected by concentrations of 100 microM. Preliminary SAR analysis indicated that the cytotoxic activity of these compounds was related to the presence of a planar imide ring directly bound to an aromatic ring.
    Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung C 01/2008; 63(9-10):675-80. · 0.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Activated macrophages contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis. Although Notch signaling participates in various aspects of immunity, its role in macrophage activation remains undetermined. To explore the role of Notch signaling in inflammation, we examined the expression and activity of Notch pathway components in human primary macrophages in vitro and in atherosclerotic plaques. Macrophages in culture express various Notch pathway components including all 4 receptors (Notch1 to Notch4). Notch3 selectively increased during macrophage differentiation; however, silencing by RNA interference demonstrated that all receptors are functional. The ligand Delta-like 4 (Dll4) increased in macrophages exposed to proinflammatory stimuli such as lipopolysaccharide, interleukin-1beta, or minimally-modified low-density lipoprotein in a Toll-like receptor 4- and nuclear factor-kappaB-dependent fashion. Soluble Dll4 bound to human macrophages. Coincubation of macrophages with cells that expressed Dll4 triggered Notch proteolysis and activation; increased the transcription of proinflammatory genes such as inducible nitric oxide synthase, pentraxin 3 and Id1; resulted in activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase, Akt, and nuclear factor-kappaB pathways; and increased the expression of Dll4 in macrophages. Notch3 knockdown during macrophage differentiation decreased the transcription of genes that promote inflammation, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase, pentraxin 3, Id1, and scavenger receptor-A. These in vitro findings correlate with results of quantitative immunohistochemistry, which demonstrated the presence of Dll4 and other Notch components within macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques. Dll4-triggered Notch signaling may mediate inflammatory responses in macrophages and promote inflammation.
    Circulation 07/2007; 115(23):2948-56. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although interleukin-7 (IL-7) is essential for human and murine lymphopoiesis and homeostasis, clear disparities between these species regarding the role of IL-7 during B-cell development suggest that other, subtler differences may exist. One basic unsolved issue of IL-7 biology concerns cross-species activity, because in contrast to the human ortholog, the ability of murine (m)IL-7 to stimulate human cells remains unresolved. Establishing whether two-way cross-species reactivity occurs is fundamental for evaluating the role of IL-7 in chimeric human-mouse models, which are the most versatile tools for studying human lymphoid development and disease in vivo. Here, we show that mIL-7 triggers the same signaling pathways as human (h)IL-7 in human T cells, promoting similar changes in viability, proliferation, size, and immunophenotype, even at low concentrations. This ability is not confined to T cells, because mIL-7 mediates cell growth and protects human B-cell precursors from dexamethasone-induced apoptosis. Importantly, endogenous mIL-7 produced in the mouse thymic microenvironment stimulates human T cells, because their expansion in chimeric fetal thymic organ cultures is inhibited by a mIL-7-specific neutralizing antibody. Our results demonstrate that mIL-7 affects human lymphocytes and indicate that mouse models of human lymphoid development and disease must integrate the biological effects of endogenous IL-7 on human cells.
    Experimental Hematology 10/2006; 34(9):1133-42. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In a retrospective analysis, we previously reported that children whose leukemia cells harbored the TEL/AML1 gene rearrangement have excellent outcomes. From 1996 to 2000, we conducted a prospective study to determine the incidence and outcomes of children with TEL/AML1-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Children with newly diagnosed ALL were treated on DFCI ALL Consortium Protocol 95-01. Patients were risk stratified primarily by current National Cancer Institute (NCI)-Rome risk criteria. With a median follow-up of 5.2 years, the 5-year event-free survival for TEL/AML1-positive patients was 89% compared with 80% for TEL/AML1-negative B-precursor patients (P = .05). The 5-year overall survival rate was 97% among TEL/AML-positive patients compared with 89% among TEL/AML1-negative patients (P = .03). However, in a multivariable analysis, risk group (age and leukocyte count at diagnosis) and asparaginase treatment group, but not TEL/AML1 status, were found to be independent predictors of outcome. We conclude that TEL/AML1-positive patients have excellent outcomes, confirming our previous findings. However, factors such as age at diagnosis and presenting leukocyte count should be taken into consideration when treating this group of patients.
    Blood 07/2006; 107(11):4508-13. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    T Zander, J A Yunes, A A Cardoso, L M Nadler
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    ABSTRACT: The interpretation of oligonucleotide array experiments depends on the quality of the target cRNA used. cRNA target quality is assessed by quantitative analysis of the representation of 5' and 3' sequences of control genes using commercially available Test arrays. The Test array provides an economically priced means of determining the quality of labeled target prior to analysis on whole genome expression arrays. This manuscript validates the use of a duplex RT-PCR assay as a faster (6 h) and less expensive (<10 US dollars) but equally accurate alternative to the Test arrays in determining biotinylated cRNA quality. Forty-one different cRNA samples were hybridized to HG-U133A microarrays from Affymetrix. Ten cRNA samples with a beta-actin 3'/5' ratio >6 were chosen and classified as degraded cRNAs, and 31 samples with a beta-actin 3'/5' ratio <6 were selected as good quality cRNAs. Blinded samples were then used for the RT-PCR assay. After gel electrophoresis, optical densities of the amplified 3' and 5' fragments of beta-actin were measured and the 3'/5' ratio was calculated. There was a strong correlation (r(2) = 0.6802) between the array and the RT-PCR beta-actin 3'/5' ratios. Moreover, the RT-PCR 3'/5' ratio was significantly different (P < 0.0001) between undegraded (mean +/- SD, 0.34 +/- 0.09) and degraded (1.71 +/- 0.83) samples. None of the other parameters analyzed, such as i) the starting amount of RNA, ii) RNA quality assessed using the Bioanalyzer Chip technology, or iii) the concentration and OD260/OD280 ratio of the purified biotinylated cRNA, correlated with cRNA quality.
    Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research 06/2006; 39(5):589-93. · 1.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Extensive endothelial cell proliferation and marked neovascularization are the most pronounced microenvironmental changes consistently observed in the bone marrow (BM) of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). It is not known whether ALL cells induce this phenotype and whether they receive critical signals from the tumor-associated BM endothelium. Here, we show that leukemia cells actively stimulate BM endothelium, promote de novo angiogenesis, and induce neovascularization in the leukemic BM. Soluble factors, present in the leukemic BM microenvironment, promote the proliferation, migration, and morphogenesis of BM endothelial cells, which are critical processes in tumor angiogenesis. We also show in vitro that leukemia cells display directional motion towards assembled BM endothelium and following adherence exhibit cell polarization, pseudopodia, and ultrastructural features that suggest the existence of leukemia-endothelium cross-talk. Finally, we show that BM endothelium promotes leukemia cell survival through a mechanism mediated through the anti-apoptotic molecule bcl-2. These studies indicate that ALL cells actively recruit BM endothelium and mediate the leukemia-associated neovascularization observed in ALL. Therefore, disruption of interactions between leukemia cells and BM endothelium may constitute a valid therapeutic strategy.
    Experimental Hematology 06/2006; 34(5):610-21. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the anti-proliferative effect of A. blanchetti and A. schottii extracts. The anti-proliferative effect of A. blanchetti and A. schottii ethanolic extracts on K562 leukemic cells as well as on BMEC and HUVEC were evaluated. Phytochemical analysis to identify the possible active components was carried out. The root extract of A. schottii was the most active of them. At 80 microg/mL, the root extracts showed a cytostatic effect on K562, whereas at 400 microg/mL, there was a strong cytotoxic effect. Similar cytostatic and cytotoxic effects were seen in the endothelial cells, but at lower doses. The effect of A. schottii root extract on endothelial cells was seen at concentrations ten times lower (8 microg/mL) than the effect of the A. blanchetti root extract (80 microg/mL). Phytochemical investigation of different fractions and parts of the plant led to the isolation of several known compounds, some of which are described for the first time in the genus Allamanda, and with previous evidence of anticancer and antitumoral properties. Our results suggest that both plants studied exhibit cytostatic and cytotoxic activity, but the most active compounds are located in the roots.
    Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 02/2006; 9(2):200-8. · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Most bone marrow (BM) malignancies develop in association with an angiogenic phenotype and increased numbers of endothelial cells. The molecular mechanisms involved in the modulation and recruitment of BM endothelium are largely unknown and may provide novel therapeutic targets for neoplastic diseases. We observed that angiogenic stimulation of BM endothelial cells activates mTOR and engages its downstream pathways 4E-BP1 and S6K1, which are inhibited by the mTOR-specific blockers rapamycin and CCI-779. Both mTOR blockers significantly inhibit growth factor- and leukemia-induced proliferation of BM endothelium by inducing G0/G1 cell-cycle arrest. This effect is associated with down-regulation of cyclin D1 and cdk2 phosphorylation, and up-regulation of the cdk inhibitors p27(kip1) and p21(cip1). Under conditions that reproduce the biomechanical fluidic environment of the BM, CCI-779 is equally effective in inhibiting BM endothelial-cell proliferation. Finally, simultaneous blockade of mTOR and NF-kappaB pathways synergize to significantly inhibit or abrogate the proliferative responses of BM endothelial cells to mitogenic stimuli. This study identifies mTOR as an important pathway for the proangiogenic stimulation of BM endothelium. Modulation of this pathway may serve as a valid therapeutic intervention in BM malignancies evolving in association with an angiogenic phenotype.
    Blood 02/2006; 107(1):285-92. · 9.78 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
350.08 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008–2014
    • Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Herman B Wells Center for Pediatric Research
      Indianapolis, Indiana, United States
  • 1994–2011
    • Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
      • • Department of Medical Oncology
      • • Division of Hematologic Malignancies
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 1999–2010
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2005–2008
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      • • Center for Regenerative Medicine
      • • Cancer Center
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2004–2006
    • University of Lisbon
      • Instituto de Medicina Molecular
      Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal
  • 2002
    • University of Southern California
      • Institute for Genetic Medicine
      Los Angeles, CA, United States