Si-Hwan Ko

Yonsei University, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (10)21.77 Total impact

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Fabrication and photophysical study of photofunctional nanoporous alumina membrane (PNAM) were performed, and its application of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) was investigated. Nanoporous alumina membrane (NAM) was fabricated by two-step aluminium anodic oxidation process. Surface of the fabricated NAM was modified with organo-silane agent to induce covalent bonding between NAM and a photosensitizer (PtCP: [5,10,15-triphenyl-20-(4-methoxycarbonylphenyl)-porphyrin] platinum). PtCP was covalently bonded to the surface of the modified NAM by nucleophilic acyl substitution reaction process. The morphology and the photophysical properties of the fabricated PNAM were confirmed with field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), steady-state spectroscopies, and nanosecond laser-induced time-resolved spectroscopy. For the efficacy study of PNAM in PACT, an enveloped animal virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), was utilized as a target organism. Antiviral effect of the PNAM-PACT was measured by the extent of suppression of plaque-forming units (PFU) after the light irradiation. In the cultures inoculated with PACT-treated VSV, the suppression of PFU was prominent, which demonstrates that PNAM is a potential bio clean-up tool.
    Journal of Nanomaterials 01/2012; 2012. · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An important goal of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for treatment of various cancers is to shorten PDT-performing time and simultaneously enhance PDT efficacy. Here, we investigated the nontumor tissue distribution of and the tumor vascular damage caused by a new photosensitizer, DH-I-180-3, in mice with implanted EMT6 mammary tumor cells. In addition, we performed cell-based assays to evaluate the basic antitumor effect of DH-I-180-3/PDT in EMT6 cells. After administration of PDT, the type of cell death was characterized to be apoptosis, and a change in the mitochondrial membrane potential was also observed within minutes. On the other hand, tumor growth was remarkably retarded in vivo in mice that received DH-I-180-3/PDT, compared with mice in the control group, which were exposed to light irradiation alone. Finally, tumors in some mice nearly healed. The antitumor drug reached a maximum concentration approximately 3 h after administration. However, PDT was most effective when there was substantial accumulation of DH-I-180-3 in the tumor vasculature and in healthy tissue. The histological demonstration provided further evidence of tumor vascular damage. On the basis of these findings, we suggest that PDT with the photosensitizer DH-I-180-3 induces vascular damage with blood vessel shutdown, in addition to direct killing of tumor cells, in mice.
    Photochemistry and Photobiology 01/2006; 82(2):600-5. · 2.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the photodynamic therapy (PDT) effect on adipocytes, we investigated whether PDT using DH-I-180-3, a new synthetic lipophilic photosensitizer, induced cell death of both undifferentiated and differentiated 3T3-L1. 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes were differentiated into adipocytes in the culture medium containing pantothenate, insulin, dexamethasone, isobutylmethylxanthine, and troglitazone. PDT was applied to both undifferentiated and differentiated 3T3-L1. Photosensitizer uptake in fat cells was determined by measuring its mean fluorescence intensity. DH-I-180-3 mediated effectively PDT-induced cell death of both pre-adipocytes and adipocytes. And the photosensitizer was accumulated more rapidly in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, compared with other cancer cell lines. These results demonstrate that PDT is a potent cell death inducer in pre-adipocytes and adipocytes. Thus, PDT with DH-I-180-3 may be applied for a new therapeutic modality for obesity treatment.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 01/2006; 337(4):1059-64. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The mechanism of cell death by pheophorbide a (Pba) which has been established to be a potential photosensitizer was examined in experimental photodynamic therapy (PDT) on Jurkat cells, a human lymphoid tumor cell line. In 30-60 min after irradiation, Pba treated cells exhibited apoptotic features including membrane blebbing and DNA fragmentation. Pba/PDT caused a rapid release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol. Sequentially, activation of caspase-3 and the cleavage of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) were followed. Meanwhile, no evidence of activation of caspase-8 was indicated in the cells. In experiments with caspase inhibitors, it was found that caspase-3 alone was sufficient initiator for the Pba-induced apoptosis of the cells. Pba specific emission spectra were confirmed in the mitochondrial fraction and the light irradiation caused a rapid change in its membrane potential. Thus, mitochondria were entailed as the crucial targets for Pba as well as a responsible component for the cytochrome c release to initiate apoptotic pathways. Taken together, it was concluded that the mode of Jurkat cell death by Pba/PDT is an apoptosis, which is initiated by mitochondrial cytochrome c release and caspase-3-pathways.
    Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B Biology 10/2004; 75(3):119-26. · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In order to apply photodynamic therapy (PDT) to pigmented melanoma, the efficacy of PDT mediated by pheophorbide alpha from silkworm excreta (SPbalpha) and commercial Photofrin against B16F10 melanoma was comparatively studied from the in vivo assay using C57BL/6J mice. From in vitro PDT assay, the proliferation of B16F10 cells treated with SPbalpha (more than 0.5 microg/ml) and light illumination (1.2 J/cm2) were significantly inhibited with the necrotic response. This indicated that the photocytotoxicity of SPbalpha (665 nm) was not influenced by melanin from melanoma. From the assessment of the in vivo photosensitizing activity, the tumor growth was further delayed in groups treated with SPbalpha/PDT compared to that treated with Photofrin /PDT. The survival rate of tumor bearing mice treated with SPbalpha/PDT was closely associated with its photosensitizing effect. In addition, the photosensitizing effect of SPbalpha/PDT showed a dose dependent tendency in light illumination. These results demonstrated that B16F10 melanoma cells were significantly photosensitized by SPbalpha/PDT, regardless of the influence of melanin from melanoma, and SPbalpha/PDT at very low drug dose (1 mg/kg) and light dose (1.2 J/cm2) showed the photosensitizing efficacy surpassing Photofrin against B16F10 melanoma in mice system.
    Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B Biology 04/2004; 74(1):1-6. · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the enzyme-inhibitory efficacy and the cytotoxicity of reticulol produced from a strain of Streptoverticillium, we conducted a DNA topoisomerase (Topo) cleavage assay and an in vivo assay using B16F10 melanoma. From the inhibition assay of reticulol for Topo I, which is involved in melanoma metastasis, it was seen that Topo I treated with 45 microM reticulol did not replicate or transcribe DNA by forming supercoiled DNA. In the annexin V/propidium iodide staining assay to investigate the death pattern of B16F10 cells treated with 200 microM reticulol, proliferation of B16F10 cells was inhibited due to necrosis. Furthermore, from the in vivo assay, reticulol combined with Adriamycin (a mixture with retinolol 5 mg/kg and Adriamycin 1 mg/kg) further retarded the tumor growth compared to that in mice treated with Adriamycin alone (1 mg/kg). The survival rate of tumor-bearing mice treated with the mixture was closely associated with its cytotoxicity. Taken together, these results suggested that reticulol inactivates Topo I, which is involved in tumor metastasis, and exhibits excellent cytotoxic efficacy against B16F10 melanoma, when combined with Adriamycin, in a mouse model.
    Chemotherapy 10/2003; 49(5):257-63. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reticulol was isolated from the culture broth of the strain Streptoverticillium sp. NA-4803. Recticulol (M.W. 222.2) exhibited a potent in vitro cytotoxicity against A427, a human lung tumor cell line, and B16F10, a mouse melanoma cell line. In the trypan blue staining assay for B16F10 cells, the cell viability by reticulol treatment was significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner. The in vivo assay for the lung metastasis-blocking effect showed that reticulol injected intravenously suppressed the increase in colonies on the lung in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the survival rate of tumor-implanted mice treated with reticulol was closely associated with its antitumoral efficacy. Reticulol administered via the peritoneum of mice showed less metastasis inhibition than that injected intravenously. To demonstrate the mechanism for inhibition of metastasis, the inhibitory effect of reticulol for matrix metalloproteinase-2 or -9 involved in melanoma metastasis was investigated; however, they were not observed on zymogram gel. In addition, the antitumor efficacy of reticulol was not associated with cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. Therefore, it was inferred that reticulol known as a phosphodiesterase inhibitor directly inhibited the growth of B16F10 melanoma, showing necrotic response. These results suggest that reticulol protects its lung metastasis via the bloodstream by inhibiting the growth of B16F10 melanoma at the cellular level.
    Chemotherapy 07/2003; 49(3):146-53. · 2.07 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines - J PORPHYR PHTHALOCYA. 01/2003; 07(03).
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Reticulol was isolated from the culture broth of the strain Streptoverticillium sp. NA-4803. Recticulol (M.W. 222.2) exhibited a potent in vitro cytotoxicity against A427, a human lung tumor cell line, and B16F10, a mouse melanoma cell line. In the trypan blue staining assay for B16F10 cells, the cell viability by reticulol treatment was significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner. The in vivo assay for the lung metastasis-blocking effect showed that reticulol injected intravenously suppressed the increase in colonies on the lung in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the survival rate of tumor-implanted mice treated with reticulol was closely associated with its antitumoral efficacy. Reticulol administered via the peritoneum of mice showed less metastasis inhibition than that injected intravenously. To demonstrate the mechanism for inhibition of metastasis, the inhibitory effect of reticulol for matrix metalloproteinase-2 or -9 involved in melanoma metastasis was investigated; however, they were not observed on zymogram gel. In addition, the antitumor efficacy of reticulol was not associated with cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. Therefore, it was inferred that reticulol known as a phosphodiesterase inhibitor directly inhibited the growth of B16F10 melanoma, showing necrotic response. These results suggest that reticulol protects its lung metastasis via the bloodstream by inhibiting the growth of B16F10 melanoma at the cellular level.
    Chemotherapy 01/2003; 49(3):146-153. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The efficacy of chlorophyll derivatives from silkworm excreta (CpD) in photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) was studied. An enveloped animal virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), was used as a target organism. For CpD mediated PACT, the viruses in suspensions were treated with various doses of CpD (15-60 microg/ml) and visible red light was fixed at 120 mJ/cm(2). The antiviral effect of the CpD-PACT was measured 1 h after light irradiation by the extent of suppression of plaque forming units (pfu). In cultures inoculated with PACT-treated VSV, suppression of pfu was prominent and the results were demonstrated in a dose-dependent manner. In assays of RT-PCR, a single dose of 30 microg/ml CpD and light caused complete inhibition of viral RNA synthesis in the host cells, which agreed with the complete loss of plaque forming activity observed in pfu assays. An in vitro transcription assay for viral RNA using [3H]UTP and gel electrophoresis for the level of M protein was conducted. A gradual decrease in viral RNA transcription and an immediate decrease in M protein levels were observed in cells inoculated with the CpD-PACT-treated virus. These results demonstrated that CpD is a potential photodynamic antiviral agent, which causes inactivation of the matrix protein as well as transcription mechanisms involved in VSV replication.
    Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B Biology 08/2002; 67(3):149-56. · 3.11 Impact Factor