Neal Padte

The Rockefeller University, New York City, New York, United States

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Publications (3)17.89 Total impact

  • AIDS 10/2003; 17(14):2143-5. · 6.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is believed that replication capacity is an important determinant of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) pathogenicity and transmissibility. To explore this, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of the replication properties of nine drug-resistant and nine drug-susceptible viral isolates derived from patients with primary HIV-1 infection. Viral isolates were tested for single-cycle infectivity in the GHOST cell line. The infectivity of isolates carrying resistance-associated mutations was significantly higher than that of drug-susceptible isolates. Additionally, the growth kinetics of these isolates were determined in CD4+ T lymphocytes. Drug-resistant isolates replicated as well as drug-susceptible viruses. Insertion of the resistance-conferring regions into an NL4-3-based molecular background resulted in chimeras that displayed a modest but significant reduction in replication capacity compared to the drug-susceptible chimeric viruses. Of note, two multidrug-resistant isolates and one protease inhibitor-resistant isolate displayed higher rates of infectivity and growth kinetics than the other drug-resistant or drug-susceptible isolates. These distinct replicative features, however, were not seen in the corresponding chimeras, indicating that changes within the C-terminal region of Gag as well as within the protease and reverse transcriptase genes contribute to but are not sufficient for the level of compensatory adaptation observed. These findings suggest that some drug-resistant viruses isolated during primary infection possess unique adaptive changes that allow for both high viral replication capacity and resistance to one or more classes of antiretroviral drugs. Further studies are needed to elucidate the precise regions that are essential for these characteristics.
    Journal of Virology 08/2003; 77(14):7736-45. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the efficacy of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) monotherapy by following the initial rate of decline in plasma viral load, which is a measure of the efficacy of therapy in blocking viral replication. An open-label, single-site study of TDF monotherapy in 10 antiretroviral drug-naive chronically HIV-1-infected individuals. Antiviral responses were assessed at baseline and during 21 days of monotherapy with TDF by measuring plasma HIV-1 RNA levels. The rate of change in HIV-1 RNA from baseline was determined both by linear regression and by fitting to a published model. Slopes were compared with those previously determined for ritonavir monotherapy. Over 21 days, mean plasma HIV-1 RNA levels in the TDF-treated patients fell 1.5 log(10) copies/ml (range, 0.7-2.0). The initial rates of decline in plasma HIV-1 RNA in the 10 TDF-treated patients and in 25 protease inhibitor-naive subjects treated with ritonavir monotherapy were nearly identical. The reduction in plasma HIV-1 RNA with TDF monotherapy was comparable with the decline observed in previous studies of protease inhibitor monotherapy. TDF is a potent antiretroviral agent and has comparable inherent antiviral activity with that of ritonavir, a potent protease inhibitor. These data support further study of TDF-based regimens in simplified combinations of antiviral agents as initial treatment for chronic HIV-1 infection.
    AIDS 06/2003; 17(8):1151-6. · 6.41 Impact Factor