Y Benyamin

Université de Montpellier 1, Montpelhièr, Languedoc-Roussillon, France

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Publications (113)334.69 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Calpain 1, a ubiquitous calcium-dependent intracellular protease, was recently found in a tight association with myofibrils in skeletal muscle tissue [Delgado EF, Geesink GH, Marchello JA, Goll DE & Koohmaraie M (2001) J Anim Sci79, 2097-2107). Our immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy investigations restrain the protease location at the periphery of the Z-band and at the midpoint of the I-band. Furthermore, calpain 1 is found to localize in myofibril fractures, described as proteolysis sites, in postmortem bovine skeletal red muscles, near the calcium deposits located at the N1 and N2 level. This in situ localization of calpain 1 is substantiated by binding assays with two titin regions covering the I-band region: a native fragment of 150 kDa (identified by mass spectrometry) that includes the N-terminal Z8-I5 region and the N1-line region of titin, and an 800 kDa fragment external to the N1 line that bears the PEVK/N2 region. These two titin fragments are shown to tightly bind calpain 1 in the presence of CaCl(2) and E64, a calpain inhibitor. In the absence of E64, they are cleaved by calpain 1. We conclude that titin affords binding sites to calpain 1, which concentrates the protease in the regions restrained by the Z-band edge and the N1-line as well as at the N2-line level, two sarcomeric regions where early postmortem proteolysis is detected.
    FEBS Journal 06/2005; 272(10):2578-90. · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A light and electron immunohistochemical study was carried out on the body wall muscles of the chaetognath Sagitta friderici for the presence of a variety of contractile proteins (myosin, paramyosin, actin), regulatory proteins (tropomyosin, troponin), and structural proteins (-actinin, desmin, vimentin). The primary muscle (∼80% of body wall volume) showed the characteristic structure of transversely striated muscles, and was comparable to that of insect asynchronous flight muscles. In addition, the body wall had a secondary muscle with a peculiar structure, displaying two sarcomere types (S1 and S2), which alternated along the myofibrils. S1 sarcomeres were similar to those in the slow striated fibers of many invertebrates. In contrast, S2 sarcomeres did not show a regular sarcomeric pattern, but instead exhibited parallel arrays of 2 filament types. The thickest filaments (∼10–15 nm) were arranged to form lamellar structures, surrounded by the thinnest filaments (∼6 nm). Immunoreactions to desmin and vimentin were negative in both muscle types. The primary muscle exhibited the classical distribution of muscle proteins: actin, tropomyosin, and troponin were detected along the thin filaments, whereas myosin and paramyosin were localized along the thick filaments; immunolabeling of -actinin was found at Z-bands. Immunoreactions in the S1 sarcomeres of the secondary muscle were very similar to those found in the primary muscle. Interestingly, the S2 sarcomeres of this muscle were labeled with actin and tropomyosin antibodies, and presented no immunore-actions to both myosin and paramyosin. -Actinin in the secondary muscle was only detected at the Z-lines that separate S1 from S2. These findings suggest that S2 are not true sarcomeres. Although they contain actin and tropomyosin in their thinnest filaments, their thickest filaments do not show myosin or paramyosin, as the striated muscle thick myofilaments do. These peculiar S2 thick filaments might be an uncommon type of intermediate filament, which were labeled neither with desmin or vimentin antibodies.
    Invertebrate Biology 05/2005; 122(1):74 - 82. · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gelsolin is a calcium-, pH- and lipid-dependent actin filament severing/capping protein whose main function is to regulate the assembly state of the actin cytoskeleton. Gelsolin is associated with membranes in cells, and it is generally assumed that this interaction is mediated by PPIs (polyphosphoinositides), since an interaction with these lipids has been characterized in vitro. We demonstrate that non-PPI lipids also bind gelsolin, especially at low pH. The data suggest further that gelsolin becomes partially buried in the lipid bilayer under mildly acidic conditions, in a manner that is not dependent of the presence of PPIs. Our data also suggest that lipid binding involves a number of sites that are spread throughout the gelsolin molecule. Linker regions between gelsolin domains have been implicated by other work, notably the linker between G1 and G2 (gelsolin domains 1 and 2 respectively), and we postulate that the linker region between the N-terminal and C-terminal halves of gelsolin (between G3 and G4) is also involved in the interaction with lipids. This region is compatible with other studies in which additional binding sites have been located within G4-6. The lipid-gelsolin interactions reported in the present paper are not calcium-dependent, and are likely to involve significant conformational changes to the gelsolin molecule, as the chymotryptic digest pattern is altered by the presence of lipids under our conditions. We also report that vesicle-bound gelsolin is capable of binding to actin filaments, presumably through barbed end capping. Gelsolin bound to vesicles can nucleate actin assembly, but is less active in severing microfilaments.
    Biochemical Journal 03/2005; 386(Pt 1):47-56. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Milli-calpain, a member of the ubiquitous cysteine protease family, is known to control late events of cell-cell fusion in skeletal muscle tissue through its involvement in cell membrane and cytoskeleton component reorganization. In this report, we describe the characterization of m-calpain compartmentalization and activation during the initial steps of muscle precursor cell recruitment and differentiation. By immunofluorescence analysis, we show that m-calpain is present throughout the cell cycle in the nucleus of proliferating myoblast C2 cells. However, when myoblasts enter a quiescent/G0 stage, m-calpain staining is detected only in the cytoplasm. Moreover, comparison of healthy and injured muscle shows distinct m-calpain localization in satellite stem cells. Indeed, m-calpain is not found in quiescent satellite cells, but following muscle injury, when satellite cells start to proliferate, m-calpain appears in the nucleus. To determine the implication of m-calpain during the cell cycle progression, quiescent myoblasts were forced to re-enter the cell cycle in the presence or not of the specific calpain inhibitor MDL 28170. We demonstrate that this calpain inhibitor blocks the cell cycle, prevents accumulation of MyoD in the G1 phase and enhances Myf5 expression. These data support an important new role for m-calpain in the control of muscle precursor cell activation and thus suggest its possible implication during the initial events of muscle regeneration.
    Experimental Cell Research 09/2004; 298(1):48-57. · 3.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Titin is a giant molecule that spans half a sarcomere, establishing several specific bindings with both structural and contractile myofibrillar elements. It has been demonstrated that this giant protein plays a major role in striated muscle cell passive tension and contractile filament alignment. The in vitro interaction of titin with a new partner (tropomyosin) reported here is reinforced by our recent in vitro motility study using reconstituted Ca-regulated thin filaments, myosin and a native 800-kDa titin fragment. In the presence of the tropomyosin-troponin complex, the actin filament movement onto coated S1 is improved by the titin fragment. Here, we found that two purified native titin fragments of 150 and 800 kDa, covering respectively the N1-line and the N2-line/PEVK region in the I-band and known to contain actin-binding sites, directly bind tropomyosin in the absence of actin. We have also shown that binding of the 800-kDa fragment with filamentous actin inhibited the subsequent interaction of tropomyosin with actin, as judged by cosedimentation. However, this was not the case if the complex of actin and tropomyosin was formed before the addition of the 800-kDa fragment. We thus conclude that a sequential arrangement of contacts exists between parts of the titin I-band region, tropomyosin and actin in the thin filament.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 09/2004; 1700(2):171-8. · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Actin interaction with L-plastin, a plastin/fimbrins isoform of the alpha-actinin family of molecules, is poorly characterized, from the biochemical point of view. Besides, molecular modeling of the T-isoform has recently provided a complete model of interaction with filamentous actin [Volkmann, N., DeRosier, D., Matsudaira, P., and Hanein, D. (2001) J. Cell Biol. 153, 947-956]. In this study, we report that recombinant L-plastin binds actin in a manner that strongly resembles that of the alpha-actinin-actin interface. The similitudes concern the absence of specificity toward the actin isoform and the inhibition of the binding by phosphoinositides. Furthermore, the participation of actin peptides 112-125 and 360-372 in the interface together with an inhibition of the rate of pyrenyl F-actin depolymerization is in favor of a lateral binding of the plastin isoform along the filament axis and strenghtens the similitudes in the way L-plastin and alpha-actinin bind to actin. We have also investigated the functional aspect and the putative equivalence of the two actin-binding domains of L-plastin toward actin binding. We demonstrate for the first time that the two recombinant fragments, expressed as single domains, have different affinities for actin. We further analyzed the difference using chemical cross-linking and F-actin depolymerization experiments assayed by fluorescence and high-speed centrifugation. The results clearly demonstrate that the two actin-binding domains of plastin display different modes of interaction with the actin filament. We discuss these results in light of the model of actin interaction proposed for T-plastin.
    Biochemistry 04/2004; 43(9):2428-37. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In muscle cells, part of the calcium is tightly bound to the N1- and N2-line of the sarcomere but its physiological significance was unknown. In the present work we reported the ability of a recombinant titin fragment spanning titin domains Z9 to I1 to tightly bind calcium ions with a K(d) of 0.049+/-0.004 nM. We further showed that calcium induced a spontaneous aggregation of the titin fragment and that the major aggregate is a tetramer. The implication of these findings on the organization of the six titin strands that emanate from the end of the thick filament within the I-band is discussed.
    FEBS Letters 02/2004; 556(1-3):271-5. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Calpain 1 behaviour toward cytoskeletal targets was investigated using two alpha-actinin isoforms from smooth and skeletal muscles. These two isoforms which are, respectively, sensitive and resistant to calpain cleavage, interact with the protease when using in vitro binding assays. The stability of the complexes in EGTA [Kd(-Ca2+) = 0.5 +/- 0.1 microM] was improved in the presence of 1 mm calcium ions [Kd(+Ca2+) = 0.05 +/- 0.01 microM]. Location of the binding structures shows that the C-terminal domain of alpha-actinin and each calpain subunit, 28 and 80 kDa, participates in the interaction. In particular, the autolysed calpain form (76/18) affords a similar binding compared to the 80/28 intact enzyme, with an identified binding site in the catalytic subunit, located in the C-terminal region of the chain (domain III-IV). The in vivo colocalization of calpain 1 and alpha-actinin was shown to be likely in the presence of calcium, when permeabilized muscle fibres were supplemented by exogenous calpain 1 and the presence of calpain 1 in Z-line cores was shown by gold-labelled antibodies. The demonstration of such a colocalization was brought by coimmunoprecipitation experiments of calpain 1 and alpha-actinin from C2.7 myogenic cells. We propose that calpain 1 interacts in a resting state with cytoskeletal targets, and that this binding is strengthened in pathological conditions, such as ischaemia and dystrophies, associated with high calcium concentrations.
    European Journal of Biochemistry 01/2004; 270(23):4662-70. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gelsolin is a multidomain and multifunction protein that nucleates the assembly of filaments and severs them. The activation of gelsolin by calcium is a multistep process involving many calcium binding sites that act to unfold the molecule from a tight structure to a more loose form in which three actin-binding sites become exposed. Low pH is also known to activate gelsolin, in the absence of calcium and this too results in an unfolding of the molecule. Less is known how pH-activation occurs but we show that there are significant differences in the mechanisms that lead to activation. Crucially, while it is known that the bonds between G2 and G6 are broken by co-operative occupancy of calcium binding sites in both domains [Lagarrique, E., Maciver, S. K., Fattoum, A., Benyamin, Y. & Roustan, C. (2003) Eur. J. Biochem. 270, 2236-2243.], pH values that activate gelsolin do not result in a weakening of the G2-G6 bonds. We report the existence of pH-dependent conformational changes within G2 and in G4-6 that differ from those induced by calcium, and that low pH overrides the requirement for calcium for actin-binding within G4-6 to a modest extent so that a Kd of 1 micro m is measured, compared to 30-40 nm in the presence of calcium. Whereas the pH-dependent conformational change in G2 is possibly different from the change induced by calcium, the changes measured in G4-6 appear to be similar in both calcium and low pH.
    European Journal of Biochemistry 10/2003; 270(20):4105-12. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gelsolin is an abundant calcium dependent actin filament severing and capping protein. In the absence of calcium the molecule is compact but in the presence of calcium, as its six similar domains alter their relative position, a generally more open configuration is adopted to reveal the three actin binding sites. It is generally held that a 'helical-latch' at the C-terminus of gelsolin's domain 6 (G6), binds domain 2 (G2) to keep gelsolin in the calcium-free compact state, and that the crutial calcium binding site(s) reside in the C-terminal half of gelsolin perhaps involving the C-terminal helix itself has to be bound to release this latch. Here we provide evidence for a calcium dependent conformational change within G2 (Kd = approximately 15 micro m). We also report a calcium dependent binding site for the C-terminus (G4-6) within G2 and delimit this further to a specific region formed by residues 203-225 and 159-193. It is known that the activation of gelsolin involves multiple calcium binding events (around 6) the first of which (in G6) may release the latch. We propose that the calcium-dependent conformational change in G2 may be a subsequent step that is necessary for the dissociation of G2 from G4-6, and that this movement occurs in sympathy with calcium induced conformational changes within G6 by the physical coupling of the two calcium binding sites within G2 and G6. Additional calcium binding in other domains then result in the complete opening and activation of the gelsolin molecule.
    European Journal of Biochemistry 06/2003; 270(10):2236-43. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The calcium-dependent protease calpain is involved in numerous functions, including the control of cell survival, plasticity and motility. Whereas the isoforms calpain 1 and 2 have been described as ubiquitously expressed enzymes, calpain 3 has been called "muscle-specific", although trace amounts of calpain 3 mRNA have been detected by Northern blot in brain homogenates. In this study, we validated antibodies raised either against the peptides that were specific for a given isoform or the peptides present in all the three isoforms. We then used the anti-calpain 3 antibodies together with antibodies directed against cell-type-specific proteins to determine by double- and triple-labelling immunocytochemistry if the protease is expressed in specific cell populations of rat as well as lesser mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) brain. Calpain 3 was almost exclusively found in cells displaying astrocyte morphology. These cells, most of which co-expressed glial fibrillary acidic protein, were particularly numerous close to the striatal subventricular zone (where numerous neurones forming the rostral migratory stream (RMS) towards the olfactory bulbs are generated) and the RMS itself. Other immunoreactive cells were found close to the pial surface of the forebrain, in the corpus callosum and in the dentate gyrus. Calpain 3 may be involved in astrocyte plasticity and/or motility.
    Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy 03/2003; 25(2):129-36. · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A marked pH-dependent interaction with F-actin is an important property of typical members of the actin depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin family of abundant actin-binding proteins. ADF/cofilins tend to bind to F-actin with a ratio of 1 : 1 at pH values around 6.5, and to G-actin at pH 8.0. We have investigated the mechanism for the pH-sensitivity. We found no evidence for pH-dependent changes in the structure of cofilin itself, nor for the interaction of cofilin with G-actin. None of the actin-derived, cofilin-binding peptides that we had previously identified [Renoult, C., Ternent, D., Maciver, S.K., Fattoum, A., Astier, C., Benyamin, Y. & Roustan, C. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 28893-28899] bound cofilin in a pH-sensitive manner. However, we have detected a conformational change in region 75-105 in the actin subdomain 1 by the use of a peptide-directed antibody. A pH-dependent conformational change has also been detected spectroscopically in a similar peptide (84-103) on binding to cofilin. These results are consistent with a model in which pH-dependent motion of subdomain 1 relative to subdomain 2 (through region 75-105) of actin reveals a second cofilin binding site on actin (centered around region 112-125) that allows ADF/cofilin association with the actin filament. This motion requires salt in addition to low pH.
    European Journal of Biochemistry 09/2002; 269(17):4194-201. · 3.58 Impact Factor
  • Biochemistry - BIOCHEMISTRY-USA. 04/2002; 27(15).
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    ABSTRACT: It is generally assumed that of the six domains that comprise gelsolin, domain 2 is primarily responsible for the initial contact with the actin filament that will ultimately result in the filament being severed. Other actin-binding regions within domains 1 and 4 are involved in gelsolin's severing and subsequent capping activity. The overall fold of all gelsolin repeated domains are similar to the actin depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin family of actin-binding proteins and it has been proposed that there is a similarity in the actin-binding interface. Gelsolin domains 1 and 4 bind G-actin in a similar manner and compete with each other, whereas domain 2 binds F-actin at physiological salt concentrations, and does not compete with domain 1. Here we investigate the domain 2 : actin interface and compare this to our recent studies of the cofilin : actin interface. We conclude that important differences exist between the interfaces of actin with gelsolin domains 1 and 2, and with ADF/cofilin. We present a model for F-actin binding of domain 2 with respect to the F-actin severing and capping activity of the whole gelsolin molecule.
    European Journal of Biochemistry 01/2002; 268(23):6165-75. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ADF/cofilins are actin binding proteins that bind actin close to both the N- and C-termini (site 1), and we have found a second cofilin binding site (site 2) centered around helix 112-125 [Renoult, C., Ternent, D., Maciver, S.K., Fattoum, A., Astier, C., Benyamin, Y. & Roustan, C. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 28893-28899]. We proposed a model in which ADF/cofilin intercalated between subdomains 1 and 2 of two longitudinally associated actin monomers within the actin:cofilin cofilament, explaining the change in twist that ADF/cofilins induce in the filament [McGough, A. Pope, B., Chiu, W. & Weeds, A. (1998) J. Cell Biol. 138, 771-781]. Here, we have determined the fuller extent of the cofilin footprint on site 1 of actin. Site 1 is primarily the G-actin binding site. Experiments with both peptide mimetics and fluorescently labeled cofilin suggest that site 2 only becomes available for cofilin binding within the filament, possibly due to motion between subdomains 1 and 2 within an actin monomer. We have detected motion between subdomains 1 and 2 of G-actin by FRET induced by cofilin, to reveal the second cofilin-binding site. This motion may also explain how cofilins inhibit the nucleotide exchange of actin, and why the actin:cofilin complex is polymerizable without dissociation.
    European Journal of Biochemistry 12/2001; 268(24):6426-34. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: All during fish postmortem evolution, structural muscle proteins are targets for various proteases. During the prerigor period (24 hours at 4 degrees C for sea bass), cytoskeletal proteins are affected by the first proteolytic events. These cleavages disrupt connections between myofibrils and the extracellular matrix, induce segmentation of myofibril cores, and modify the rheological properties of tissue. Dystrophin, a cytoskeletal actin-binding protein, is a relevant in situ marker for muscular proteolysis in the prerigor period. The immunodetection of dystrophin allowed the monitoring of early proteolysis during fish storage. Using antidystrophin antibodies directed toward the carboxy-terminal region, a highly sensitive domain exposed to calpain activity, we showed that proteolysis kinetics are strongly influenced by the muscular lipid content. In particular, comparison between low-fat diets (11.3% lipid) and high-fat diets (30% lipid), used during sea bass farming (90 days), revealed a faster proteolysis rate during the first 8 hours of storage at 0 degrees C with the high-fat diet. The origin of this faster proteolysis is discussed on the basis of a possible activation or translocation of calpains related to lipid accumulation in muscle fibers and cytoskeleton alterations.
    Marine Biotechnology 04/2001; 3(2):172-80. · 3.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In rat (König et al. [1998] 28th Annual Meeting of the Society of Neuroscience, Los Angeles. 24:314.6) and mouse (Métin et al. [2000] J. Neurosci. 20:696-708), neurons migrating tangentially in the intermediate zone (IZ) of the neocortical anlage express functional AMPA receptors permeable to calcium. The role of these receptors is as yet unknown. We exposed organotypic cultures of rat telencephalon (embryonic day 15) to AMPA receptor agonists or antagonists, and analyzed the effects of these treatments on cells in the IZ labeled with antibodies against the isoforms a, b and c of microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP2) and the polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM). The presence of functional AMPA receptors permeable to calcium was checked by cobalt-loading. After exposure to AMPA alone for at least 6 hr, we observed a significant increase in the number of rounded, MAP2 positive cells in the IZ close to the migratory front. When AMPA was combined with cyclothiazide, the increase was already significant after 3 hr. These effects were dose-dependent and could be partially or totally blocked by DNQX or GYKI 53655 respectively, that suggests that they are mediated by AMPA receptors. Paracrine AMPA receptor activation might participate, together with other signals, in guiding the migratory stream, or provide stop signals for migrating cells.
    Journal of Neuroscience Research 02/2001; 63(1):35-44. · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have compared the functional properties of CapZ from fish white skeletal muscle with those of CapZ from chicken muscle. CapZ is a heterodimer, which enhances actin nucleation and inhibits the depolymerization process by binding to the barbed ends of microfilaments. Here, we report the interaction of CapZ not only with F-actin, but also with monomeric actin. The affinity of sea bass CapZ for G-actin estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was in the microM range. This association was PIP2 dependent. Binding contacts with the barbed end of actin were delimited by both ELISA and fluorescence approaches. One site (actin sequence 338-348) was located in a helical region of the subdomain 1, region already implicated in the interaction with other actin binding proteins such as gelsolin. Another site implicates the C-terminal region (sequence 360-372) of actin. Finally, the partial competition of antibodies directed against CapZ alpha or beta-subunits towards CapZ interaction with actin filaments suggests both subunits participate in the complex with actin.
    Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 01/2001; 127(4):551-62. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, we have described an improved method allowing the isolation of proteins which form tightly associated complexes in organized structures such as Z line in skeletal muscle. This procedure is based on both extraction and chromatography in the presence of a chaotropic agent. KI at medium concentration (0.6 M) was selected, taking into account its dissociating activity and mild effect on the native state of proteins. This procedure was applied to purify and to characterize for the first time a CapZ from fish white muscle, a protein involved in the stabilization of the filaments in Z line. The alpha and beta CapZ subunits were identified using anti-synthetic peptide antibodies directed against conserved sequences derived from chicken CapZ. The protocol can be also used for the isolation of other muscular proteins such as alpha-actinin and actin. Finally this technique may be utilized to obtain a good amount of capping protein which could be employed in experiments of microfilament dynamics.
    Protein Expression and Purification 11/1999; 17(1):1-7. · 1.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The cofilins are members of a protein family that binds monomeric and filamentous actin, severs actin filaments, and increases monomer off-rate from the pointed end. Here, we characterize the cofilin-actin interface. We confirm earlier work suggesting the importance of the lower region of subdomain 1 encompassing the N and C termini (site 1) in cofilin binding. In addition, we report the discovery of a new cofilin binding site (site 2) from residues 112-125 that form a helix toward the upper, rear surface of subdomain 1 in the standard actin orientation (Kabsch, W., Mannherz, H. G., Suck, D., Pai, E. F., and Holmes, K. C. (1990) Nature 347, 37-44). We propose that cofilin binds "behind" one monomer and "in front" of the other longitudinally associated monomer, accounting for the fact that cofilin alters the twist in the actin (McGough, A., Pope, B., Chiu, W., and Weeds, A. (1997) J. Cell Biol. 138, 771-781). The characterization of the cofilin-actin interface will facilitate an understanding of how cofilin severs and depolymerizes filaments and may shed light on the mechanism of the gelsolin family because they share a similar fold with the cofilins (Hatanaka, H., Ogura, K., Moriyama, K., Ichikawa, S., Yahara, I., and Inagiki, F. (1996) Cell 85, 1047-1055).
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/1999; 274(41):28893-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
334.69 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1990–2009
    • Université de Montpellier 1
      Montpelhièr, Languedoc-Roussillon, France
  • 1998–2007
    • Université Montpellier 2 Sciences et Techniques
      Montpelhièr, Languedoc-Roussillon, France
  • 1980–2005
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      • Centre de Recherche de Biochimie Macromoléculaire
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2004
    • French National Institute for Agricultural Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2002–2003
    • Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1999
    • Institut de Génétique Humaine
      Montpelhièr, Languedoc-Roussillon, France
  • 1992–1995
    • French Institute of Health and Medical Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • University of Pune
      • Department of Zoology
      Pune, State of Maharashtra, India
  • 1993
    • Institut national de la recherche scientifique
      Québec, Quebec, Canada
  • 1988–1992
    • Unité Inserm U1077
      Caen, Lower Normandy, France
  • 1973–1976
    • Collège de France
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France