[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied the significance of microcirculation inflammation in kidney transplants, including 329 indication biopsies from 251 renal allograft recipients, who were mostly nonpresensitized (crossmatch negative). Glomerulitis (g) and peritubular capillaritis (ptc) were often associated with antibody-mediated rejection (65% and 75%, respectively), but were also found in other diseases in the absence of donor-specific antibody (DSA): T-cell-mediated rejection (ptc, g), glomerulonephritis (g) and acute tubular necrosis (ptc). To develop rules for reducing the nonspecificity of microcirculation inflammation and defining the best grading thresholds associated with DSA, we built and validated a decision tree to predict DSA. The decision tree revealed that g + ptc sum (addition of g-score plus ptc-score) was the best predictor of DSA, followed by time posttransplant, then C4d, which had a small role. Late biopsies with g + ptc > 0 showed higher frequency of DSA compared to early biopsies with g + ptc > 0 (79% vs. 27%). Microcirculation inflammation in early biopsies was often false positive (antibody-independent). The decision tree predicted DSA with higher sensitivity and accuracy than C4d staining. Microcirculation inflammation sum score predicted graft failure independently of time, C4d and transplant glomerulopathy. Thus any degree of microcirculation inflammation in late kidney transplant biopsies strongly indicates presence of DSA and predicts progression to graft failure.
American Journal of Transplantation 02/2012; 12(5):1168-79. · 6.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While glomerulitis is graded according to the Banff classification, no criteria for scoring peritubular capillaritis (PTC) have been established. We retrospectively applied PTC-scoring criteria to 688 renal allograft (46 preimplantation, 461 protocol, 181 indication) biopsies. A total of 26.3% of all analyzed biopsies had peritubular capillaritis (implant 0%, protocol 17.6%, indication 45.5%; p < 0.0001). The most common capillaritis pattern was of moderate severity (5-10 luminal cells), focal in extent (10-50% of PTC), with a minority of neutrophils. A total of 24% of C4d- compared with 75% of C4d+ biopsies showed capillaritis (p < 0.0001). More than 80% of biopsies with glomerulitis had peritubular capillaritis. A total of 50.4% of biopsies with borderline or T-cell mediated rejection (TCMR) and 14.1% of biopsies without TCMR or antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) showed capillaritis (p < 0.0001). The inter-observer reproducibility of the PTC-scoring features was fair to moderate. Diffuse capillaritis detected in early protocol biopsies had significant negative prognostic impact in terms of glomerular filtration rate 2 years posttransplantation. Indication biopsies show a significantly higher prevalence of capillaritis than protocol biopsies (45.5% vs. 17.6%; p < 0.0001). Capillaritis is more frequent and pronounced in ABMR, but can be observed in TCMR cases. Thus, scoring of peritubular capillaritis is feasible and can provide prognostic and diagnostic information in renal allograft biopsies.
American Journal of Transplantation 04/2008; 8(4):819-25. · 6.19 Impact Factor